ResearchPad - interventional-cardiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[EAPCI Position Statement on Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes during the COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12413 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare worldwide. The infection can be life threatening and require intensive care treatment. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. The number of patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care may overwhelm health systems and negatively affect standard care for patients presenting with conditions needing emergency interventions. This position statements aims to assist cardiologists in the invasive management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To that end, we assembled a panel of interventional cardiologists and acute cardiac care specialists appointed by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and from the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC) and included the experience from the first and worst affected areas in Europe. Modified diagnostic and treatment algorithms are proposed to adapt evidence-based protocols for this unprecedented challenge. Various clinical scenarios, as well as management algorithms for patients with a diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 infection, presenting with ST- and non-ST-segment elevation ACS are described. In addition, we address the need for re-organization of ACS networks, with redistribution of hub and spoke hospitals, as well as for in-hospital reorganization of emergency rooms and cardiac units, with examples coming from multiple European countries. Furthermore, we provide a guidance to reorganization of catheterization laboratories and, importantly, measures for protection of healthcare providers involved with invasive procedures.

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<![CDATA[GRACE score and cardiovascular outcomes prediction among the delayed coronary intervention after post-fibrinolytic STEMI patients in a limited PCI-capable hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N56c34da0-df8e-455b-84c4-0bb9674ebdcf

Background

In Thailand, due to limited availability of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-capable hospitals, a number of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after fibrinolytic therapy underwent the delayed coronary intervention (24 hours to 2 weeks). Existing tool such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Event (GRACE) to define patients at high risk of cardiovascular outcomes has been used widely, except for patients who had the delayed coronary intervention. We, therefore, evaluated the cardiovascular outcomes of STEMI patients who underwent the delayed coronary intervention.

Methods

We retrospectively analysed the data from the PCI-capable hospital (Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital) STEMI registry during the period 2007–2012. Patients who received fibrinolytic treatment (SK) and underwent the delayed coronary intervention were included. The outcomes of the study were 30-day and 6-month composite cardiovascular outcomes (including death, re-hospitalised with acute coronary syndrome, re-hospitalised with heart failure and stroke).

Results

Of all 341 patients included, 229 (67.2%) patients were in the low GRACE score group (<126 points) and 112 (32.8%) patients in the intermediate-high GRACE score group (≥126 points). At 30 days, the composite cardiovascular outcome occurred in 2.2% (n=5) in the low GRACE score group and 11.6% (n=13) in the intermediate-high GRACE score group (p value=0.001). At 6 months, the composite cardiovascular outcomes occurred in 3.9% (n=9) in the low GRACE score group and 13.4% (n=15) in the intermediate-high GRACE score group (p value=0.003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of GRACE score for 6-month composite cardiovascular outcomes was 0.746 (95% CI 0.698 to 0.793).

Conclusion

Intermediate-high GRACE risk STEMI patients after fibrinolytic therapy in limited PCI-capable hospital who underwent the delayed coronary intervention increased 30-day and 6-month cardiovascular outcomes compared with the low GRACE risk patients. In limited available PCI-capable hospital, GRACE risk score can be helpful in guiding the cardiologists to select a proper time for coronary intervention in post-fibrinolytic STEMI patients.

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<![CDATA[Impact of preinterventional tricuspid regurgitation on outcome of MitraClip therapy in patients with severely reduced ejection fraction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N842bfe0e-b9b7-46c1-840e-2dd529d4e1aa

Aim

To evaluate the impact of preinterventional moderate-to-severe functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) on early outcome after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (pMVR) with MitraClip procedures for functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods and results

From January 2013 to December 2017, 80 patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction 22%±5.3%) and FMR (grade 3.0±0.36) underwent successful pMVR. The 3-year actuarial survival was 58%. However, 73% (n=22) of non-survivors died of cardiac failure within 1 year. Patients were categorised into none-to-mild (n=36) and moderate-to-severe (n=44) postinterventional FTR groups according to pre-MitraClip tricuspid regurgitation grade. Cox regression analysis on 1-year survival demonstrated an impact of FTR severity (HR=1.8, 95% CI 1.01% to 3.09%, p=0.047), preoperative New York Heart Association class (HR=2.8, 95% CI 1.2% to 6.5%, p=0.015) and peripheral artery disease (HR=5.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 18, p=0.0054). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 1-year cardiac death was higher in the moderate-to-severe FTR group (p=0.048). In our study, 77% of pre-MitraClip moderate-to-severe FTR cannot be significantly reduced. Post-MitraClip moderate-to-severe FTR grade was related to lower survival (p<0.001).

