ResearchPad - interneurons https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Distinct patterns of dentate gyrus cell activation distinguish physiologic from aberrant stimuli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14621 Under physiologic conditions, the dentate gyrus (DG) exhibits exceptionally low levels of activity compared to other brain regions. A sparse activation pattern is observed even when the DG is engaged to process new information; for example, only ~1–3% of neurons in the DG granule cell layer (GCL) are activated after placing animals in a novel, enriched environment. Moreover, such physiologic stimulation of GCL neurons recruits young granule cells more readily than older cells. This sparse pattern of cell activation has largely been attributed to intrinsic circuit properties of the DG, such as reduced threshold for activation in younger cells, and increased inhibition onto older cells. Given these intrinsic properties, we asked whether such activation of young granule cells was unique to physiologic stimulation, or could be elicited by general pharmacological activation of the hippocampus. We found that administration of kainic acid (KA) at a low dose (5 mg/kg) to wildtype C57BL/6 mice activated a similarly sparse number of cells in the GCL as physiologic DG stimulation by exposure to a novel, enriched environment. However, unlike physiologic stimulation, 5 mg/kg KA activated primarily old granule cells as well as GABAergic interneurons. This finding indicates that intrinsic circuit properties of the DG alone may not be sufficient to support the engagement of young granule cells, and suggest that other factors such as the specificity of the pattern of inputs, may be involved.

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<![CDATA[Electrical synapses regulate both subthreshold integration and population activity of principal cells in response to transient inputs within canonical feedforward circuits]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95e0d5eed0c484734e89

As information about the world traverses the brain, the signals exchanged between neurons are passed and modulated by synapses, or specialized contacts between neurons. While neurotransmitter-based synapses tend to exert either excitatory or inhibitory pulses of influence on the postsynaptic neuron, electrical synapses, composed of plaques of gap junction channels, continuously transmit signals that can either excite or inhibit a coupled neighbor. A growing body of evidence indicates that electrical synapses, similar to their chemical counterparts, are modified in strength during physiological neuronal activity. The synchronizing role of electrical synapses in neuronal oscillations has been well established, but their impact on transient signal processing in the brain is much less understood. Here we constructed computational models based on the canonical feedforward neuronal circuit and included electrical synapses between inhibitory interneurons. We provided discrete closely-timed inputs to the circuits, and characterize the influence of electrical synapse strength on both subthreshold summation and spike trains in the output neuron. Our simulations highlight the diverse and powerful roles that electrical synapses play even in simple circuits. Because these canonical circuits are represented widely throughout the brain, we expect that these are general principles for the influence of electrical synapses on transient signal processing across the brain.

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<![CDATA[Trpm4 ion channels in pre-Bötzinger complex interneurons are essential for breathing motor pattern but not rhythm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784fa8d5eed0c484007252

Inspiratory breathing movements depend on pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) interneurons that express calcium (Ca2+)-activated nonselective cationic current (ICAN) to generate robust neural bursts. Hypothesized to be rhythmogenic, reducing ICAN is predicted to slow down or stop breathing; its contributions to motor pattern would be reflected in the magnitude of movements (output). We tested the role(s) of ICAN using reverse genetic techniques to diminish its putative ion channels Trpm4 or Trpc3 in preBötC neurons in vivo. Adult mice transduced with Trpm4-targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA) progressively decreased the tidal volume of breaths yet surprisingly increased breathing frequency, often followed by gasping and fatal respiratory failure. Mice transduced with Trpc3-targeted shRNA survived with no changes in breathing. Patch-clamp and field recordings from the preBötC in mouse slices also showed an increase in the frequency and a decrease in the magnitude of preBötC neural bursts in the presence of Trpm4 antagonist 9-phenanthrol, whereas the Trpc3 antagonist pyrazole-3 (pyr-3) showed inconsistent effects on magnitude and no effect on frequency. These data suggest that Trpm4 mediates ICAN, whose influence on frequency contradicts a direct role in rhythm generation. We conclude that Trpm4-mediated ICAN is indispensable for motor output but not the rhythmogenic core mechanism of the breathing central pattern generator.

