ResearchPad - invited-reviews https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Macrophage subsets in atherosclerosis as defined by single‐cell technologies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8260 Macrophages play a major role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Many studies have shone light on the different phenotypes and functions that macrophages can acquire upon exposure to local cues. The microenvironment of the atherosclerotic plaque contains a plethora of macrophage‐controlling factors, such as cytokines, oxidised low‐density lipoproteins and cell debris. Previous research has determined macrophage function within the plaque mainly by using immunohistochemistry and bulk analysis. The recent development and rapid progress of single‐cell technologies, such as cytometry by time of flight and single‐cell RNA sequencing, now enable comprehensive mapping of the wide range of cell types and their phenotypes present in atherosclerotic plaques. In this review we discuss recent advances applying these technologies in defining macrophage subsets residing in the atherosclerotic arterial wall of mice and men. Resulting from these studies, we describe three main macrophage subsets: resident‐like, pro‐inflammatory and anti‐inflammatory foamy TREM2hi macrophages, which are found in both mouse and human atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, we discuss macrophage subset‐specific markers and functions. More insights into the characteristics and phenotype of immune cells within the atherosclerotic plaque may guide future clinical approaches to treat disease. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[Mesenchymal stromal cells in cancer: a review of their immunomodulatory functions and dual effects on tumor progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7047 Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are pluripotent cells implicated in a broad range of physiological events, including organogenesis and maintenance of tissue homeostasis as well as tissue regeneration and repair. Because their current definition is somewhat loose – based primarily on their ability to differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal tissues, adhere to plastic, and express, or lack, a handful of cell surface markers – MSCs likely encompass several subpopulations, which may have diverse properties. Their diversity may explain, at least in part, the pleiotropic functions that they display in different physiological and pathological settings. In the context of tissue injury, MSCs can respectively promote and attenuate inflammation during the early and late phases of tissue repair. They may thereby act as sensors of the inflammatory response and secrete mediators that boost or temper the response as required by the stage of the reparatory and regenerative process. MSCs are also implicated in regulating tumor development, in which they are increasingly recognized to play a complex role. Thus, MSCs can both promote and constrain tumor progression by directly affecting tumor cells via secreted mediators and cell–cell interactions and by modulating the innate and adaptive immune response. This review summarizes our current understanding of MSC involvement in tumor development and highlights the mechanistic underpinnings of their implication in tumor growth and progression. © 2020 Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[Radiation‐induced tissue damage and response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6903 Normal tissue responses to ionizing radiation have been a major subject for study since the discovery of X‐rays at the end of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, time–dose relationships were established for some normal tissue endpoints that led to investigations into how the size of dose per fraction and the quality of radiation affected outcome. The assessment of the radiosensitivity of bone marrow stem cells using colony‐forming assays by Till and McCulloch prompted the establishment of in situ clonogenic assays for other tissues that added to the radiobiology toolbox. These clonogenic and functional endpoints enabled mathematical modeling to be performed that elucidated how tissue structure, and in particular turnover time, impacted clinically relevant fractionated radiation schedules. More recently, lineage tracing technology, advanced imaging and single cell sequencing have shed further light on the behavior of cells within stem, and other, cellular compartments, both in homeostasis and after radiation damage. The discovery of heterogeneity within the stem cell compartment and plasticity in response to injury have added new dimensions to the consideration of radiation‐induced tissue damage. Clinically, radiobiology of the 20th century garnered wisdom relevant to photon treatments delivered to a fairly wide field at around 2 Gy per fraction, 5 days per week, for 5–7 weeks. Recently, the scope of radiobiology has been extended by advances in technology, imaging and computing, as well as by the use of charged particles. These allow radiation to be delivered more precisely to tumors while minimizing the amount of normal tissue receiving high doses. One result has been an increase in the use of schedules with higher doses per fraction given in a shorter time frame (hypofractionation). We are unable to cover these new technologies in detail in this review, just as we must omit low‐dose stochastic effects, and many aspects of dose, dose rate and radiation quality. We argue that structural diversity and plasticity within tissue compartments provides a general context for discussion of most radiation responses, while acknowledging many omissions. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[Recent advances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis: from disease mechanisms to precision medicine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6815 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating lung disease with a high personal and societal burden. Exposure to toxic particles and gases, including cigarette smoke, is the main risk factor for COPD. Together with smoking cessation, current treatment strategies of COPD aim to improve symptoms and prevent exacerbations, but there is no disease‐modifying treatment. The biggest drawback of today's COPD treatment regimen is the ‘one size fits all’ pharmacological intervention, mainly based on disease severity and symptoms and not the individual's disease pathology. To halt the worrying increase in the burden of COPD, disease management needs to be advanced with a focus on personalized treatment. The main pathological feature of COPD includes a chronic and abnormal inflammatory response within the lungs, which results in airway and alveolar changes in the lung as reflected by (small) airways disease and emphysema. Here we discuss recent developments related to the abnormal inflammatory response, ECM and age‐related changes, structural changes in the small airways and the role of sex‐related differences, which are all relevant to explain the individual differences in the disease pathology of COPD and improve disease endotyping. Furthermore, we will discuss the most recent developments of new treatment strategies using biologicals to target specific pathological features or disease endotypes of COPD. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[The stressful tumour environment drives plasticity of cell migration programmes, contributing to metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6764 Tumours evolve to cope with environmental stresses or challenges such as nutrient starvation, depletion of survival factors, and unbalanced mechanical forces. The uncontrolled growth and aberrant deregulation of core cell homeostatic pathways induced by genetic mutations create an environment of stress. Here, we explore how the adaptations of tumours to the changing environment can drive changes in the motility machinery of cells, affecting migration, invasion, and metastasis. Tumour cells can invade individually or collectively, or they can be extruded out of the surrounding epithelium. These mechanisms are thought to be modifications of normal processes occurring during development or tissue repair. Therefore, tumours may activate these pathways in response to environmental stresses, enabling them to survive in hostile environments and spread to distant sites. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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<![CDATA[Pathogenesis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbb9b8530-7cb3-4b44-92a6-3bb40347f310