Conclusion

In patients with HFrEF treated with MitraClip for FMR, moderate-to-severe FTR was an independent predictor of cardiac death within 1 year. To improve survival, additional therapy to residual FTR should be considered in early phase after MitraClip therapy.

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<![CDATA[Contemporary trends in use of mechanical circulatory support in patients with acute MI and cardiogenic shock]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7b35130b-c72e-4423-8741-16511ca84d00

Objectives

To describe the contemporary trends in the use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (AMICS). To evaluate survival benefit with early application of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) or Impella CP.

Methods

A cohort study of all consecutive patients with AMICS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) <24 hours of symptom onset (early PCI) in southeastern Denmark from 2010 to 2017. A matched case–control study comparing 30-day mortality between patients receiving early-IABP or early-Impella CP and their respective control group. Controls were matched on age, left ventricular ejection fraction, arterial lactate, estimated glomerular filtration rate and cardiac arrest before PCI. Early-IABP/Impella CP was defined as applied before PCI if shock developed pre-PCI, or immediately after PCI if shock developed during PCI.

Results

903 patients with AMICS undergoing early PCI were identified. Use of MCS decreased from 50% in 2010 to 25% in 2017, p for trend of <0.001. The IABP was abandoned in 2012 and replaced mostly by Impella CP. Patients receiving MCS in 2013–2017 had more compromised haemodynamics compared with patients receiving MCS in 2010–2012. 40 patients received early IABP, and 40 patients received early Impella CP. Only the group receiving early Impella CP was associated with lower 30-day mortality compared with their matched control group (30-day mortality 40% vs 77.5%, plog-rank of<0.001).

Conclusion

Use of MCS decreased by 50% from 2010 to 2017. Patients receiving MCS had more compromised haemodynamics in recent years. Early application of Impella CP was associated with reduced 30-day mortality compared with a matched control group.

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<![CDATA[Moderate Hypothermia Modifies Coronary Hemodynamics and Endothelium‐Dependent Vasodilation in a Porcine Model of Temperature Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6655ebdc-cb41-42f5-97a1-079db06c2d9d

Background

Hypothermia has been associated with therapeutic benefits including reduced mortality and better neurologic outcomes in survivors of cardiac arrest. However, undesirable side effects have been reported in patients undergoing coronary interventions. Using a large animal model of temperature management, we aimed to describe how temperature interferes with the coronary vasculature.

Methods and Results

Coronary hemodynamics and endothelial function were studied in 12 pigs at various core temperatures. Left circumflex coronary artery was challenged with intracoronary nitroglycerin, bradykinin, and adenosine at normothermia (38°C) and mild hypothermia (34°C), followed by either rewarming (38°C; n=6) or moderate hypothermia (MoHT; 32°C, n=6). Invasive coronary hemodynamics by Doppler wire revealed a slower coronary blood velocity at 32°C in the MoHT protocol (normothermia 20.2±11.2 cm/s versus mild hypothermia 18.7±4.3 cm/s versus MoHT 11.3±5.3 cm/s, P=0.007). MoHT time point was also associated with high values of hyperemic microvascular resistance (>3 mm Hg/cm per second) (normothermia 2.0±0.6 mm Hg/cm per second versus mild hypothermia 2.0±0.8 mm Hg/cm per second versus MoHT 3.4±1.6 mm Hg/cm per second, P=0.273). Assessment of coronary vasodilation by quantitative coronary analysis showed increased endothelium‐dependent (bradykinin) vasodilation at 32°C when compared with normothermia (normothermia 6.96% change versus mild hypothermia 9.01% change versus MoHT 25.42% change, P=0.044). Results from coronary reactivity in vitro were in agreement with angiography data and established that endothelium‐dependent relaxation in MoHT completely relies on NO production.

