ResearchPad - interpersonal-relationships https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Exploring psychosocial factors that influence smartphone dependency among Korean adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14478 This study investigated the relationships among psychosocial factors that contribute to smartphone dependency among South Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved the secondary data analysis of the 2016 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide multistage cluster survey. Data were collected from 1,840 7th grade students in South Korea and analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and a path analysis using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 23.0. The path analysis showed that self-esteem and aggressiveness directly influenced smartphone dependency, while affective parenting attitude, peer attachment, resilience, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms indirectly influenced it. The explanatory variables accounted for 18.3% of the total variance. In conclusion, parents’ education on positive parenting and guidance concerning adolescents’ smartphone use is necessary to reduce adolescents’ smartphone dependency. It may also prove effective to promote adolescents’ interpersonal skills and self-esteem to foster positive peer relationships and self-control concerning smartphone use.

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<![CDATA[Linking childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms: The role of emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f149dd5eed0c48467a3fc

Childhood abuse is a major public health problem that has been linked to depression in adulthood. Although different types of childhood abuse often co-occur, few studies have examined their unique impact on negative mental health outcomes. Most studies have focused solely on the consequences of childhood physical or sexual abuse; however, it has been suggested that childhood emotional abuse is more strongly related to depression. It remains unclear which underlying psychological processes mediate the effect of childhood emotional abuse on depressive symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in 276 female college students, multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine whether childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were independently associated with depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems. Subsequently, OLS regression analyses were used to determine whether emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems mediate the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms. Of all types of abuse, only emotional abuse was independently associated with depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems. The effect of childhood emotional abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion dysregulation and the following domains of interpersonal problems: cold/distant and domineering/controlling. The results of the current study indicate that detection and prevention of childhood emotional abuse deserves attention from Child Protective Services. Finally, interventions that target emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills may be beneficial in prevention of depression.

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<![CDATA[Mental health in individuals with spinal cord injury: The role of socioeconomic conditions and social relationships]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe0dd5eed0c484e5b386

Objectives

To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities in social relationships, and to assess whether socioeconomic conditions and social relationships are independently related to mental health problems in individuals with a physical disability due to spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods

We analyzed cross-sectional data from 511 individuals with SCI aged over 16 years who participated in the community survey of the Swiss SCI Cohort Study (SwiSCI). Indicators for socioeconomic conditions included years of formal education, household income, and financial strain. Social relationships were operationalized by three structural (partner status; social contact frequency; number of supportive relationships) and four functional aspects (satisfaction with: overall social support; family relationships; contacts to friends; partner relationship). General mental health was assessed by the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) of SF-36 and depressive symptoms were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (depression subscale, HADS-D). Established cut-offs for general mental health problems (MHI-5 ≤56) and depressive symptomatology (HADS-D ≥8) were used to dichotomize outcomes. Associations were assessed using logistic regressions.

Results

Lower household income was predominantly associated with poor structural social relationships, whereas financial strain was robustly linked to poor functional social relationships. Financial strain was associated with general mental health problems and depressive symptomatology, even after controlling for social relationships. Education and household income were not linked to mental health. Poor structural and functional social relationships were related to general mental health problems and depressive symptomatology. Notably, trends remained stable after accounting for socioeconomic conditions.

Conclusion

This study provides evidence for socioeconomic inequalities in social relationships as well as for independent associations of financial strain and poor social relationships with mental health problems in individuals with SCI. Further research may develop strategies to improve mental health in SCI by strengthening social relationships. Such interventions may be especially beneficial for individuals with low income and financial strain.

