ResearchPad - ischemic-stroke https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A rationale and framework for seeking remote electronic or phone consent approval in endovascular stroke trials – special relevance in the COVID-19 environment and beyond]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10274 Enrollment in time-sensitive endovascular stroke trials can be challenging because of an inability to consent a debilitated patient. Often the legally authorized representative is not on site. Remote consent procedures in the US are inconsistent with the majority of sites shunning these approaches. The current pandemic with visitor restrictions highlights the need for enhancing these options.MethodsRemote electronic and phone consent procedures specifically for endovascular stroke trials from two comprehensive stroke centers (CSC) are presented. An overview of the genesis of informed consent procedures in the US is also included.ResultsThe two CSCs identified as Institution-1 and Institution-2 are large tertiary systems. Institution-1 is a non-profit university-affiliated academic medical center in rural geography. Institution-2 is an HCA hospital in an urban environment. Both serve patients through a spoke-and-hub network, have participated in multiple randomized endovascular stroke trials, and have successfully used these remote options for enrollment. A tiered approach is employed at both institutions with an emphasis on obtaining informed consent in person and resorting to alternatives methods when efforts to that are unsuccessful. A rationale for electronic and phone consent is included, followed by step-by-step illustration of the process at each institution.ConclusionTwo examples of remote electronic or phone consent procedures from institutions in different geographic environments and organization structures demonstrate that these options can be successfully used for enrollment in stroke trials. The current pandemic highlights the need to enhance these approaches while maintaining appropriate adherence to ethical and legal frameworks. ]]> <![CDATA[Post-stroke infections associated with spleen volume reduction: A pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7682 Spleen volume reduction followed by re-expansion has been described in acute ischemic stroke in both animal and human studies. Splenic contraction might be partially due to sympathetic hyperactivity and might be accompanied by release of splenocytes in the peripheral circulation, leading to immunodepression.AimsTo investigate whether spleen volume changes in the first week after stroke are associated with post-stroke infections, changes in lymphocytes count and autonomic dysfunction.MethodsIn patients with acute ischemic stroke, spleen sizes were calculated from abdominal CT images on day one and day seven. Spleen size reduction was defined as > 10% spleen size reduction between day one and day seven. Post stroke infections were diagnosed during the first seven days after stroke onset using the modified criteria of the US Center of Disease Control and Prevention. We assessed the time course of leukocyte subsets and analysed pulse rate variability (PRV) indices.ResultsPost-stroke infections occurred in six out of 11 patients (55%) with spleen size reduction versus in five out of 27 patients (19%) without spleen size reduction (p = 0,047). Spleen size reduction was associated with a drop in lymphocytes and several lymphocyte subsets from admission to day one, and a higher NIHSS at admission and at day three (p = 0,028 and p = 0,006 respectively). No correlations could be found between spleen volume change and PRV parameters.ConclusionPost-stroke infections and a drop in lymphocytes and several lymphocyte subsets are associated with spleen volume reduction in acute ischemic stroke. ]]> <![CDATA[Stepwise stroke recognition through clinical information, vital signs, and initial labs (CIVIL): Electronic health record-based observational cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0f0adfcb-3c92-4db3-bdce-cd884fd183e7

Background

Stroke recognition systems have been developed to reduce time delays, however, a comprehensive triaging score identifying stroke subtypes is needed to guide appropriate management. We aimed to develop a prehospital scoring system for rapid stroke recognition and identify stroke subtype simultaneously.

Methods and findings

In prospective database of regional emergency and stroke center, Clinical Information, Vital signs, and Initial Labs (CIVIL) of 1,599 patients suspected of acute stroke was analyzed from an automatically-stored electronic health record. Final confirmation was performed with neuroimaging. Using multiple regression analyses, we determined independent predictors of tier 1 (true-stroke or not), tier 2 (hemorrhagic stroke or not), and tier 3 (emergent large vessel occlusion [ELVO] or not). The diagnostic performance of the stepwise CIVIL scoring system was investigated using internal validation. A new scoring system characterized by a stepwise clinical assessment has been developed in three tiers. Tier 1: Seven CIVIL-AS3A2P items (total score from –7 to +6) were deduced for true stroke as Age (≥ 60 years); Stroke risks without Seizure or psychiatric disease, extreme Sugar; “any Asymmetry”, “not Ambulating”; abnormal blood Pressure at a cut-off point ≥ 1 with diagnostic sensitivity of 82.1%, specificity of 56.4%. Tier 2: Four items for hemorrhagic stroke were identified as the CIVIL-MAPS indicating Mental change, Age below 60 years, high blood Pressure, no Stroke risks with cut-point ≥ 2 (sensitivity 47.5%, specificity 85.4%). Tier 3: For ELVO diagnosis: we applied with CIVIL-GFAST items (Gaze, Face, Arm, Speech) with cut-point ≥ 3 (sensitivity 66.5%, specificity 79.8%). The main limitation of this study is its retrospective nature and require a prospective validation of the CIVIL scoring system.