Conclusions

In this porcine model of temperature management, 34°C hypothermia and rewarming (38°C) did not affect coronary hemodynamics or endothelial function. However, 32°C hypothermia altered coronary vasculature physiology by slowing coronary blood flow, increasing microvascular resistance, and exacerbating endothelium‐dependent vasodilatory response.

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<![CDATA[Temporal Trends and Clinical Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Nonagenarians]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4dc36a21-6d81-444d-8426-b6a818d90342

Background

Contemporary outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in nonagenarians are unknown.

Methods and Results

We identified 13 544 nonagenarians (aged 90–100 years) who underwent TAVR between 2012 and 2016 using Medicare claims. Generalized estimating equations were used to study the change in short‐term outcomes among nonagenarians over time. We compared outcomes between nonagenarians and non‐nonagenarians undergoing TAVR in 2016. A mixed‐effect multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of 30‐day mortality in nonagenarians in 2016. A center was defined as a high‐volume center if it performed ≥100 TAVR procedures per year. After adjusting for changes in patients’ characteristics, risk‐adjusted 30‐day mortality declined in nonagenarians from 9.8% in 2012 to 4.4% in 2016 (P<0.001), whereas mortality for patients <90 years decreased from 6.4% to 3.5%. In 2016, 35 712 TAVR procedures were performed, of which 12.7% were in nonagenarians. Overall, in‐hospital mortality in 2016 was higher in nonagenarians compared with younger patients (2.4% versus 1.7%, P<0.05) but did not differ in analysis limited to high‐volume centers (2.2% versus 1.7%; odds ratio: 1.33; 95% CI, 0.97–1.81; P=0.07). Important predictors of 30‐day mortality in nonagenarians included in‐hospital stroke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 8.67; 95% CI, 5.03–15.00), acute kidney injury (aOR: 4.11; 95% CI, 2.90–5.83), blood transfusion (aOR: 2.66; 95% CI, 1.81–3.90), respiratory complications (aOR: 2.96; 95% CI, 1.52–5.76), heart failure (aOR: 1.86; 95% CI, 1.04–3.34), coagulopathy (aOR: 1.59; 95% CI, 1.12–2.26; P<0.05 for all).

Conclusions

Short‐term outcomes after TAVR have improved in nonagenarians. Several procedural complications were associated with increased 30‐day mortality among nonagenarians.

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<![CDATA[Balloon embedded stenting: A novel technique for percutaneous coronary intervention of bifurcation lesions, experience in Indian population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8eef89d5eed0c484f01f71

Background

Bifurcation lesions account for 15–20% of interventions carried out in a catheterization laboratory. Several techniques have been described for treating bifurcation lesions of which culotte and T-stenting and protrusion(TAP) are commonly used. Both these techniques involve recrossing the struts of primary stent, failing which the flow in second branch which can be impaired and lead to catastrophic events. In this study, we describe a novel balloon embedded stenting technique which can be incorporated with traditional culotte or TAP technique and facilitates conversion to bail out crush in case of such an event.

Methods and results

28 patients who were treated with balloon embedded stenting for bifurcation lesions were included in the study. Angiographic and procedural success were achieved in all the patients. Primary stent could not be recrossed in 1 patient, who was successfully converted to bail out crush using the technique. There were no complications during the procedure. Mean fluoroscopy time and contrast volume was similar to that of conventional culotte and TAP.

Conclusion

The present study suggests that incorporation of balloon embedded stenting into traditional culotte or TAP technique is achievable and can facilitate conversion to bail out crush when required.