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<![CDATA[Explaining the longitudinal interplay of personality and social relationships in the laboratory and in the field: The PILS and the CONNECT study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52f9d5eed0c4842bd362

Our personalities (who we are) influence our social relationships (how we relate to people around us), and our social relationships influence our personalities. However, little is known about the specific processes underlying the complex interplay of personality and social relationships. According to the PERSOC framework, the identification of underlying social interaction processes promotes the understanding of how personality and social relationships are expressed, develop, and influence each other over time. The aim of the present paper is twofold: First, we outline and discuss four methodological challenges that arise when trying to empirically realize a process approach to the personality-relationship interplay. Second, we describe two data sets that are designed to meet these challenges and that are open for collaborative investigations: a laboratory-based process approach (Personality Interaction Laboratory Study; PILS) and a field-based process approach (CONNECT). We provide detailed information on the samples (two student samples; PILS: N = 311; CONNECT: N = 131), procedures (longitudinal and multimethodological), and measures (personality and social relationships, appearance and behavior, interpersonal perceptions), for which we present descriptive information, reliabilities, and intercorrelations. We summarize how these studies’ designs targeted the introduced methodological challenges, discuss the advantages and limitations of laboratory- and field-based process approaches, and call for their combination. We close by outlining an open research policy, aimed at accelerated collaborative efforts to further open the process black box, ultimately leading to a better understanding of the expression, development, and complex interplay of personality and social relationships.

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<![CDATA[PopRank: Ranking pages’ impact and users’ engagement on Facebook]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d664d5eed0c484031d68

The advent of social networks revolutionized the way people access to information sources. Understanding the complex relationship between these sources and users is crucial. We introduce an algorithm, that we call PopRank, to assess both the Impact of Facebook pages as well as users’ Engagement on the basis of their mutual interactions. The ideas behind the PopRank are that i) high impact pages attract many users with a low engagement, which means that they receive comments from users that rarely comment, and ii) high engagement users interact with high impact pages, that is they mostly comment pages with a high popularity. The resulting ranking of pages can predict the number of comments a page will receive and the number of its future posts. Pages’ impact turns out to be slightly dependent on the quality of pages’ informative content (e.g., science vs conspiracy) but independent of users’ polarization.

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<![CDATA[Promoting resilience in adolescents: A new social identity benefits those who need it most]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f815d5eed0c484386fe5

The Social Identity Approach to Health holds that groups provide us with a sense of meaning and belonging, and that these identity processes have a significant positive impact on our health and wellbeing. Typically, research drawing from the social identity approach with adolescents has focused on the benefits of existing group memberships. Here, using a sail-training intervention, we investigated the impact of providing adolescents with a new group (i.e., a new social identity) on psychological resilience. Across two studies, we demonstrate the benefits of a new social identity, in terms of increases in psychological resilience, flow predominantly to those adolescents who report the lowest levels of resilience at the start of the voyage. We discuss our findings in relation to the social identity approach and adolescent identity development more generally.

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<![CDATA[The keys to happiness: Associations between personal values regarding core life domains and happiness in South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5bbd5eed0c484ca7e6f

Personal values refer to the beliefs, principles or ideas that are important to people’s lives. We investigated the associations between personal values and happiness. We inquired about the importance of four different categories of personal values: prioritizing social relationships, extrinsic achievements, physical health, and spirituality. Data were drawn from the Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), a nationally representative cross-sectional sample collected over three years (i.e., 2007, 2008, and 2009). The findings showed that respondents prioritizing religion (i.e., spirituality) were the most likely to be happy, followed by those prioritizing social relationships, including family, friends, and neighbors. Those who prioritized extrinsic achievements (money, power, educational attainment, work, and leisure) as well as health were least likely to be happy. The findings suggest that pursuing goals focused on self-enhancement or self-centered value are less likely to result in happiness compared to pursuing alter-centered collective goals or self-transcendence/selflessness.

