ResearchPad - iodine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Iodine nutritional status of pregnant women in an urban area of northern Taiwan in 2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14723 Pregnant women are considered as one of the most vulnerable groups for iodine deficiency. The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2013 revealed that the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of non-pregnant women of child-bearing age of 15–44 years was 124 μg/L, which was adequate in general, but insufficient according to pregnancy criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the iodine nutritional status of pregnant women in an urban area of Northern Taiwan. A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Random spot urine samples were collected from January to October, 2018 and UIC was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A food frequency questionnaire was also delivered to the participants. The overall median UIC was 225.3 μg/L (IQR: 109.1–514.2 μg/L) for 257 pregnant women ranging from 21–47 years-old. The distribution of UIC was as follows: 35.4% with UIC <150 μg/L, 17.1% with UIC within 150–249 μg/L, 21.8% with UIC within 250–499 μg/L, and 25.7% with UIC ≥500 μg/L. The use of prenatal multivitamin was very common among the participants: 79.4% (n = 204) took multivitamin either every day or less frequently, with 52.5% (n = 135) taking one pill every day, and only 20.6% (n = 53) never took multivitamin during their pregnancy. Other commonly consumed iodine-containing foods were dairy products and fish. Our results indicate that the iodine status in the studied women is adequate. However, efforts are still needed to avoid iodine deficiency as well as iodine excess.

]]>
<![CDATA[Early budget impact analysis on magnetic seed localization for non-palpable breast cancer surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13866 Current localization techniques used in breast conserving surgery for non-palpable tumors show several disadvantages. Magnetic Seed Localization (MSL) is an innovative localization technique aiming to overcome these disadvantages. This study evaluated the expected budget impact of adopting MSL compared to standard of care.MethodsStandard of care with Wire-Guided Localization (WGL) and Radioactive Seed Localization (RSL) use was compared with a future situation gradually adopting MSL next to RSL or WGL from a Dutch national perspective over 5 years (2017–2022). The intervention costs for WGL, RSL and MSL and the implementation costs for RSL and MSL were evaluated using activity-based costing in eight Dutch hospitals. Based on available list prices the price of the magnetic seed was ranged €100-€500.ResultsThe intervention costs for WGL, RSL and MSL were respectively: €2,617, €2,834 and €2,662 per patient and implementation costs were €2,974 and €26,826 for MSL and RSL respectively. For standard of care the budget impact increased from €14.7m to €16.9m. Inclusion of MSL with a seed price of €100 showed a budget impact of €16.7m. Above a price of €178 the budget impact increased for adoption of MSL, rising to €17.6m when priced at €500.ConclusionMSL could be a cost-efficient localization technique in resecting non-palpable tumors in the Netherlands. The online calculation model can inform adoption decisions internationally. When determining retail price of the magnetic seed, cost-effectiveness should be considered. ]]> <![CDATA[Dual role of iodine, silver, chlorhexidine and octenidine as antimicrobial and antiprotease agents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2e7d5eed0c48441ece4

Objectives

The majority of human chronic wounds contain bacterial biofilms, which produce proteases and retard the resolution of inflammation. This in turn leads to elevated patient protease activity. Chronic wounds progressing towards closure show a reduction in proteolytic degradation. Therefore, the modulation of protease activity may lead to the faster healing of chronic wounds. Antimicrobials are used to control biofilm-based infection; however, some of them also exhibit the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and bacterial proteases. We investigated the antimicrobial agents used in wound healing for their potential to inhibit bacterial and host proteases relevant to chronic wounds.

Methods

Using in vitro zymography, we tested the ability of povidone-iodine, silver lactate, chlorhexidine digluconate, and octenidine hydrochloride to inhibit selected human proteases and proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, and Serratia liquefaciens. We investigated penetration and skin protease inhibition by means of in situ zymography.