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<![CDATA[Utility of balloon aortic valvuloplasty in the transcatheter aortic valve implantation era]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc4eff6f3-163c-45c5-b307-876389b73ac9 Background
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) has seen renewed interest since the advent of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The study aimed to characterise a contemporary BAV cohort and determinants of clinical outcomes.
Methods
Patients undergoing BAV at a single tertiary centre were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period, and functional and mortality outcomes were reported with up to a 2-year follow-up.
Results
224 patients (aged 82.5±8.3 years; 48% female) underwent BAV over the study period. Indications were either destination treatment (39%) or bridge-to-valve replacement (61%)—including bridge-to-decision (29%), symptom relief while on the waitlist (27%), and temporary contraindications to TAVI/aortic valve replacement (AVR) (5%). The mean reduction of aortic mean pressure gradient was 38%. Procedural mortality occurred in 0.5%, stroke in 1.3%, and major bleeding in 0.9%. Twelve-month mortality was 36% overall, and 26% and 50% in the bridging and destination groups, respectively. New York HeartAssociation (NYHA) class improved by ≥1 at 30 days in 50%. Among the bridge-to-TAVI/AVR group, 40% proceeded to TAVI/AVR within 12 months following BAV. In multivariate analysis, active malignancy at baseline (OR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.3 to 15.1, p=0.02), smoking history (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3 to 7.9, p<0.01), LVEF ≤30% at baseline (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.3 to 7.6, p<0.01), destination treatment (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.9, p=0.04) were all associated with 12-month mortality.
Conclusions
BAV remains a useful procedure with relatively low rates of complications, however, 1-year mortality rates are high. Contemporary indications for BAV include a bridge to definitive valve replacement or destination treatment.
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<![CDATA[DNA Persistence and Relapses Questions on the Treatment Strategies of Enterococcus Infections of Prosthetic Valves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6dab0ee8fa60b93974

We used amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by sequencing to evaluate the persistence of bacterial DNA in explanted heart valve tissue as part of the routine work of a clinical microbiology laboratory, and we analyzed the role of this persistence in the relapses observed in our center. We enrolled 286 patients treated for infective endocarditis (IE) who had valve replacement surgery and were diagnosed according to the modified Duke’s criteria described by Li et al. from a total of 579 IE cases treated in our center. The patients were grouped based on the infecting bacteria, and we considered the 4 most common bacterial genus associated with IE separately (144 were caused by Streptococcus spp., 52 by Enterococcus spp., 58 by Staphylococcus aureus and 32 by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus). Based on our cohort, the risk of relapse in patients with enterococcal prosthetic valve infections treated with antibiotics alone was 11%. Bacterial DNA is cleared over time, but this might be a very slow process, especially with Enterococcus spp. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature performed on Medline, most reports still advise combined treatment with penicillin and an aminoglycoside for as long as 4–6 weeks, but there has been no consensus for the treatment of enterococcal infection of prostheses in IE patients.

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<![CDATA[Stent and Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Duration Comparisons in the Setting of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial: Can the Operator Experience Affect the Study Results?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49e65f463d7e3680facc1c

Background

Operator experience influences outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention, but this association in the controlled setting of a randomized, clinical trial is unclear.

Methods and Results

We investigated operator‐related outcomes (30‐day and 2‐year efficacy and safety end points) among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and randomized to different dual antiplatelet therapy durations and stent types. A total of 2003 patients were analyzed, and 7 operator groups were compared. The majority of preprocedural and postprocedural characteristics were imbalanced. The primary end point of the study, the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular accidents, did not differ among operators at 30 days or 2 years. There were no significant differences also for all other individual and composite end points analyzed at 30 days and 2 years, except for 2‐year stent thrombosis (P=0.048) and bleeding events (P=0.022 for Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5). Adjusted comparisons for the main end points showed slight differences among operators at 30 days, but not at 2 years. There was no interaction of operator with dual antiplatelet therapy duration (P=0.112) or stent type (P=0.300). Results remained entirely consistent when operators were stratified by their experience.

Conclusions

There was a weak signal of heterogeneity across study operators for the 30‐day, but not the 2‐year, main study outcomes. No clear effect of operator or operator experience was observed for the comparative efficacy and safety profile of the randomized stent types or dual antiplatelet therapy duration regimens.

Clinical Trial Registration

URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00611286.