Conclusions

The CIVIL score is a comprehensive and versatile system that recognizes strokes and identifies the stroke subtype simultaneously.

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<![CDATA[A novel visual ranking system based on arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging for evaluating perfusion disturbance in patients with ischemic stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32085c18-73a0-407b-8668-9d011597efb2

We developed a visual ranking system by combining the parenchymal perfusion deficits (PPD) and hyperintense vessel signals (HVS) on arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. This study aimed to assess the performance of this ranking system by correlating with subtypes classified based on dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for evaluating the perfusion disturbance observed in patients with ischemic stroke. 32 patients with acute or subacute infarcts detected by DSC imaging were reviewed. Each patient’s brain was divided into 12 areas. ASL ranks were defined by the presence (+) or absence (-) of PPD/HVS as follows; I:–/–, II:–/+, III: +/+, and IV: +/–. DSC imaging findings were categorized based on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and time to peak (TTP) as normal (normal CBF/TTP), mismatched (normal CBF/delayed TTP), and matched (decreased CBF/delayed TTP). Two reviewers rated perfusion abnormalities in the total of 384 areas. The four ASL ranks correlated well with the DSC subtypes (Spearman’s r = 0.82). The performance of ASL ranking system was excellent as indicated by the area under the curve value of 0.94 using either matched or mismatched DSC subtype as the gold standard and 0.97 using only the matched DSC subtype as the gold standard. The two methods were in good-to-excellent agreement (maximum κ-values, 0.86). Inter-observer agreement was excellent (κ-value, 0.98). Although the number of patients was small and the number of dropouts was high, our proposed, ASL-based visual ranking system represented by PPD and HVS provides good, graded estimates of perfusion disturbance that agree well with those obtained by DSC perfusion imaging.

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<![CDATA[The mechanism on phosphorylation of Hsp20Ser16 inhibit GA stress and ER stress during OGD/R]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc8cd5eed0c48498f9ce

Recent research has demonstrated that small heat shock protein (sHsp) phosphorylation plays a variety of roles in neural cells. While the phosphorylation of serine 16 (Ser16) is blocked, Hsp20 no longer has neuroprotective effects. To further investigate the mechanism underlying this process, oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) was used with human SH-SY5Y cells and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. When SH-SY5Y and N2a cells were transfected with pEGFP-Hsp20(WT), pEGFP-Hsp20(S16A), and pEGFP-Hsp20(S16D) plasmids, the Golgi apparatus (GA) became more swollen and scattered, and many small fragments formed in the MOCK and S16A groups after OGD/R (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network was reduced, and the lamellar structure increased. However, these changes were not as obvious in the WT and S16D groups. Additionally, after OGD/R, Golgi Stress related protein contents were increased in the WT and S16D groups compared with the MOCK and S16A groups (P < 0.05). However, ER Stress related protein contents were decreased in the WT and S16D groups compared with the MOCK and S16A groups (P < 0.05). Our study demonstrates that Hsp20 phosphorylation on Ser16 protects against not only OGD/R-induced GA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and N2a cells via Golgi stress but also OGD/R-induced ER structural changes in SH-SY5Y cells via ER stress. These findings suggest that Hsp20 is a potential drug target for ischemia stroke treatment.

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<![CDATA[High incidence and prevalence of visual problems after acute stroke: An epidemiology study with implications for service delivery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897734d5eed0c4847d26dc

Background

Visual problems are an under-reported sequela following stroke. The aim of this study is to report annual incidence and point prevalence of visual problems in an acute adult stroke population and to explore feasibility of early timing of visual assessment.