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<![CDATA[The primate-specific peptide Y-P30 regulates morphological maturation of neocortical dendritic spines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca0bd5eed0c48452a6fd

The 30-amino acid peptide Y-P30 corresponds to the N-terminus of the primate-specific, sweat gland-derived dermcidin prepropeptide. Previous work has revealed that Y-P30 enhances the interaction of pleiotrophin and syndecans-2/3, and thus represents a natural ligand to study this signaling pathway. In immature neurons, Y-P30 activates the c-Src and p42/44 ERK kinase pathway, increases the amount of F-actin in axonal growth cones, and promotes neuronal survival, cell migration and axonal elongation. The action of Y-P30 on axonal growth requires syndecan-3 and heparan sulfate side chains. Whether Y-P30 has the potential to influence dendrites and dendritic protrusions has not been explored. The latter is suggested by the observations that syndecan-2 expression increases during postnatal development, that syndecan-2 becomes enriched in dendritic spines, and that overexpression of syndecan-2 in immature neurons results in a premature morphological maturation of dendritic spines. Here, analysing rat cortical pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons in organotypic cultures, we show that Y-P30 does not alter the development of the dendritic arborization patterns. However, Y-P30 treatment decreases the density of apical, but not basal dendritic protrusions at the expense of the filopodia. Analysis of spine morphology revealed an unchanged mushroom/stubby-to-thin spine ratio and a shortening of the longest decile of dendritic protrusions. Whole-cell recordings from cortical principal neurons in dissociated cultures grown in the presence of Y-P30 demonstrated a decrease in the frequency of glutamatergic mEPSCs. Despite these differences in protrusion morphology and synaptic transmission, the latter likely attributable to presynaptic effects, calcium event rate and amplitude recorded in pyramidal neurons in organotypic cultures were not altered by Y-P30 treatment. Together, our data suggest that Y-P30 has the capacity to decelerate spinogenesis and to promote morphological, but not synaptic, maturation of dendritic protrusions.

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<![CDATA[The Drosophila fussel gene is required for bitter gustatory neuron differentiation acting within an Rpd3 dependent chromatin modifying complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcafd5eed0c484dec036

Members of the Ski/Sno protein family are classified as proto-oncogenes and act as negative regulators of the TGF-ß/BMP-pathways in vertebrates and invertebrates. A newly identified member of this protein family is fussel (fuss), the Drosophila homologue of the human functional Smad suppressing elements (fussel-15 and fussel-18). We and others have shown that Fuss interacts with SMAD4 and that overexpression leads to a strong inhibition of Dpp signaling. However, to be able to characterize the endogenous Fuss function in Drosophila melanogaster, we have generated a number of state of the art tools including anti-Fuss antibodies, specific fuss-Gal4 lines and fuss mutant fly lines via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Fuss is a predominantly nuclear, postmitotic protein, mainly expressed in interneurons and fuss mutants are fully viable without any obvious developmental phenotype. To identify potential target genes or cells affected in fuss mutants, we conducted targeted DamID experiments in adult flies, which revealed the function of fuss in bitter gustatory neurons. We fully characterized fuss expression in the adult proboscis and by using food choice assays we were able to show that fuss mutants display defects in detecting bitter compounds. This correlated with a reduction of gustatory receptor gene expression (Gr33a, Gr66a, Gr93a) providing a molecular link to the behavioral phenotype. In addition, Fuss interacts with Rpd3, and downregulation of rpd3 in gustatory neurons phenocopies the loss of Fuss expression. Surprisingly, there is no colocalization of Fuss with phosphorylated Mad in the larval central nervous system, excluding a direct involvement of Fuss in Dpp/BMP signaling. Here we provide a first and exciting link of Fuss function in gustatory bitter neurons. Although gustatory receptors have been well characterized, little is known regarding the differentiation and maturation of gustatory neurons. This work therefore reveals Fuss as a pivotal element for the proper differentiation of bitter gustatory neurons acting within a chromatin modifying complex.

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<![CDATA[Enhanced activity of pyramidal neurons in the infralimbic cortex drives anxiety behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536a1bd5eed0c484a46e9a

We show that in an animal model of anxiety the overall excitation, particularly in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (IL), is increased and that the activity ratio between excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons (AR PN/IN) is shifted towards excitation. The same change in AR PN/IN is evident for wildtype mice, which have been exposed to an anxiety stimulus. We hypothesize, that an elevated activity and the imbalance of excitation (PN) and inhibition (IN) within the neuronal microcircuitry of the prefrontal cortex is responsible for anxiety behaviour and employed optogenetic methods in freely moving mice to verify our findings. Consistent with our hypothesis elevation of pyramidal neuron activity in the infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex significantly enhanced anxiety levels in several behavioural tasks by shifting the AR PN/IN to excitation, without affecting motor behaviour, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which anxiety is facilitated.