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<![CDATA[The disabling consequences of Mycetoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c181394d5eed0c484775471

Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease endemic in tropical and subtropical countries, particularly Sudan. The disease is characterised by the triad of painless subcutaneous mass, multiple sinuses and discharge that contain grains. It is a chronic, debilitating disease most commonly affecting the feet or hands and leads to substantial morbidity, loss of function and even amputation. It predominantly affects poor, rural populations and patients typically present late with advanced disease and complications. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we characterise the disabling consequences of mycetoma. The study included 300 patients; 228 (76%) male and 72 (24%) female with confirmed mycetoma seen at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan in the period May 2016 and January 2017. The study design was based upon the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, examining the impact of mycetoma on eight life domains. Our major finding is that mycetoma is a significantly disabling disease. Over 60% of the study population (181 patients) had moderate impairment or difficulty in at least one domain variable. The important disability was mobility impairment and walking difficulty that was reported in 119 patients (39.7%). There was significant pain associated with mycetoma lesions in 103 patients (34%), challenging the traditional view of mycetoma as a painless disease. The economic burden was also found to be substantial, with 126 patients (46.7%) reporting barriers to their ability to sustain themselves. This is the first study evaluating the disabling consequences of mycetoma and shows clear areas for intervention and further research. Options for mitigating social and economic impacts include routine integration of analgesia and physiotherapy into treatment protocols, and adapting educational provision and working practices based on disability assessment. Our data show that mycetoma is a public health issue with direct implications on quality of life.

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<![CDATA[Students from single-sex schools are more gender-salient and more anxious in mixed-gender situations: Results from high school and college samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ef2d5eed0c484d28f24

Gender segregation exists in all walks of life. One of the most common forms of institutionalized gender segregation is perhaps single-sex schooling. Because schooling experience has important influence on students’ psychosocial development, interest in gender-segregated education has been reviving over the globe. Skeptics of single-sex schooling have suggested that such schooling may increase students’ gender salience (awareness of gender in categorizations), reduce opportunities for mixed-gender interactions, and increase mixed-gender anxiety, but little evidence has been found. It is critical to explore how single-sex schooling is associated with these psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults because they are in the developmental stage when the desire and need to establish mixed-gender relationships increase. We report two systematic studies on gender salience, mixed-gender friendships, and mixed-gender anxiety on 2059 high school students and 456 college students from single-sex or coeducational schools. Even with demographic background controlled, results suggested higher gender salience in single-sex school students in the high school sample, and greater mixed-gender anxiety and fewer mixed-gender friendships in these students in both samples. These differences were not moderated by student gender and were similar in first-year versus senior college students. Moreover, mixed-gender friendships, though not gender salience, appeared to engage in a possibly bi-directional mediation relationship with mixed-gender anxiety that is consistent with a vicious cycle of escalating anxiety and lack of mixed-gender interaction among single-sex school students. These findings help fill the knowledge gap about the correlates of gender-segregated schooling and shed light on the precursors of later social and achievement differences between single-sex and coeducational school students.

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<![CDATA[Does Syntactic Alignment Effectively Influence How Speakers Are Perceived by Their Conversation Partner?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da27ab0ee8fa60b813a5

The way we talk can influence how we are perceived by others. Whereas previous studies have started to explore the influence of social goals on syntactic alignment, in the current study, we additionally investigated whether syntactic alignment effectively influences conversation partners’ perception of the speaker. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which we can measure the effect of social goals on the strength of syntactic alignment for one participant (primed participant), while simultaneously obtaining usable social opinions about them from their conversation partner (the evaluator). In Study 1, participants’ desire to be rated favorably by their partner was manipulated by assigning pairs to a Control (i.e., primed participants did not know they were being evaluated) or Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated). Surprisingly, results showed no significant difference in the strength with which primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partners’ choices. In a follow-up study, we used a Directed Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated and were explicitly instructed to make a positive impression). However, again, there was no evidence supporting the hypothesis that participants’ desire to impress their partner influences syntactic alignment. With respect to the influence of syntactic alignment on perceived likeability by the evaluator, a negative relationship was reported in Study 1: the more primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partner, the more that partner decreased their likeability rating after the experiment. However, this effect was not replicated in the Directed Evaluation context of Study 2. In other words, our results do not support the conclusion that speakers’ desire to be liked affects how much they align their syntactic choices with their partner, nor is there convincing evidence that there is a reliable relationship between syntactic alignment and perceived likeability.