Results

All the tested antimicrobials inhibited both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteases in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The tested compounds were also able to penetrate into skin ex vivo and inhibit the resident proteases. Silver lactate and chlorhexidine digluconate showed an inhibitory effect ex vivo even in partial contact with skin in Franz diffusion cells.

Conclusions

Our in vitro and ex vivo results suggest that wound healing devices which contain iodine, silver, chlorhexidine, and octenidine may add value to the antibacterial effect and also aid in chronic wound healing. Antiprotease effects should be considered in the design of future antimicrobial wound healing devices.

]]>
<![CDATA[Accuracy of Calcium Scoring calculated from contrast-enhanced Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography using a dual-layer spectral CT: A comparison of Calcium Scoring from real and virtual non-contrast data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf78d5eed0c4849146bb

Purpose

Modern non-invasive evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) requires non-contrast low dose Computed Tomography (CT) imaging for determination of Calcium Scoring (CACS) and contrast-enhanced imaging for evaluation of vascular stenosis. Several methods for calculation of CACS from contrast-enhanced images have been proposed before. The main principle for that is generation of virtual non-contrast images by iodine subtraction from a contrast-enhanced spectral CT dataset. However, those techniques have some limitations: Dual-Source CT imaging can lead to increased radiation exposure, and switching of the tube voltage (rapid kVp switching) can be associated with slower rotation speed of the gantry and is thus prone to motion artefacts that are especially critical in cardiac imaging. Both techniques cannot simultaneously acquire spectral data. A novel technique to overcome these difficulties is spectral imaging with a dual-layer detector. After absorption of the lower energetic photons in the first layer, the second layer detects a hardened spectrum of the emitted radiation resulting in registration of two different energy spectra at the same time. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of virtual non-contrast CACS computed from spectral data in comparison to standard non-contrast imaging.

Methods

We consecutively investigated 20 patients referred to Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) with suspicion of CAD using a Dual-Layer spectral CT system (IQon; Philips Healthcare, The Netherlands). CACS was calculated from both, real- and virtual non-contrast images by certified software for medical use. Correlation analyses for real- and virtual non-contrast images and agreement evaluation with Bland-Altman-Plots were performed.

Results

Mean patient age was 57.7 ± 14 years (n = 20). 13 patients (65%) were male. Inter-quartile-range of clinical CACS was 0–448, the mean was 334. Correlation of CACS from real- and virtual non-contrast images was very high (0.94); p < 0.0001. The slope was 2.3 indicating that values from virtual non-contrast images are approximately half of the results obtained from real non-contrast data. Visual analysis of Bland-Altman-Plot shows good accordance of both methods when results from virtual non-contrast data are multiplied by the slope of the logistic regression model (2.3). The acquired power of this results is 0.99.

Conclusion

Determination of Calcium Score from contrast enhanced CCTA using spectral imaging with a dual-layer detector is feasible and shows good agreement with the conventional technique when a proportionality factor is applied. The observed difference between both methods is due to an underestimation of plaque volume, and—to an even greater extend -an underestimation of plaque density with the virtual non-contrast approach. Our data suggest that radiation exposure can be reduced through omitting additional native scans for patients referred to CCTA when using a dual-layer spectral system without the usual limitations of dual energy analysis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Iodine status of children and knowledge, attitude, practice of iodised salt use in a remote community in Kerema district, Gulf province, Papua New Guinea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841dcd5eed0c484fcaf4d

Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental impairment in communities with suboptimal iodine intake. Objective of the present study was to assess in more detail the iodine status and knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) relating to use of iodised salt in a remote community in Kotidanga area, Kerema district, Gulf province, Papua New Guinea. This prospective school and community based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2017. Simple random sampling was used to select schools. Multistage sampling was used to randomly select 300 children aged 6 to 12 years, of which 289 consented to participate in the study. A single urine sample was collected from each of the consenting children, as well as a salt sample from their households. Discretionary salt intake was assessed in a sub-sample of the children’s households. Salt iodine content and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were analysed. A semi-structured modified Food and Agriculture Organisation questionnaire was used to assess KAP of three different community groups. Only 64% of households had salt on the day of data collection. Mean iodine content in household salt samples was 29.0 ± 19.1 ppm. Iodine content was below 30.0 ppm in 54.8% and below 15.0 ppm in 31.2% of salt samples. Mean per capita discretionary intake of household salt was 2.9 ± 1.8 g/day. Median UIC was 25.5 μg/L and Interquartile Range was 15.0 to 47.5 μg/L, indicating moderate status iodine nutrition. Median UIC was 34.3 μg/L for children in households with salt, compared to 15.5 μg/L for children in households without salt, indicating severe iodine deficiency in the latter group. The three community groups had limited knowledge about importance of using iodised salt and consequences of iodine deficiency on health outcomes. This remote community has limited access to adequately iodised household salt due to high cost, inappropriate packaging, storage and food preparation, resulting in iodine deficiency. Strategies to increase iodine intake are needed.

]]>
<![CDATA[Polyvinyl alcohol-iodine induced corneal epithelial injury in vivo and its protection by topical rebamipide treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2400dcd5eed0c484099742

Periocular povidone-iodine (PI) and polyvinyl alcohol-iodine (PAI) have had a major role in the prevention of endophthalmitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal epithelial toxicity of PAI in a rabbit eye model using corneal resistance (CR) measurement, which is a good indicator of cell barrier function. Rabbit eyes were administered PAI solution at 4-, 6-, 8-, or 16-fold dilution with physiological saline solution (saline) or saline alone (control), to the conjunctival sac with/without wash-out with saline. Corneal epithelial injury assessed by fluorescein staining and the CR ratio was measured at 10 minutes (min) to 96 hours (h) after the initial administration. Histological observation was performed in the eyes following the PAI or control administrations. At 120 min after administration of PAI solution, the CR ratio was decreased and superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) was significantly increased in each of the PAI-administered groups compared to the control. Recovery of CR and SPK after administration of 6- or 8-fold dilution of PAI was significantly delayed in eyes that were not subsequently washed with saline compared with eyes that were. Pre- or post-instillation of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension significantly reduced PAI induced-SPK and -decrease of CR ratio. The CR method was able to accurately and quantitatively evaluate fine corneal epithelial injury. It is suggested that eyes should be washed with saline solution after administration of PAI solution or the instillation of rebamipide to prevent or reduce corneal epithelial injury.

]]>
<![CDATA[Enhancement of IUdR Radiosensitization by Low-Energy Photons Results from Increased and Persistent DNA Damage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e0ab0ee8fa60b69623

Low-energy X-rays induce Auger cascades by photoelectric absorption in iodine present in the DNA of cells labeled with 5-iodo-2’-deoxyuridine (IUdR). This photoactivation therapy results in enhanced cellular sensitivity to radiation which reaches its maximum with 50 keV photons. Synchrotron core facilities are the only way to generate such monochromatic beams. However, these structures are not adapted for the routine treatment of patients. In this study, we generated two beams emitting photon energy means of 42 and 50 keV respectively, from a conventional 225 kV X-ray source. Viability assays performed after pre-exposure to 10 μM of IUdR for 48h suggest that complex lethal damage is generated after low energy photons irradiation compared to 137Cs irradiation (662KeV). To further decipher the molecular mechanisms leading to IUdR-mediated radiosensitization, we analyzed the content of DNA damage-induced foci in two glioblastoma cell lines and showed that the decrease in survival under these conditions was correlated with an increase in the content of DNA damage-induced foci in cell lines. Moreover, the follow-up of repair kinetics of the induced double-strand breaks showed the maximum delay in cells labeled with IUdR and exposed to X-ray irradiation. Thus, there appears to be a direct relationship between the reduction of radiation survival parameters and the production of DNA damage with impaired repair of these breaks. These results further support the clinical potential use of a halogenated pyrimidine analog combined with low-energy X-ray therapy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9edab0ee8fa60b6d3f7