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<![CDATA[Early alterations in hippocampal perisomatic GABAergic synapses and network oscillations in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease amyloidosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c3dd5eed0c484bd1017

Several lines of evidence imply changes in inhibitory interneuron connectivity and subsequent alterations in oscillatory network activities in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Recently, we provided evidence for an increased immunoreactivity of both the postsynaptic scaffold protein gephyrin and the GABAA receptor γ2-subunit in the hippocampus of young (1 and 3 months of age), APPPS1 mice. These mice represent a well-established model of cerebral amyloidosis, which is a hallmark of human AD. In this study, we demonstrate a robust increase of parvalbumin immunoreactivity and accentuated projections of parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons, which target perisomatic regions of pyramidal cells within the hippocampal subregions CA1 and CA3 of 3-month-old APPPS1 mice. Colocalisation studies confirmed a significant increase in the density of PV+ projections labeled with antibodies against a presynaptic (vesicular GABA transporter) and a postsynaptic marker (gephyrin) of inhibitory synapses within the pyramidal cell layer of CA1 and CA3. As perisomatic inhibition by PV+-interneurons is crucial for the generation of hippocampal network oscillations involved in spatial processing, learning and memory formation we investigated the impact of the putative enhanced perisomatic inhibition on two types of fast neuronal network oscillations in acute hippocampal slices: 1. spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R), and 2. cholinergic γ-oscillations. Interestingly, both network patterns were generally preserved in APPPS1 mice similar to WT mice. However, the comparison of simultaneous CA3 and CA1 recordings revealed that the incidence and amplitude of SPW-Rs were significantly lower in CA1 vs CA3 in APPPS1 slices, whereas the power of γ-oscillations was significantly higher in CA3 vs CA1 in WT-slices indicating an impaired communication between the CA3 and CA1 network activities in APPPS1 mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate an increased GABAergic synaptic output of PV+ interneurons impinging on pyramidal cells of CA1 and CA3, which might limit the coordinated cross-talk between these two hippocampal areas in young APPPS1 mice and mediate long-term changes in synaptic inhibition during progression of amyloidosis.

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<![CDATA[Using computational models to predict in vivo synaptic inputs to interneuron specific 3 (IS3) cells of CA1 hippocampus that also allow their recruitment during rhythmic states]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e50b5d5eed0c484d84993

Brain coding strategies are enabled by the balance of synaptic inputs that individual neurons receive as determined by the networks in which they reside. Inhibitory cell types contribute to brain function in distinct ways but recording from specific, inhibitory cell types during behaviour to determine their contributions is highly challenging. In particular, the in vivo activities of vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing interneuron specific 3 (IS3) cells in the hippocampus that only target other inhibitory cells are unknown at present. We perform a massive, computational exploration of possible synaptic inputs to IS3 cells using multi-compartment models and optimized synaptic parameters. We find that asynchronous, in vivo-like states that are sensitive to additional theta-timed inputs (8 Hz) exist when excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances are approximately equally balanced and with low numbers of activated synapses receiving correlated inputs. Specifically, under these balanced conditions, the input resistance is larger with higher mean spike firing rates relative to other activated synaptic conditions investigated. Incoming theta-timed inputs result in strongly increased spectral power relative to baseline. Thus, using a generally applicable computational approach we predict the existence and features of background, balanced states in hippocampal circuits.

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<![CDATA[Minimal model of interictal and ictal discharges “Epileptor-2”]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b39f463d7e126303d2ad