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<![CDATA[Perceptions of Interpersonal Versus Intergroup Violence: The Case of Sexual Assault]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d7ab0ee8fa60b664dc

The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a “hate crime”), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

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<![CDATA[Leading from the Centre: A Comprehensive Examination of the Relationship between Central Playing Positions and Leadership in Sport]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3bab0ee8fa60b87f4f

Research aims

The present article provides a comprehensive examination of the relationship between playing position and leadership in sport. More particularly, it explores links between leadership and a player’s interactional centrality—defined as the degree to which their playing position provides opportunities for interaction with other team members. This article examines this relationship across different leadership roles, team sex, and performance levels.

Results

Study 1 (N = 4443) shows that athlete leaders (and the task and motivational leader in particular) are more likely than other team members to occupy interactionally central positions in a team. Players with high interactional centrality were also perceived to be better leaders than those with low interactional centrality. Study 2 (N = 308) established this link for leadership in general, while Study 3 (N = 267) and Study 4 (N = 776) revealed that the same was true for task, motivational, and external leadership. This relationship is attenuated in sports where an interactionally central position confers limited interactional advantages. In other words, the observed patterns were strongest in sports that are played on a large field with relatively fixed positions (e.g., soccer), while being weaker in sports that are played on a smaller field where players switch positions dynamically (e.g., basketball, ice hockey). Beyond this, the pattern is broadly consistent across different sports, different sexes, and different levels of skill.

Conclusions

The observed patterns are consistent with the idea that positions that are interactionally central afford players greater opportunities to do leadership—either through communication or through action. Significantly too, they also provide a basis for them to be seen to do leadership by others on their team. Thus while it is often stated that “leadership is an action, not a position,” it is nevertheless the case that, when it comes to performing that action, some positions are more advantageous than others.

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<![CDATA[Baby, You Light-Up My Face: Culture-General Physiological Responses to Infants and Culture-Specific Cognitive Judgements of Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3cab0ee8fa60b8850c

Infants universally elicit in adults a set of solicitous behaviors that are evolutionarily important for the survival of the species. However, exposure, experience, and prejudice appear to govern adults' social choice and ingroup attitudes towards other adults. In the current study, physiological arousal and behavioral judgments were assessed while adults processed unfamiliar infant and adult faces of ingroup vs. outgroup members in two contrasting cultures, Japan and Italy. Physiological arousal was investigated using the novel technique of infrared thermography and behavioral judgments using ratings. We uncovered a dissociation between physiological and behavioral responses. At the physiological level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant activation (increase of facial temperature) for both ingroup and outgroup infant faces. At the behavioral level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant preferences for ingroup adults. Arousal responses to infants appear to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system and are not dependent on direct caregiving exposure, but behavioral responses appear to be mediated by higher-order cognitive processing based on social acceptance and cultural exposure.

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<![CDATA[Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d6ab0ee8fa60b65c16

Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

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<![CDATA[Data quality and factor analysis of the Danish version of the Relationship Scale Questionnaire]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf573

Background

The Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ) is a widely-used measure of adult attachment, but whether the results obtained by the RSQ fit the attachment construct has only been examined to a limited extent.

Objective

The objectives of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the RSQ and to test whether the results are consistent with the hypothesized model of attachment.

Methods

The study included two samples: 602 general practitioners and 611 cancer patients. The two samples were analyzed separately. Data quality was assessed by mean, median and missing values for each item, floor and ceiling effects, average inter-item correlations and Cronbach’s α for each subscale. Test-retest was assessed by intra-class correlations among 76 general practitioners. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to establish evidence of the four proposed subscales. Due to an inadequate fit of the model, data was randomly split into two equally sized subsamples and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted for all 30 items in the first subsample comprised of 286 cancer patients and 285 general practitioners. The EFA yielded a three-factor structure which was validated through a confirmatory factor analyses in a second subsample comprised of 278 cancer patients and 289 general practitioners.