Methods and findings

Multi-centre acute stroke unit, prospective, epidemiology study (1st July 2014 to 30th June 2015). Orthoptists reviewed all patients with assessment of visual acuity, visual fields, ocular alignment, ocular motility, visual inattention and visual perception. 1033 patients underwent visual screening at a median of 3 days (IQR 2) and full visual assessment at a median of 4 days (IQR 7) after the incident stroke: 52% men, 48% women, mean age 73 years and 87% ischaemic strokes. Excluding pre-existent eye problems, the incidence of new onset visual sequelae was 48% for all stroke admissions and 60% in stroke survivors. Three quarters 752/1033 (73%) had visual problems (point prevalence): 56% with impaired central vision, 40% eye movement abnormalities, 28% visual field loss, 27% visual inattention, 5% visual perceptual disorders. 281/1033 (27%) had normal eye exams.

Conclusions

Incidence and point prevalence of visual problems in acute stroke is alarmingly high, affecting over half the survivors. For most, visual screening and full visual assessment was achieved within about 5 days of stroke onset. Crucial information can thus be provided on visual status and its functional significance to the stroke team, patients and carers, enabling early intervention.

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<![CDATA[High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T as an independent predictor of stroke in patients admitted to an emergency department with atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75acd5eed0c4843cffc2

Aims

Elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) are associated with adverse outcomes in numerous patient populations. Their value in prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is in debate.

Methods

The study population included 2898 consecutive patients presenting with AF to the emergency department of the Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg University Hospital. Associations between hsTnT and stroke risk were assessed using multivariable Cox regression.

Results

Elevated hsTnT levels (>14 ng/L) were associated with increased risk of stroke. Even after adjustment for various risk factors, elevated hsTnT remained independently associated with stroke risk in patients with AF, adjusted hazard ratio 2.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–4.36] (P = 0.007). These results were consistent across important subgroups (age, renal function, ejection fraction, CHA2DS2-VASc score and main admission diagnosis). For hsTnT, area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.659 [95% CI: 0.575–0.742], compared to 0.610 [95% CI: 0.526–0.694] for the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Inclusion of hsTnT in the multivariable model for stroke risk prediction consisting of all variables of the CHA2DS2-VASc score was associated with a significant improvement of its discriminatory power.

Conclusion

Elevated hsTnT levels are significantly associated with higher risk of stroke and provide prognostic information independent of CHA2DS2-VASc score variables. Measurement of hsTnT may improve prediction of stroke risk in patients presenting to an emergency department with AF as compared to risk stratification based only on clinical variables.

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<![CDATA[Socioeconomic gap between neighborhoods of Budapest: Striking impact on stroke and possible explanations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe19d5eed0c484e5b4a4

Introduction

Hungary has a single payer health insurance system offering free healthcare for acute cerebrovascular disorders. Within the capital, Budapest, however there are considerable microregional socioeconomic differences. We hypothesized that socioeconomic deprivation reflects in less favorable stroke characteristics despite universal access to care.

Methods

From the database of the National Health Insurance Fund, we identified 4779 patients hospitalized between 2002 and 2007 for acute cerebrovascular disease (hereafter ACV, i.e. ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or transient ischemia), among residents of the poorest (District 8, n = 2618) and the wealthiest (District 12, n = 2161) neighborhoods of Budapest. Follow-up was until March 2013.

Results

Mean age at onset of ACV was 70±12 and 74±12 years for District 8 and 12 (p<0.01). Age-standardized incidence was higher in District 8 than in District 12 (680/100,000/year versus 518/100,000/year for ACV and 486/100,000/year versus 259/100,000/year for ischemic stroke). Age-standardized mortality of ACV overall and of ischemic stroke specifically was 157/100,000/year versus 100/100,000/year and 122/100,000/year versus 75/100,000/year for District 8 and 12. Long-term case fatality (at 1,5, and 10 years) for ACV and for ischemic stroke was higher in younger District 8 residents (41–70 years of age at the index event) compared to D12 residents of the same age. This gap between the districts increased with the length of follow-up. Of the risk diseases the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was higher in District 8 than in District 12 (75% versus 66%, p<0.001; and 26% versus 16%, p<0.001).