Seizures occur in a recurrent manner with intermittent states of interictal and ictal discharges (IIDs and IDs). The transitions to and from IDs are determined by a set of processes, including synaptic interaction and ionic dynamics. Although mathematical models of separate types of epileptic discharges have been developed, modeling the transitions between states remains a challenge. A simple generic mathematical model of seizure dynamics (Epileptor) has recently been proposed by Jirsa et al. (2014); however, it is formulated in terms of abstract variables. In this paper, a minimal population-type model of IIDs and IDs is proposed that is as simple to use as the Epileptor, but the suggested model attributes physical meaning to the variables. The model is expressed in ordinary differential equations for extracellular potassium and intracellular sodium concentrations, membrane potential, and short-term synaptic depression variables. A quadratic integrate-and-fire model driven by the population input current is used to reproduce spike trains in a representative neuron. In simulations, potassium accumulation governs the transition from the silent state to the state of an ID. Each ID is composed of clustered IID-like events. The sodium accumulates during discharge and activates the sodium-potassium pump, which terminates the ID by restoring the potassium gradient and thus polarizing the neuronal membranes. The whole-cell and cell-attached recordings of a 4-AP-based in vitro model of epilepsy confirmed the primary model assumptions and predictions. The mathematical analysis revealed that the IID-like events are large-amplitude stochastic oscillations, which in the case of ID generation are controlled by slow oscillations of ionic concentrations. The IDs originate in the conditions of elevated potassium concentrations in a bath solution via a saddle-node-on-invariant-circle-like bifurcation for a non-smooth dynamical system. By providing a minimal biophysical description of ionic dynamics and network interactions, the model may serve as a hierarchical base from a simple to more complex modeling of seizures.

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<![CDATA[Firing-rate based network modeling of the dLGN circuit: Effects of cortical feedback on spatiotemporal response properties of relay cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b07d0de463d7e0d4a37a6e7

Visually evoked signals in the retina pass through the dorsal geniculate nucleus (dLGN) on the way to the visual cortex. This is however not a simple feedforward flow of information: there is a significant feedback from cortical cells back to both relay cells and interneurons in the dLGN. Despite four decades of experimental and theoretical studies, the functional role of this feedback is still debated. Here we use a firing-rate model, the extended difference-of-Gaussians (eDOG) model, to explore cortical feedback effects on visual responses of dLGN relay cells. For this model the responses are found by direct evaluation of two- or three-dimensional integrals allowing for fast and comprehensive studies of putative effects of different candidate organizations of the cortical feedback. Our analysis identifies a special mixed configuration of excitatory and inhibitory cortical feedback which seems to best account for available experimental data. This configuration consists of (i) a slow (long-delay) and spatially widespread inhibitory feedback, combined with (ii) a fast (short-delayed) and spatially narrow excitatory feedback, where (iii) the excitatory/inhibitory ON-ON connections are accompanied respectively by inhibitory/excitatory OFF-ON connections, i.e. following a phase-reversed arrangement. The recent development of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods has provided new tools for more precise manipulation and investigation of the thalamocortical circuit, in particular for mice. Such data will expectedly allow the eDOG model to be better constrained by data from specific animal model systems than has been possible until now for cat. We have therefore made the Python tool pyLGN which allows for easy adaptation of the eDOG model to new situations.

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<![CDATA[Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daeaab0ee8fa60bbefba

Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm) is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 could modulate cortical firing. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology and pharmacology in vivo, we have sought to determine how POm influences cortical processing. In our experiments, single unit recordings performed in urethane-anesthetized rats showed that POm imposes precise control on the magnitude and duration of supra- and infragranular barrel cortex whisker responses. Our findings demonstrated that L1 inputs from POm imposed a time and intensity dependent regulation on cortical sensory processing. Moreover, we found that blocking L1 GABAergic inhibition or blocking P/Q-type Ca2+ channels in L1 prevents POm adjustment of whisker responses in the barrel cortex. Additionally, we found that POm was also controlling the sensory processing in S2 and this regulation was modulated by corticofugal activity from L5 in S1. Taken together, our data demonstrate the determinant role exerted by the POm in the adjustment of somatosensory cortical processing and in the regulation of cortical processing between S1 and S2. We propose that this adjustment could be a thalamocortical gain regulation mechanism also present in the processing of information between cortical areas.

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<![CDATA[The Limited Utility of Multiunit Data in Differentiating Neuronal Population Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafdab0ee8fa60bc5769

To date, single neuron recordings remain the gold standard for monitoring the activity of neuronal populations. Since obtaining single neuron recordings is not always possible, high frequency or ‘multiunit activity’ (MUA) is often used as a surrogate. Although MUA recordings allow one to monitor the activity of a large number of neurons, they do not allow identification of specific neuronal subtypes, the knowledge of which is often critical for understanding electrophysiological processes. Here, we explored whether prior knowledge of the single unit waveform of specific neuron types is sufficient to permit the use of MUA to monitor and distinguish differential activity of individual neuron types. We used an experimental and modeling approach to determine if components of the MUA can monitor medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) in the mouse dorsal striatum. We demonstrate that when well-isolated spikes are recorded, the MUA at frequencies greater than 100Hz is correlated with single unit spiking, highly dependent on the waveform of each neuron type, and accurately reflects the timing and spectral signature of each neuron. However, in the absence of well-isolated spikes (the norm in most MUA recordings), the MUA did not typically contain sufficient information to permit accurate prediction of the respective population activity of MSNs and FSIs. Thus, even under ideal conditions for the MUA to reliably predict the moment-to-moment activity of specific local neuronal ensembles, knowledge of the spike waveform of the underlying neuronal populations is necessary, but not sufficient.