Results

The data quality of the RSQ was generally good, except low internal consistency and low to moderate test-retest reliability. The four subscales of the RSQ were not confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis. An exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution for both general practitioners and patients, which accounted for 61.1% of the variance among general practitioners and 62.5% among patients. The new three-factor solution was verified in a confirmatory factor analyses.

Conclusion

The proposed four-factor model of the RSQ could not be confirmed in this study. Similar challenges have been found by other studies validating the RSQ. An alternative three-factor structure was found for the RSQ.

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<![CDATA[What Is a Group? Young Children’s Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3aab0ee8fa60bd4779

To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children’s general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends), a task group (people who are collaborating), a social category (people who look alike), and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop). In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a ‘real group.’ In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior.

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<![CDATA[With whom do you feel most intimate?: Exploring the quality of Facebook friendships in relation to similarities and interaction behaviors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf172

It is widely accepted that people tend to associate more and feel closer to those who share similar attributes with themselves. Most of the research on the phenomenon has been carried out in face-to-face contexts. However, it is necessary to study the phenomenon in computer-mediated contexts as well. Exploring Facebook is important in that friendships within the network indicate a broader spectrum of friends, ranging from complete strangers to confiding relations. Also, since diverse communication methods are available on Facebook, which method a user adopts to interact with a “friend” could influence the quality of the relationship, i.e. intimacy. Thus, current research aims to test whether people in computer-mediated contexts do perceive more intimacy toward friends who share similar traits, and further, aims to examine which interaction methods influence the closeness of relationship by collecting activity data of users on Facebook. Results from current study show traits related to intimacy in the online context of Facebook. Moreover, in addition to the interaction type itself, direction of the interaction influenced how intimate users feel towards their friends. Overall findings suggest that further investigation on the dynamics of online communication methods used in developing and maintaining relationships is necessary.

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<![CDATA[Strategic Sexual Signals: Women's Display versus Avoidance of the Color Red Depends on the Attractiveness of an Anticipated Interaction Partner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7dab0ee8fa60b9940c

The color red has special meaning in mating-relevant contexts. Wearing red can enhance perceptions of women’s attractiveness and desirability as a potential romantic partner. Building on recent findings, the present study examined whether women’s (N = 74) choice to display the color red is influenced by the attractiveness of an expected opposite-sex interaction partner. Results indicated that female participants who expected to interact with an attractive man displayed red (on clothing, accessories, and/or makeup) more often than a baseline consisting of women in a natural environment with no induced expectation. In contrast, when women expected to interact with an unattractive man, they eschewed red, displaying it less often than in the baseline condition. Findings are discussed with respect to evolutionary and cultural perspectives on mate evaluation and selection.

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<![CDATA[The Condition for Generous Trust]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daacab0ee8fa60ba989f

Trust has been considered the “cement” of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another’s failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as “generous trust” and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks. Second, we examine the manner in which trust functions in a broader social context, one that involves matching and commitment processes. Since we expect generosity or forgiveness to work differently in the matching and commitment processes, we must differentiate trust strategies into generous trust in the matching process and that in the commitment process. Our analytical strategy is two-fold. First, we analyze the “modified” trust game that incorporates the two types of uncertainties without the matching process. This simplified setting enables us to derive mathematical results using game theory, thereby giving basic insight into the trust mechanism. Second, we investigate socially embedded trust relationships in contexts involving the matching and commitment processes, using agent-based simulation. Results show that uncertainty about partner’s intention and competence makes generous trust a viable option. In contrast, too much uncertainty undermines the possibility of generous trust. Furthermore, a strategy that is too generous cannot stand alone. Generosity should be accompanied with moderate punishment. As for socially embedded trust relationships, generosity functions differently in the matching process versus the commitment process. Indeed, these two types of generous trust coexist, and their coexistence enables a society to function well.

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<![CDATA[The social genome: Current findings and implications for the study of human genetics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcf38 ]]>