Discussion

Despite universal healthcare coverage, the disadvantaged district has higher ACV incidence and mortality than the wealthier neighborhood. This difference affects primarily the younger age groups. Long-term follow-up data suggest that inequity in institutional rehabilitation and home-care should be investigated and improved in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

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<![CDATA[Rivaroxaban administration after acute ischemic stroke: The RELAXED study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca1cd5eed0c48452a7cf

The efficacy of early anticoagulation in acute stroke with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unclear. We performed a study to evaluate the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (IS) and major bleeding in acute IS patients with NVAF who started rivaroxaban. This observational study evaluated patients with NVAF and acute IS/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the middle cerebral arterial territory who started rivaroxaban within 30 days after the index IS/TIA. The primary endpoints were recurrent IS and major bleeding within 90 days after the index IS/TIA. The relationship between the endpoints and the time to start rivaroxaban was evaluated by correlation analysis using cerebral infarct volume, determined by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images within 48 hours of onset of the index IS/TIA. Of 1309 patients analyzed, recurrent IS occurred in 30 (2.3%) and major bleeding in 11 (0.8%) patients. Among patients with known infarct size (N = 1207), those with small (<4.0 cm3), medium (≥4.0 and <22.5 cm3), and large (≥22.5 cm3) infarcts started rivaroxaban a median of 2.9, 2.9, and 5.8 days, respectively, after the index IS/TIA. Recurrent IS was significantly less frequent when starting rivaroxaban ≤14 days versus ≥15 days after IS (2.0% versus 6.8%, P = 0.0034). Incidences of recurrent IS and major bleeding in whom rivaroxaban was started <3 days (N = 584) after IS were also low: 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Initiation of rivaroxaban administration in acute IS or TIA was associated with a low recurrence of IS (2.3%), and a low incidence of major bleeding events (0.8%) for 90 days after the index stroke. For the prevention of recurrent attacks in acute IS patients with NVAF, it is feasible to start the administration of rivaroxaban within 14 days of onset. Rivaroxaban started within 3 days of onset may be a feasible treatment option for patients with a small or medium-sized infarction.

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<![CDATA[The association of CHA2DS2-VASc score and carotid plaque in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673079d5eed0c484f37bb6

Objective

The aim of this study was to assess the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and carotid plaques in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study including 3,435 NVAF patients who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations from January 2015 to December 2017.We collected the clinical data on the medical records system. Chi-square trend test was used to analyze trends between the prevalence of carotid plaques with an increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was also used to assess the association between carotid plaques and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determine the optimal cutoff points of different CHA2DS2-VASc scores in NVAF patients.

Results

NVAF patients with carotid plaques had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores compared with patients who did not have carotid plaques (3.01±1.36 vs. 2.55±1.28, P < 0.05). In all participants, male participants and female participants, the prevalence of carotid plaques increased significantly as the CHA2DS2-VASc score increased (P for trend < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that for each 1-point increase in the CHA2DS2-VASc score, there was an associated 37% increase in the prevalence of carotid plaques. ROC curve analysis revealed that a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 in male patients (sensitivity, 44.67%; specificity, 75.64%; AUC, 0.639) or ≥ 3 in female patients (sensitivity, 47.24%; specificity, 72.40%; AUC, 0.634) were associated with carotid plaques.

Conclusion

The prevalence of carotid plaques in patients with NVAF was associated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic role of early D-dimer level in patients with acute ischemic stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df327d5eed0c484580dc4

Object

The purpose of our study was to assess the prognostic role of early D-dimer level in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods

The included patients’ D-dimer levels have to be tested within 24 hours from stroke onset. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≥3. The endpoints included recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging, 30-day mRS ≥3, 30-day mortality and 90-day mRS ≥3. Regarding to each endpoint, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the prognostic role of D-dimer in patients with AIS.

Results

A total of 2,479 patients were included. The results showed that elevated D-dimer levels were associated with recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.32–3.95), 30-day mRS≥3 (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.37–1.85), 30-day mortality (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.27–2.90) and 90-day mRS≥3 (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.05–2.46).

Conclusions

In conclusion, for patients with AIS, higher D-dimer level within 24 hours from stroke onset was associated with recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging, mortality at 30 days, and poor functional outcome at both 30 days and 90 days. However, more studies are warranted to clarify this issue.