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<![CDATA[Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Mipomersen in Patients with Severe Hypercholesterolemia Receiving Maximally Tolerated Lipid-Lowering Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b86227

Objectives

Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting apolipoprotein B synthesis, significantly reduces LDL-C and other atherogenic lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemia when added to ongoing maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Safety and efficacy of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia was evaluated.

Methods and Results

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Patients (n  = 58) were ≥18 years with LDL-C ≥7.8 mmol/L or LDL-C ≥5.1 mmol/L plus CHD disease, on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy that excluded apheresis. Weekly subcutaneous injections of mipomersen 200 mg (n  = 39) or placebo (n  = 19) were added to lipid-lowering therapy for 26 weeks. Main outcome: percent reduction in LDL-C from baseline to 2 weeks after the last dose of treatment. Mipomersen (n = 27) reduced LDL-C by 36%, from a baseline of 7.2 mmol/L, for a mean absolute reduction of 2.6 mmol/L. Conversely, mean LDL-C increased 13% in placebo (n = 18) from a baseline of 6.5 mmol/L (mipomersen vs placebo p<0.001). Mipomersen produced statistically significant (p<0.001) reductions in apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a), with no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Mild-to-moderate injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events with mipomersen. Mild-to-moderate flu-like symptoms were reported more often with mipomersen. Alanine transaminase increase, aspartate transaminase increase, and hepatic steatosis occurred in 21%, 13% and 13% of mipomersen treated patients, respectively. Adverse events by category for the placebo and mipomersen groups respectively were: total adverse events, 16(84.2%), 39(100%); serious adverse events, 0(0%), 6(15.4%); discontinuations due to adverse events, 1(5.3%), 8(20.5%) and cardiac adverse events, 1(5.3%), 5(12.8%).

Conclusion

Mipomersen significantly reduced LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a). Mounting evidence suggests it may be a potential pharmacologic option for lowering LDL-C in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled using existing therapies. Future studies will explore alternative dosing schedules aimed at minimizing side effects.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00794664.

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<![CDATA[The Association of Growth Differentiation Factor-15 with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b9074b

Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has been identified as an endogenous anti-hypertrophy effect. However, the association of plasma GDF-15 levels with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is poorly understood. We investigate the effect of plasma GDF-15 levels on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension. We measured the plasma levels of GDF-15 in 299 untreated hypertensive patients which consisted of 99 with LVH and 200 without LVH using immunoradiometric assay. All subjects were examined by the ultrasonic cardiograph to determine Left ventricular (LV) internal diameters, septal thickness, and posterior wall thickness. The associations of GDF-15 with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), LV end-systolic and –diastolic diameters, LV wall thickness, and LV ejection fraction were evaluated. We found that plasma GDF-15 levels in hypertensive patients with LVH [median 1101, 25th–75th percentiles (879–1344) ng/L] were higher than that in hypertensive patients without LVH [median 516, 25th–75th percentiles (344–640) ng/L] (P<0.001). After adjustment for traditional covariates, plasma GDF-15 levels were independently related to LVMI (R2 = 0.53; β = 0.624, P<0.001), LV interventricular septal thickness (R2 = 0.23; β = 0.087, P<0.01) and LV posterior wall thickness (R2 = 0.26; β = 0.103, P<0.05). Our cross-sectional data on a hospital-based sample indicate that plasma GDF-15 levels are associated with LVH in hypertensive patients.

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<![CDATA[Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair Using the MitraClip® System in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb899b

Background

Patients with diabetes mellitus show a negative outcome in percutaneous coronary intervention, aortic valve replacement and cardiac surgery. The impact of diabetes on patients undergoing treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) using the MitraClip system is not known. We therefore sought to assess whether percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Methods and Results

We included 58 patients with severe and moderate-to-severe MR in an open-label observational single-center study. Ninteen patients were under oral medication or insulin therapy for type II diabetes mellitus. MitraClip devices were successfully implanted in all patients with diabetes and in 97.4% (n = 38) of patients without diabetes (p = 0.672). Periprocedural major cardiac adverse and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurred in 5.1% (n = 2) of patients without diabetes whereas patients with diabetes did not show any MACCE (p = 0.448). 30-day mortality was 1.7% (n = 1) with no case of death in the diabetes group. Short-term follow up of three months showed a significant improvement of NYHA class and quality of life evaluated by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire in both groups, with no changes in the 6-minute walk test.