The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150–180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately predicted for most data. For moderate iodide deficient conditions, where dietary iodide intake may range from 50 to 150 μg/d for the lactating mother, the model satisfactorily described the iodide measurements, although with some variation, in urine and breast milk. Predictions of serum thyroid hormones in moderately iodide deficient lactating women (50 μg/d) and nursing infants did not closely agree with mean reported serum thyroid hormone levels, however, predictions were usually within a factor of two. Excellent agreement between prediction and observation was obtained for a recent moderate iodide deficiency study in lactating women. Measurements included iodide levels in urine of infant and mother, iodide in breast milk, and serum thyroid hormone levels in infant and mother. A maternal iodide intake of 50 μg/d resulted in a predicted 29–32% reduction in serum T4 and fT4 in nursing infants, however the reduced serum levels of T4 and fT4 were within most of the published reference intervals for infant. This biologically based model is an important first step at integrating the rapid changes that occur in the thyroid system of the nursing newborn in order to predict adverse outcomes from exposure to thyroid acting chemicals, drugs, radioactive materials or iodine deficiency.

]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of fortified biscuits on micronutrient deficiencies among primary school children in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1b5

Background

Micronutrient deficiencies can compromise the development potential of school-aged children, and their later health and productivity as adults. School feeding and school-based fortification approaches have been utilized globally to redress nutritional deficiencies in this age group.

Objective

We explored the acceptability and micronutrient impact of a Bangladesh Government supported school-based micronutrient fortification program for children attending rural primary schools in 10 disadvantaged sub-districts.

Methods

We applied a mixed methods approach. The quantitative component assessed the impact of micronutrient fortification on 351 children aged 6–11 years using a cohort pre-post research design with a control group. The qualitative component explored the acceptability of the intervention using focus group discussions, body mapping and semi-structured interviews with teachers, school-going children and school authorities.

Results

Daily consumption of fortified biscuits by primary school children had a significant positive impact on mean levels of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, retinol and vitamin D controlling for sex, baseline deficiency status, CRP, and H. pylori. Levels of anemia and vitamin D deficiency were also significantly reduced. Qualitative findings indicated the widespread acceptability of the daily biscuit. Teachers perceived students to be more attentive in class, less tired, and some attributed better school performance to biscuit consumption. Children reported similar improvements in concentration and energy levels.

Conclusions

This study is among the first in Bangladesh to comprehensively assess a school-based fortification program in terms of its acceptability and impact on micronutrient status of children aged 6–11 years of age. While results strongly support this modality of school feeding, research on the cognitive impacts of micronutrient fortified biscuits will help clarify the case for scaled-up investments in school- based feeding program in Bangladesh and other low and middle income countries.

]]>
<![CDATA[Relationship between low tube voltage (70 kV) and the iodine delivery rate (IDR) in CT angiography: An experimental in-vivo study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf16

Objective

Very short acquisition times and the use of low-kV protocols in CTA demand modifications in the contrast media (CM) injection regimen. The aim of this study was to optimize the use of CM delivery parameters in thoraco-abdominal CTA in a porcine model.

Materials and methods

Six pigs (55–68 kg) were examined with a dynamic CTA protocol (454 mm scan length, 2.5 s temporal resolution, 70 s total acquisition time). Four CM injection protocols were applied in a randomized order. 120 kV CTA protocol: (A) 300 mg iodine/kg bodyweight (bw), IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s), injection time (ti) 12 s (60 kg bw). 70 kV CTA protocols: 150 mg iodine/kg bw: (B) IDR = 0.75 g/s (flow = 2.5 mL/s), ti = 12 s (60 kg bw); (C) IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s), ti = 12 s (60 kg bw); (D) IDR = 3.0 g/s (flow = 10 mL/s), ti = 3 s (60 kg bw). The complete CM bolus shape was monitored by creating time attenuation curves (TAC) in different vascular territories. Based on the TAC, the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement were determined. The diagnostic window (relative enhancement > 300 HU), was calculated and compared to visual inspection of the corresponding CTA data sets.