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<![CDATA[Health-related quality of life loss associated with first-time stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d61cd5eed0c484031668

Objectives

This study aimed to quantify health-related quality of life (HRQoL) loss associated with first episode of stroke by comparing patient-reported HRQoL before and after stroke onset. The impact of stroke in local population was also evaluated by comparing the pre- and post-stroke HRQoL with that of the general population.

Methods

The HRQoL of stroke survivors was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L index score at recruitment, for recalled pre-stroke HRQoL, and at 3 and 12 month post-stroke. Change in HRQoL from pre-stroke to 3 and 12 month was self-reported by 285 and 238 patients, respectively. Mean EQ index score at each time point (baseline: 464 patients; 3 month post-stroke: 306 patients; 12 month post-stroke: 258 patients) was compared with published population norms for EQ-5D-3L.

Results

There was a significant decrease in HRQoL at 3 (0.25) and 12 month (0.09) post-stroke when compared to the retrospectively recalled patients’ mean pre-stroke HRQoL level (0.87). The reduction at 3 month was associated with the reduction in all EQ-5D-3L health dimensions; reductions remaining at 12 month were limited to dimensions of mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression. Stroke patients had a lower mean EQ index than the general population by 0.07 points pre-stroke (0.87 vs. 0.94), 0.33 points at 3 month (0.61 vs. 0.94) and 0.18 points at 12 month (0.76 vs. 0.94) post-stroke.

Conclusions

Stroke has a substantial impact on HRQoL in Singapore, especially in the first three months post-stroke. Compared to the general population, stroke survivors have lower HRQoL even before stroke onset. This pre-stroke deficit in HRQoL should be taken into account when quantifying health burden of stroke or setting goals for stroke rehabilitation.

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<![CDATA[Association between temperature variability and daily hospital admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease in urban China: A national time-series study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d669d5eed0c484031dbb

Background

Epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence of associations between ambient temperature and cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of effects of daily temperature variability on cardiovascular disease is scarce and mixed. We aimed to examine short-term associations between temperature variability and hospital admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease in urban China.

Methods and findings

We conducted a national time-series analysis in 184 cities in China between 2014 and 2017. Data on daily hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease, heart failure, heart rhythm disturbances, and ischemic stroke were obtained from the database of Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) including 0.28 billion enrollees. Temperature data were acquired from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service Center. Temperature variability was calculated from the standard deviation (SD) of daily minimum and maximum temperatures over exposure days. City-specific associations between temperature variability and cardiovascular disease were examined with overdispersed Poisson models controlling for calendar time, day of the week, public holiday, and daily mean temperature and relative humidity. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain national and regional average associations. We also plotted exposure-response relationship curve using a natural cubic spline of temperature variability. There were 8.0 million hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease during the study period. At the national-average level, a 1-°C increase in temperature variability at 0–1 days (TV0–1) was associated with a 0.44% (0.32%–0.55%), 0.31% (0.20%–0.43%), 0.48% (0.01%–0.96%), 0.34% (0.01%–0.67%), and 0.82% (0.59%–1.05%) increase in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, heart rhythm disturbances, and ischemic stroke, respectively. The estimates decreased but remained significant when controlling for ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), NO2, and SO2 pollution. The main limitation of the present study was the unavailability of data on individual exposure to temperature variability.

Conclusions

Our findings suggested that short-term temperature variability exposure could increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which may provide new insights into the health effects of climate change.

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<![CDATA[Regeneration-associated cell transplantation contributes to tissue recovery in mice with acute ischemic stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64489dd5eed0c484c2ea22

Various cell-based therapeutic strategies have been investigated for vascular and tissue regeneration after ischemic stroke. We have developed a novel cell population, called regeneration-associated cells (RACs), by quality- and quantity-controlled culture of unfractionated mononuclear cells. RACs were trans-arterially injected into 10-week-old syngeneic male mice at 1, 3, 5 or 7 days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to determine the optimal timing for administration in terms of outcome at day 21. Next, we examined the effects of RACs injection at day 1 after MCAO on neurological deficits, infarct volume, and mediators of vascular regeneration and anti-inflammation at days 7 and 21. Infarct volume at day 21 was significantly reduced by transplantation of RACs at day 1 or 3. RACs injected at day 1 reduced the infarct volume at day 7 and 21. Angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory mediators, VEGF and IL-10, were increased at day 7, and VEGF was still upregulated at day 21. We also observed significantly enhanced ink perfusion in vivo, tube formation in vitro, and definitive endothelial progenitor cell colonies in colony assay. These results suggest that RAC transplantation in MCAO models promoted significant recovery of neural tissues through intensified anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between normalized distributional pattern and functional outcome in patients with acute cardiogenic cerebral embolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c54d5eed0c484bd19e0