Abstract

Human coronaviruses (CoVs) mostly cause a common cold that is mild and self‐limiting. Zoonotic transmission of CoVs such as the recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)‐CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)‐CoV, on the other hand, may be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection. This article reviews the clinical and pathological data available on MERS and compares it to SARS. Most importantly, chest radiographs and imaging results of patients with MERS show features that resemble the findings of organizing pneumonia, different from the lesions in SARS patients, which show fibrocellular intra‐alveolar organization with a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia‐like pattern. These findings are in line with differences in the induction of cytopathological changes, induction of host gene responses and sensitivity to the antiviral effect of interferons in vitro when comparing both MERS‐CoV and SARS‐CoV. The challenge will be to translate these findings into an integrated picture of MERS pathogenesis in humans and to develop intervention strategies that will eventually allow the effective control of this newly emerging infectious disease. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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<![CDATA[Viral Pneumonia in Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1457f7f8-9c86-4e91-be35-a074e19a2338

Abstract

Viruses account for a substantial portion of respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, in the elderly population. Presently, influenza virus A H3N2 and respiratory syncytial virus are the most commonly identified viral pathogens in older adults with viral pneumonia. As diagnostic tests such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction become more widely used, the relative importance of additional viruses (such as parainfluenza, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and human metapneumovirus) will likely increase. Influenza virus should be considered as a cause of pneumonia during the winter months, especially during periods of peak activity. Patients with high-grade fever, myalgias, and cough should arouse the highest suspicion. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia should also be suspected during the winter in patients with coryza, wheezing, low-grade fever, and patchy infiltrates, especially if negative for influenza on rapid testing. Because clinical features and periods of activity for many viruses overlap, laboratory confirmation of influenza is recommended for cases involving seriously ill or institutionalized patients.

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<![CDATA[Rare Benign Tumors of the Liver: Still Rare?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na772a298-6790-4a4a-a61c-d7c4410d404f

Background

Benign liver tumors are common. They do not spread to other areas of the body, and they usually do not pose a serious health risk. In fact, in most cases, benign liver tumors are not diagnosed because patients are asymptomatic. When they are detected, it’s usually because the person has had medical imaging tests, such as an ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for another condition.

Materials and methods

A search of the literature was made using cancer literature and the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS) database for the following keywords: “hepatic benign tumors”, “hepatic cystic tumors”, “polycystic liver disease”, “liver macroregenerative nodules”, “hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma”, “hepatic angiomyolipoma”, “biliary cystadenoma”, and “nodular regenerative hyperplasia”.

Discussion and conclusion

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in some areas of the world; there is an increasing incidence worldwide. Approximately 750,000 new cases are reported per year. More than 75 % of cases occur in the Asia-Pacific region, largely in association with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The incidence of HCC is increasing in the USA and Europe because of the increased incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Unlike the liver HCC, benign tumors are less frequent. However, they represent a chapter always more interesting of liver disease. In fact, a careful differential diagnosis with the forms of malignant tumor is often required in such a way so as to direct the patient to the correct therapy. In conclusion, many of these tumors present with typical features in various imaging studies. On occasions, biopsies are required, and/or surgical removal is needed. In the majority of cases of benign hepatic tumors, no treatment is indicated. The main indication for treatment is the presence of significant clinical symptoms or suspicion of malignancy or fear of malignant transformation.