Results

The average relative arterial peak enhancements after baseline correction were 358.6 HU (A), 356.6 HU (B), 464.0 HU (C), and 477.6 HU (D). The TTP decreased with increasing IDR and decreasing ti, protocols A and B did not differ significantly (systemic arteries, p = 0.843; pulmonary arteries, p = 0.183). The delay time for bolus tracking (trigger level 100 HU; target enhancement 300 HU) for single-phase CTA was comparable for protocol A and B (3.9, 4.3 s) and C and D (2.4, 2.0 s). The scan window time frame was comparable for the different protocols by visual inspection of the different CTA data sets and by analyzing the TAC.

Conclusions

All protocols provided sufficient arterial enhancement. The use of a 70 kV CTA protocol is recommended because of a 50% reduction of total CM volume and a 50% reduced flow rate while maintaining the bolus profile. In contrast to pulmonary arterial enhancement, the systemic arterial enhancement improved only slightly increasing the IDR from 1.5 g/s to 3 g/s because of bolus dispersion of the very short bolus (3s) in the lungs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) could be a promising biomarker for predicting goiter among school-age children: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf60

Objectives

To evaluate whether urinary iodine concentration (UIC) can predict goiter among school-age children, and to assess the association between UIC and goiter prevalence.

Methods

We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang databases for relevant reports in both English and Chinese up to August 25, 2016. The mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the UIC and goiter prevalence assessments. Pooled odds ratios and 95% CIs were used to compare the prevalences of goiter in the different UIC groups.

Results

We identified 11 case-control studies, and found that children with goiter had lower UIC values, compared to children without goiter (MD: –1.82, 95% CI: –3.24, –0.40, p < 0.05). An increased risk of goiter was associated with UIC values of < 20 μg/L or > 200 μg/L.

Conclusion

The results of our meta-analysis suggest that lower UIC values were associated with an increased risk of goiter, and that iodine deficiency may lead to an increased risk of goiter. Furthermore, we observed U-shaped relationships between UIC and the prevalence of goiter, which suggests that both severe iodine deficiency and excessive iodine intake may lead to increased risks of goiter.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd4c

Background

Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported.

Method

We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081).

Results

50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27) and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62) in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies.

Conclusion

Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Prevalence, Incidence and Natural Course of Positive Antithyroperoxidase Antibodies in a Population-Based Study: Tehran Thyroid Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d4ab0ee8fa60b6569d

Objective

Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), the most common antibody frequently measured in population surveys is a protein expressed in the thyroid gland. We conducted the present study to analyze the prevalence and incidence of thyroid auto immunity and natural course of TPOAb in a population based study.

Material and Methods

This prospective study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Thyroid Study (TTS) on 5783 (2376 men and 3407 women) individuals aged ≥ 20 years who had thyroid function tests at baseline and were followed up for median 9.1 year with TPOAb measurements at approximately every 3 years.

Results

The mean age of total population at baseline was 40.04±14.32. At baseline, of the 5783 participants, 742 (12.8%) were TPOAb positive, with higher prevalence among women than in men (16.0 vs. 8.5%, p = 0.001). The prevalence of TPOAb positivity in the total population was 11.9, 14.9 and 13.6% in the young, middle age and elderly respectively. The total incidence rate (95%CI) of TPOAb positivity in the total population (5020) was 7.1 (6.36–7.98) per 1000 person-years of follow-up, with higher incidence of TPOAb positivity among young participants, i.e. 8.5 (7.5–9.7) per 1000 person-years. Sex specific incidence rate demonstrated that TPOAb positivity was higher in women, 9.3 (8.2–10.7) per 1000 person-years. The Cox's proportional hazard model analysis showed that the hazard ratio of developing TPOAb positivity was higher in women than men (P<0.0001) and tended to increase slightly with serum TSH levels (P<0.0001) but declined with increasing age (P<0.0001) in the total population. Our findings demonstrate that individuals, who became TPOAb positive in each phase, had significant elevation of TSH levels at the phase of seroconversion, compared to baseline values.