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<![CDATA[Differential excitatory control of 2 parallel basket cell networks in amygdala microcircuits]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0214

Information processing in neural networks depends on the connectivity among excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The presence of parallel, distinctly controlled local circuits within a cortical network may ensure an effective and dynamic regulation of microcircuit function. By applying a combination of optogenetics, electrophysiological recordings, and high resolution microscopic techniques, we uncovered the organizing principles of synaptic communication between principal neurons and basket cells in the basal nucleus of the amygdala. In this cortical structure, known to be critical for emotional memory formation, we revealed the presence of 2 parallel basket cell networks expressing either parvalbumin or cholecystokinin. While the 2 basket cell types are mutually interconnected within their own category via synapses and gap junctions, they avoid innervating each other, but form synaptic contacts with axo-axonic cells. Importantly, both basket cell types have the similar potency to control principal neuron spiking, but they receive excitatory input from principal neurons with entirely diverse features. This distinct feedback synaptic excitation enables a markedly different recruitment of the 2 basket cell types upon the activation of local principal neurons. Our data suggest fundamentally different functions for the 2 parallel basket cell networks in circuit operations in the amygdala.

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<![CDATA[Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da38ab0ee8fa60b86ecb

Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Environmental Enrichment on Perineuronal Nets in the Prefrontal Cortex following Early and Late Abstinence from Sucrose Self-Administration in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2cab0ee8fa60bd18ae

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are aggregates of extracellular matrix that form structures surrounding a subset of GABAergic interneurons. The staining intensity of PNNs appears to be related to plasticity. Environmental enrichment (EE) influences plasticity during adulthood: EE decreases the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and diminishes both drug- and sucrose-seeking behavior. We determined the impact of EE on PNN intensity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rats trained to self-administer sucrose. We examined the number and intensity of PNNs within the prelimbic (PL), infralimbic (IL), and orbitofrontal (OF) regions of the mPFC of adult Long-Evans rats that were trained for sucrose self-administration followed by acute or chronic EE during abstinence and a cue-induced reinstatement test. Rats exposed to EE prior to a cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose seeking had an increase in PNN staining compared with rats in standard housing. Conversely, naïve rats given 1 day of EE had a decrease in PNN intensity in the PL, no change in the IL, and an increase in the OF. Our findings demonstrate that EE increases PNN intensity in the mPFC after sucrose training, suggesting that training enhances the ability of EE to increase PNN intensity. We further demonstrate an interaction between time of abstinence, duration of EE exposure, and cue-induced reinstatement. Our results suggest that increased PNN intensity after EE may alter the excitatory/inhibitory balance of mPFC neurons such that rats are less responsive to a sucrose cue.

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<![CDATA[Cortical involvement in celiac disease before and after long-term gluten-free diet: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf6d2

Objective

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in de novo patients with Celiac Disease previously revealed an imbalance in the excitability of cortical facilitatory and inhibitory circuits. After a median period of 16 months of gluten-free diet, a global increase of cortical excitability was reported, suggesting a glutamate-mediated compensation for disease progression. We have now evaluated cross-sectionally the changes of cortical excitability to TMS after a much longer gluten-free diet.

Methods

Twenty patients on adequate gluten-free diet for a mean period of 8.35 years were enrolled and compared with 20 de novo patients and 20 healthy controls. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation measures, recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the dominant hand, consisted of: resting motor threshold, cortical silent period, motor evoked potentials, central motor conduction time, mean short-latency intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation.

Results

The cortical silent period was shorter in de novo patients, whereas in gluten-free diet participants it was similar to controls. The amplitude of motor responses was significantly smaller in all patients than in controls, regardless of the dietary regimen. Notwithstanding the diet, all patients exhibited a statistically significant decrease of mean short-latency intracortical inhibition and enhancement of intracortical facilitation with respect to controls; more intracortical facilitation in gluten-restricted compared to non-restricted patients was also observed. Neurological examination and celiac disease-related antibodies were negative.