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<![CDATA[Developmental onset of cardiovascular disease—Could the proof be in the placenta?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndc81191d-fd35-4ef7-a40d-364ec6911a62

Abstract

The Barker Hypothesis states change to the maternal environment may have significant impacts on fetal development, setting the stage for adult disease to occur. The development of the maternofetal vasculature during implantation and maintenance during pregnancy is extremely precise, yet dynamic. Delays or dysfunction in the orchestration of anatomical remodeling, maintenance of blood pressure, or responsiveness to metabolic demand may have severe consequences to the developing fetus. While these intermissions may not be fatal to the developing fetus, an interruption, reduction, or an inability to meet fetal demand of blood flow during crucial stages of development may predispose young to disease later in life. Maternal inability to meet fetal demand can be attributed to improper placental development and vascular support through morphological change or physiological function will significantly limit nutrient delivery and waste exchange to the developing fetus. Therefore, we present an overview of the uteroplacental vascular network, maternal cardiovascular adaptations that occur during pregnancy, placental blood flow, and common maternal comorbidities and/or exposures that may perturb maternal homeostasis and affect fetal development. Overall, we examine uterine microvasculature pathophysiology contributing to a hostile gestational environment and fetal predisposition to disease as it relates to the Barker Hypothesis.

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<![CDATA[Seminal exosomes and HIV-1 transmission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8bf880d5eed0c484b1f8f1

Abstract

Exosomes are endosomal‐derived membrane‐confined nanovesicles secreted by many (if not all) cell types and isolated from every human bodily fluid examined up to now including plasma, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk. Exosomes are thought to represent a new player in cell‐to‐cell communication pathways and immune regulation, and be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Susceptibility to HIV‐1 infection can be impacted by exosomes, while HIV‐1 pathogenesis can alter exosomal function and composition. Exosomes isolated from semen and vaginal fluid of healthy individuals can inhibit HIV‐1 infection and/or potently block viral transfer in vitro. However, the role of exosomes in HIV‐1 transmission and progression is not fully understood yet and some studies show conflicting results, mainly for exosomes isolated from plasma and breast milk. Determining the composition of exosomes from infected donors and studying their interaction with HIV‐1 in vitro compared to exosomes isolated from uninfected donors will provide insights into the role exosomes play in HIV‐1 transmission during sexual intercourse and breastfeeding.

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<![CDATA[The genetics of circadian rhythms, sleep and health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c07a120d5eed0c484dff5e0

Abstract

Circadian rhythms are 24-h rhythms in physiology and behaviour generated by molecular clocks, which serve to coordinate internal time with the external world. The circadian system is a master regulator of nearly all physiology and its disruption has major consequences on health. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is a ubiquitous feature in today’s 24/7 society, and studies on shift-workers have shown that SCRD can lead not only to cognitive impairment, but also metabolic syndrome and psychiatric illness including depression (1,2). Mouse models of clock mutants recapitulate these deficits, implicating mechanistic and causal links between SCRD and disease pathophysiology (3–5). Importantly, treating clock disruption reverses and attenuates these adverse health states in animal models (6,7), thus establishing the circadian system as a novel therapeutic target. Significantly, circadian and clock-controlled gene mutations have recently been identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in the aetiology of sleep, mental health and metabolic disorders. This review will focus upon the genetics of circadian rhythms in sleep and health.

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<![CDATA[Molecular pathology of emerging coronavirus infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ba9a78040307c57a8f7b3dc

Abstract

Respiratory viruses can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary diseases, ranging from mild, upper respiratory tract infections to severe and life‐threatening lower respiratory tract infections, including the development of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Viral clearance and subsequent recovery from infection require activation of an effective host immune response; however, many immune effector cells may also cause injury to host tissues. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus cause severe infection of the lower respiratory tract, with 10% and 35% overall mortality rates, respectively; however, >50% mortality rates are seen in the aged and immunosuppressed populations. While these viruses are susceptible to interferon treatment in vitro, they both encode numerous genes that allow for successful evasion of the host immune system until after high virus titres have been achieved. In this review, we discuss the importance of the innate immune response and the development of lung pathology following human coronavirus infection. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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