Conclusion

Gender, age and elevated serum TSH were found to be risk factors for developing TPOAb positivity. Furthermore, compared to baseline a significant elevation of TSH levels during seroconversion phase was observed in TPOAb positive individuals.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pilot Study of a Web-based Decision Tool on Post-operative Use of Radioactive Iodine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfc775bd5eed0c484f29ae6

Background: The Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative developed a web-based clinical decision-making module (CDMM) to inform risk-adjusted decisions on post-thyroidectomy radioactive iodine (RAI) use in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Methods: In a pilot study, we evaluated the CDMM in 19 PTC cases representing low- (five), intermediate- (seven) and high-risk (seven) disease. Two PTC experts and 10 PTC physicians reviewed cases and assigned risk level and RAI recommendation. The experts used a standard approach while the others used the CDMM. We assessed agreement between responses using a weighted Kappa. Results: Between experts, risk-assignment was concordant in 100%, 57% and 86% of low-, intermediate- and high-risk cases, respectively. Between CDMM users, risk-assignment was concordant in 100%, 29% and 14% in low-, intermediate- and high-risk cases, respectively (p=0.01). CDMM-assigned risk agreed with the expert-assigned risk in 100%, 25% and 0% of low-, intermediate- and high-risk cases, respectively (Kappa=0.69). For RAI use, the experts agreed in 15 cases while CDMM users agreed in eight. On further analysis, interpretation of extrathyroidal extension and lymph node staging led to discrepancies with the CDMM. Conclusions: For a web-based CDMM to accurately inform appropriate use of RAI in PTC, standard pathological and surgical reports are necessary.

]]>
<![CDATA[Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4eab0ee8fa60bdb1cd

Background

Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies.

Objective

To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians.

Methods

Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans’ (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19).

Results

All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups.

Conclusions

Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans.

]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of Vascularity in Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis: Comparison of Quantified Dual-Energy CT with Histopathologic Parameters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0bab0ee8fa60bca47f

Purpose

To investigate whether dual-energy computer tomography(DECT) could determine the angiographic vascularity of alveolar echinococcosis lesions by comparing the quantitative iodine concentration (IC) with the microvascular density (MVD).

Material and Methods

Twenty-five patients (16 men, 9 women; mean age, 40.9 ± 13.8 years) with confirmed hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) underwent DECT of the abdomen, consisting of arterial phase (AP), portal venous phase (PVP), and delayed phase (DP) scanning, in dual-source mode (100 kV/140 kV). Image data were processed with a DECT software algorithm that was designed for the evaluation of iodine distribution in the different layers (marginal zone, solid and cystic) of the lesions. The CT patterns of HAE lesions were classified into three types: solid type, pseudocystic type and ‘geographic map’ (mixed) type. The IC measurements in different layers and different types of lesions were statistically compared. MVD was examined using CD34 immunohistochemical staining of the resected HAE tissue and scored based on the percentage of positively stained cells and their intensity. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to evaluate the potential correlation between DECT parameters and MVD.

Results

A total of 27 HAE lesions were evaluated, of which 9 were solid type, 3 were pseudocystic type and 15 were mixed type. The mean lesion size was 100.7 ± 47.3 mm. There was a significant difference in the IC measurements between different layers of HAE lesions during each scan phase (p < 0.001). The IC in the marginal zone was significantly higher than in the solid and cystic components in AP (2.15 mg/mL vs. 0.17 or 0.01 mg/mL), PVP (3.08 mg/mL vs. 0.1 or 0.02 mg/mL), and DP (2.93 mg/mL vs. 0.04 or 0.02 mg/mL). No significant difference was found among the different CT patterns of HAE lesions. Positive expression of CD34 in the marginal zones surrounding HAE lesions was found in 92.5% (25/27) of lesions, of which 18.5% (5/27) were strongly positive, 62.7% (17/27) were moderately positive, and 11.1% (3/27) were weakly positive. In contrast, 7.4% (2/27) of the lesions were negative for CD34. There was a positive correlation between IC measurements and MVD in the marginal zone of HAE lesions (r = 0.73, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The DECT quantitative iodine concentration was significantly correlated with MVD in the marginal zones surrounding HAE lesions. Dual-energy CT using a quantitative analytic methodology can be used to evaluate the vascularity of AE.