Conclusions

Mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is safe and effective in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

Trial Registration

MitraClip Registry NCT02033811

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<![CDATA[Prognostic Utility of Biomarkers in Predicting of One-Year Outcomes in Patients with Aortic Stenosis Treated with Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Implantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1bab0ee8fa60b7d05e

Objectives

The aim of the work was to find biomarkers identifying patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes after TAVI and SAVR in addition to currently used predictive model (EuroSCORE).

Background

There is limited data about the role of biomarkers in predicting prognosis, especially when TAVI is available.

Methods

The multi-biomarker sub-study included 42 consecutive high-risk patients (average age 82.0 years; logistic EuroSCORE 21.0%) allocated to TAVI transfemoral and transapical using the Edwards-Sapien valve (n = 29), or SAVR with the Edwards Perimount bioprosthesis (n = 13). Standardized endpoints were prospectively followed during the 12-month follow-up.

Results

The clinical outcomes after both TAVI and SAVR were comparable. Malondialdehyde served as the best predictor of a combined endpoint at 1 year with AUC (ROC analysis) = 0.872 for TAVI group, resp. 0.765 (p<0.05) for both TAVI and SAVR groups. Increased levels of MDA, matrix metalloproteinase 2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP1), ferritin-reducing ability of plasma, homocysteine, cysteine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were all predictors of the occurrence of combined safety endpoints at 30 days (AUC 0.750–0.948; p<0.05 for all). The addition of MDA to a currently used clinical model (EuroSCORE) significantly improved prediction of a combined safety endpoint at 30 days and a combined endpoint (0–365 days) by the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (p<0.05).

Cystatin C, glutathione, cysteinylglycine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitrite/nitrate and MMP9 did not prove to be significant. Total of 14.3% died during 1-year follow-up.

Conclusion

We identified malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress, as the most promising predictor of adverse outcomes during the 30-day and 1-year follow-up in high-risk patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVI. The development of a clinical “TAVIscore” would be highly appreciated. Such dedicated scoring system would enable further testing of adjunctive value of various biomarkers.

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<![CDATA[Home-Based Aerobic Interval Training Improves Peak Oxygen Uptake Equal to Residential Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3dab0ee8fa60bd5a15

Aerobic capacity, measured as the peak oxygen uptake, is a strong predictor of survival in cardiac patients. Aerobic interval training (AIT), walking/running four times four minutes at 85–95% of peak heart rate, has proven to be effective in increasing peak oxygen uptake in coronary heart disease patients. As some patients do not attend organized rehabilitation programs, home-based exercise should be an alternative. We investigated whether AIT could be performed effectively at home, and compared the effects on peak oxygen uptake with that observed after a standard care, four-week residential rehabilitation. Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to residential rehabilitation or home-based AIT. At six months follow-up, peak oxygen uptake increased 4.6 (±2.7) and 3.9 (±3.6) mL·kg−1 min−1 (both p<0.005, non-significant between-group difference) after residential rehabilitation and AIT, respectively. Quality of life increased significantly in both groups, with no statistical significant difference between groups. We found no evidence for a different treatment effect between patients randomized to home-based AIT compared to patients attending organized rehabilitation (95% confidence interval −1.8, 3.5). AIT patients reported good adherence to exercise training. Even though these first data indicate positive effects of home-based AIT in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, more studies are needed to provide supporting evidence for the application of this rehabilitation strategy.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00363922

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<![CDATA[Association between Tissue Characteristics of Coronary Plaque and Distal Embolization after Coronary Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1fab0ee8fa60b7e230

Background and Objectives

The predictive value of plaque characteristics assessed by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) including fibrous tissue (FT), fibrofatty (FF), necrotic core (NC) and dense calcium (DC) in identifying distal embolization after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the association of pre-PCI plaque composition and post-PCI distal embolization in acute coronary syndrome patients.