Conclusions

In this new investigation, the length of dietary regimen was able to modulate the electrocortical changes in celiac disease. Nevertheless, an intracortical synaptic dysfunction, mostly involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons within the motor cortex, may persist. The clinical significance of subtle neurophysiological changes in celiac disease needs to be further investigated.

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<![CDATA[Retinal Lateral Inhibition Provides the Biological Basis of Long-Range Spatial Induction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d6ab0ee8fa60b65d8c

Retinal lateral inhibition is one of the conventional efficient coding mechanisms in the visual system that is produced by interneurons that pool signals over a neighborhood of presynaptic feedforward cells and send inhibitory signals back to them. Thus, the receptive-field (RF) of a retinal ganglion cell has a center-surround receptive-field (RF) profile that is classically represented as a difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) adequate for efficient spatial contrast coding. The DOG RF profile has been attributed to produce the psychophysical phenomena of brightness induction, in which the perceived brightness of an object is affected by that of its vicinity, either shifting away from it (brightness contrast) or becoming more similar to it (brightness assimilation) depending on the size of the surfaces surrounding the object. While brightness contrast can be modeled using a DOG with a narrow surround, brightness assimilation requires a wide suppressive surround. Early retinal studies determined that the suppressive surround of a retinal ganglion cell is narrow (< 100–300 μm; ‘classic RF’), which led researchers to postulate that brightness assimilation must originate at some post-retinal, possibly cortical, stage where long-range interactions are feasible. However, more recent studies have reported that the retinal interneurons also exhibit a spatially wide component (> 500–1000 μm). In the current study, we examine the effect of this wide interneuron RF component in two biophysical retinal models and show that for both of the retinal models it explains the long-range effect evidenced in simultaneous brightness induction phenomena and that the spatial extent of this long-range effect of the retinal model responses matches that of perceptual data. These results suggest that the retinal lateral inhibition mechanism alone can regulate local as well as long-range spatial induction through the narrow and wide RF components of retinal interneurons, arguing against the existing view that spatial induction is operated by two separate local vs. long-range mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[Paired-Pulse TMS and Fine-Wire Recordings Reveal Short-Interval Intracortical Inhibition and Facilitation of Deep Multifidus Muscle Fascicles]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daebab0ee8fa60bbf313

Objective

Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) is used to probe inhibitory and excitatory networks within the primary motor cortex (M1). These mechanisms are identified for limb muscles but it is unclear whether they share properties with trunk muscles. The aim was to determine whether it was possible to test the intracortical inhibition and facilitation of the deep multifidus muscle fascicles (DM) and at which inter-stimulus intervals (ISI).

Methods

In ten pain-free individuals, TMS was applied over M1 and motor evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded using fine-wire electrodes in DM. MEPs were conditioned with subthreshold stimuli at ISIs of 1 to 12 ms to test short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and at 15 ms for long-interval intracortical facilitation. Short-interval facilitation (SICF) was tested using 1-ms ISI.

Results

SICI of DM was consistently obtained with ISI of 1-, 3-, 4- and 12-ms. Facilitation of DM MEP was only identified using SICF paradigm.

Conclusions

A similar pattern of MEP modulation with ISI changes for deep trunk and limb muscles implies that M1 networks share some functional properties.

Significance

The ppTMS paradigm presents a potential to determine how M1 inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms participate in brain re-organization in back pain that affects control of trunk muscles.

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<![CDATA[The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da30ab0ee8fa60b84302

In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective ‘framing’ effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders.

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<![CDATA[A generalized phase resetting method for phase-locked modes prediction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf41

We derived analytically and checked numerically a set of novel conditions for the existence and the stability of phase-locked modes in a biologically relevant master-slave neural network with a dynamic feedback loop. Since neural oscillators even in the three-neuron network investigated here receive multiple inputs per cycle, we generalized the concept of phase resetting to accommodate multiple inputs per cycle. We proved that the phase resetting produced by two or more stimuli per cycle can be recursively computed from the traditional, single stimulus, phase resetting. We applied the newly derived generalized phase resetting definition to predicting the relative phase and the stability of a phase-locked mode that was experimentally observed in this type of master-slave network with a dynamic loop network.

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