]]>
<![CDATA[Dual Energy Spectral CT Imaging for Colorectal Cancer Grading: A Preliminary Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacaab0ee8fa60bb3e01

Objectives

To assess the diagnostic value of dual energy spectral CT imaging for colorectal cancer grading using the quantitative iodine density measurements in both arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP).

Methods

81 colorectal cancer patients were divided into two groups based on their pathological findings: a low grade group including well (n = 13) and moderately differentiated cancer (n = 24), and a high grade group including poorly differentiated (n = 42) and signet ring cell cancer (n = 2). Iodine density (ID) in the lesions was derived from the iodine-based material decomposition (MD) image and normalized to that in the psoas muscle to obtain normalized iodine density (NID). The difference in ID and NID between AP and VP was calculated.

Results

The ID and NID values of the low grade cancer group were, 14.65±3.38mg/mL and 1.70±0.33 in AP, and 21.90±3.11mg/mL and 2.05± 0.32 in VP, respectively. The ID and NID values for the high grade cancer group were 20.63±3.72mg/mL and 2.95±0.72 in AP, and 26.27±3.10mg/mL and 3.51±1.12 in VP, respectively. There was significant difference for ID and NID between the low grade and high grade cancer groups in both AP and VP (all p<0.001). ROC analysis indicated that NID of 1.92 in AP provided 70.3% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity in differentiating low grade cancer from high grade cancer.

Conclusions

The quantitative measurement of iodine density in AP and VP can provide useful information to differentiate low grade colorectal cancer from high grade colorectal cancer with NID in AP providing the greatest diagnostic value.

]]>
<![CDATA[Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb79

Background

Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods

Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

Results

In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS.

Conclusion

This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form, could reduce the prevalence of MNDs, most notably Se deficiency.

]]>
<![CDATA[Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac2ab0ee8fa60bb1355

Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

]]>
<![CDATA[A phase I study of pazopanib in combination with escalating doses of 131I in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma borderline refractory to radioiodine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be12f0

Objective

This trial was conducted to evaluate the ability of pazopanib to overcome therapeutic 131I resistance.

Materials, methods and patients

This phase 1 trial assesses the combination of pazopanib and escalating doses of radioiodine (131I) in patients with recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer that are borderline or relatively iodine refractory. Radioiodine uptake scans were assessed post therapy and compared to historical pre-treatment scans. Patients underwent FDG PET/CT before and after the initial pazopanib treatment to identify the impact of pazopanib on the cancer prior to 131I therapy.

Results

A dose limiting toxicity (cardiac arrhythmia and grade 3 fatigue) in the first patient in the first cohort prompted expansion to a total of 6 patients. Additional grade 3–4 hematologic toxicity and low accrual in the expanded cohort led to the decision not to pursue further study of the regimen. In patients with measurable disease 4/5 (80%) achieved stable disease. Median progression free survival was 6.7 months. At 3 years of follow up, one patient died due to progressive disease, two are being treated with systemic therapy and 3 continue without requiring subsequent therapy at 15, 27 and 35 months from the last dose of pazopanib. There was no convincing impact of pazopanib on iodine uptake in scans performed pre- and post-therapy compared to scans from historical 131I treatments without pazopanib.

Conclusion

Despite a suggestion of therapeutic efficacy, combined pazopanib and 131I resulted in increased toxicity. There was no convincing evidence that the administration of pazopanib improved iodine uptake or retention.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01413113

]]>