Methods

Studies were identified in PubMed, OVID, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Current Controlled Trials Register, reviews, and reference lists of relevant articles. A meta-analysis using both fixed and random effects models with assessment of study heterogeneity and publication bias was performed.

Results

Of the 388 articles screened, 10 studies with a total of 872 subjects (199 with distal embolization and 673 with normal flow) met the eligibility of our study. Compared with normal flow groups, significant higher absolute volume of NC [weighted mean differences (WMD): 5.79 mm3, 95% CI: 3.02 to 8.55 mm3; p<0.001] and DC (WMD: 2.55 mm3, 95% CI: 0.22 to 4.88 mm3; p = 0.03) were found in acute coronary syndrome patients with distal embolization. Further subgroup analysis demonstrated that the predictive value of tissue characteristics in determining distal embolization was correlated to clinical scenario of the patients, definition of distal embolization, and whether the percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy was applied.

Conclusion

Our study that pooled current evidence showed that plaque components were closely related to the distal embolization after PCI, especially the absolute volume of NC and DC, supporting further studies with larger sample size and high-methodological quality.

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<![CDATA[Decreased Expression of Vitamin D Receptors in Neointimal Lesions following Coronary Artery Angioplasty in Atherosclerotic Swine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da65ab0ee8fa60b91b8c

Background

Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, play a key role in the pathogenesis of occlusive vascular diseases. Activation of vitamin D receptors (VDR) elicits both growth-inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the expression of TNF-α and VDR in post-angioplasty coronary artery neointimal lesions of hypercholesterolemic swine and examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the development of coronary restenosis. We also examined the effect of calcitriol on cell proliferation and effect of TNF-α on VDR activity and expression in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs) in-vitro.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Expression of VDR and TNF-α and the effect of vitamin D deficiency in post-angioplasty coronary arteries were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry. Cell proliferation was examined by thymidine and BrdU incorporation assays in cultured PCASMCs. Effect of TNF-α-stimulation on the activity and expression of VDR was analyzed by luciferase assay, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. In-vivo, morphometric analysis of the tissues revealed typical lesions with significant neointimal proliferation. Histological evaluation showed expression of smooth muscle α-actin and significantly increased expression of TNF-α in neointimal lesions. Interestingly, there was significantly decreased expression of VDR in PCASMCs of neointimal region compared to normal media. Indeed, post-balloon angioplasty restenosis was significantly higher in vitamin D-deficient hypercholesterolemic swine compared to vitamin D-sufficient group. In-vitro, calcitriol inhibited both serum- and PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in PCASMCs and TNF-α-stimulation significantly decreased the expression and activity of VDR in PCASMCs.

Conclusions/Significance

These data suggest that significant downregulation of VDR in proliferating smooth muscle cells in neointimal lesions could be due to atherogenic cytokines, including TNF-α. Vitamin D deficiency potentiates the development of coronary restenosis. Calcitriol has anti-proliferative properties in PCASMCs and these actions are mediated through VDR. This could be a potential mechanism for uncontrolled growth of neointimal cells in injured arteries leading to restenosis.

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<![CDATA[Changes in Clinical Profile, Treatment, and Mortality in Patients Hospitalised for Acute Myocardial Infarction between 1985 and 2008]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5fab0ee8fa60b90acc

Objectives

To quantify the impact of the implementation of treatment modalities into clinical practice since 1985, on outcome of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

Methods

All consecutive patients admitted for STEMI or NSTEMI at the Thoraxcenter between 1985 and 2008 were included. Baseline characteristics, pharmacological and invasive treatment modalities, and survival status were collected. The study population was categorised in three groups of patients: those hospitalised between 1985–1990, 1990–2000, and 2000–2008.

Results

We identified 14,434 patients hospitalised for myocardial infarction (MI). Both STEMI and NSTEMI patients were increasingly treated with the current guideline based therapy. In STEMI, at 30 days following admission, cumulative mortality rate decreased from 17% in 1985–1990 to 13% in 1990–2000, and to 6% in 2000–2008. Adjusted 30-day and three-year mortality in the last period was 80% and 68% lower than in 1985, respectively. In NSTEMI, at 30 days following admission, cumulative mortality rate decreased from 6% in 1985–1990 to 4% in 1990–2000, and to 2% in 2000–2008. Adjusted 30-day and three-year mortality in the last period was 78% and 49% lower than in 1985, respectively. For patients admitted between 2000 and 2008, 3 year survival of STEMI and NSTEMI patients was 87% and 88%, respectively.

Conclusions

Our results indicate substantial improvements in acute- and long-term survival in patients hospitalised for MI, related to improved acute- as well as long-term treatment. Early medical evaluation in suspected MI and intensive early hospital treatment both remain warranted in the future.

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<![CDATA[Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk Factors among Rheumatic Heart Disease Patients in Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db38ab0ee8fa60bd3e05

Background

Although low socioeconomic status, and environmental factors are known risk factors for rheumatic heart disease in other societies, risk factors for rheumatic heart disease remain less well described in Uganda.

Aims and Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate the role of socio-economic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease in Ugandan patients.

Methods

This was a case control study in which rheumatic heart disease cases and normal controls aged 5–60 years were recruited and investigated for socioeconomic and environmental risk factors such as income status, employment status, distance from the nearest health centre, number of people per house and space area per person.

Results

486 participants (243 cases and 243 controls) took part in the study. Average age was 32.37+/−14.6 years for cases and 35.75+/−12.6 years for controls. At univariate level, Cases tended to be more overcrowded than controls; 8.0+/−3.0 versus 6.0+/−3.0 persons per house. Controls were better spaced at 25.2 square feet versus 16.9 for cases. More controls than cases were employed; 45.3% versus 21.1%. Controls lived closer to health centers than the cases; 4.8+/−3.8 versus 3.3+/−12.9 kilometers. At multivariate level, the odds of rheumatic heart disease was 1.7 times higher for unemployment status (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.05–8.19) and 1.3 times higher for overcrowding (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.1–1.56). There was interaction between overcrowding and longer distance from the nearest health centre (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05–1.42).

Conclusion

The major findings of this study were that there was a trend towards increased risk of rheumatic heart disease in association with overcrowding and unemployment. There was interaction between overcrowding and distance from the nearest health center, suggesting that the effect of overcrowding on the risk of acquiring rheumatic heart disease increases with every kilometer increase from the nearest health center.

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<![CDATA[Use of a Heart Team in Decision-Making for Patients with Complex Coronary Disease at Hospitals in Michigan Prior to Guideline Endorsement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da42ab0ee8fa60b8a6c8

Background

Revascularization decisions can profoundly impact patient survival, quality of life, and procedural risk. Although use of Heart Teams to make revascularization decisions is growing, data on their implementation in the real-world are limited. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of Heart Teams and their association with collaboration in routine practice.

Methods

A survey of cardiologists and cardiac surgeons at 31 hospitals in Michigan was performed in May, 2011 – prior to the recommendation for using Heart Teams in national guidelines. This survey included all percutaneous coronary intervention-performing hospitals in Michigan participating in the Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium and Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons Quality Collaborative. It targeted both the use of Heart Teams and multidisciplinary Case Conferences.

Results

There were 53 physician survey respondents from 27 hospitals with 4 hospitals not responding. Among respondents, 11 (40.7%) hospitals reported no Heart Teams or Case Conferences while 7 (25.9%) hospitals reported either a Heart Team or Case Conference. However, there was disagreement about the presence of a Heart Team at seven hospitals, and about Case Conferences at nine hospitals. Hospitals with definite Heart Teams reported significantly greater levels of collaboration between cardiologists and cardiac surgeons.

Conclusion

The overall presence of Heart Teams prior to their recommendation in national guidelines was limited. Even among hospitals with a potential Heart Team, there was substantial disagreement between respondents about their presence. Further refinement of the definition of a Heart Team and measures of successful implementation are needed.

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