This study aimed to elucidate spatial characteristics for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cardiogenic cerebral embolism, to determine imaging biomarkers predicting patient outcome and cerebral herniation in cardioembolic stroke. This retrospective study assessed 90 patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism. All images from MRI were normalized using a voxel-based symptom lesion mapping technique. Patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the outcome and presence of cerebral herniation. Each subgroup was assessed individually. The distribution map of all analyzed patients revealed accumulated ischemic lesions in bilateral middle cerebral artery areas. Ischemic lesions for the poor outcome group accumulated at the corona radiata on the right side and throughout the entire left hemisphere. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested that a normalized ischemic volume of 62.8 mL allowed optimal differentiation between good and poor outcomes (sensitivity, 0.923; specificity, 0.923; area under the curve (AUC), 0.91) for left-side-dominant infarction. The distribution map for the cerebral herniation group revealed large ischemic areas in the left hemisphere. The analysis of differential involvement map with random permutation analysis showed that left anterior circulation infarcts were associated with midline shift. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a normalized infarction volume of 192.9 mL was highly predictive of cerebral herniation (sensitivity, 0.929; specificity, 0.750; AUC, 0.895). The medial frontal and occipital lobes, caudate head and basal ganglia were significantly involved in those patients who developed cerebral herniation. Ischemic volume contributed to outcomes and cerebral herniation. Ischemic lesions of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries and basal ganglia in addition to middle cerebral artery area were identified as differences on MRI images between with and without cerebral herniation patients.

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<![CDATA[Combined proteomic and metabolomic analyses of cerebrospinal fluid from mice with ischemic stroke reveals the effects of a Buyang Huanwu decoction in neurodegenerative disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c90d5eed0c484bd31e6

Ischemic stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and is a major cause of acquired disability in adults. However, there is still a need for an effective drug for its treatment. Buyang Huanwu decoction (BHD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has long been used clinically to aid neurological recovery after stroke. To establish potential clinical indicators of BHD efficacy in stroke treatment and prognosis, we conducted a combined proteomic and metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in a mouse stroke model. CSF samples were obtained from male mice with acute ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (CI/R) injury, some of which were then treated with BHD. Label-free quantitative proteomics was conducted using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ Orbitrap mass and metabolomic analysis was performed using nanoprobe NMR and UHPLC-QTOF-MS. The results showed that several proteins and metabolites were present at significantly different concentrations in the CSF samples from mice with CI/R alone and those treated with BHD. These belonged to pathways related to energy demand, inflammatory signaling, cytoskeletal regulation, Wnt signaling, and neuroprotection against neurodegenerative diseases. In conclusion, our in silico data suggest that BHD treatment is not only protective but can also ameliorate defects in pathways affected by neurological disorders. These data shed light on the mechanism whereby BHD may be effective in the treatment and prevention of stroke-related neurodegenerative disease.

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<![CDATA[Does retinopathy predict stroke recurrence in type 2 diabetes patients: A retrospective study?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a3ad5eed0c4847ccc0b

Aims

To study if retinopathy increases the risk of stroke recurrence in stroke patients with type 2 diabetes. Also, to study if stroke patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of stroke recurrence compared to non-diabetics and if stroke patients with type 2 diabetes, regardless of retinopathy, have a higher incidence of carotid stenosis. Also, to study if stroke patients with type 2 diabetes retinopathy have increased incidence of carotid stenosis.

Methods

We included 445 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a matched control group of 445 patients without diabetes, who had all suffered their first stroke or TIA. Information on retinopathy, risk factors and stroke recurrence were obtained from registers and medical records.

Results

Retinopathy did not increase the risk of stroke recurrence in diabetes patients, HR 0.89 (0.51–1.53), p = 0.67. The risk of stroke recurrence was not increased in diabetics compared to non-diabetes. Diabetes patients had an increased prevalence of carotid stenosis compared to non-diabetics, 1.69 (1.15–2.48), p = 0.008. The prevalence of carotid stenosis in diabetics with retinopathy was not increased compared to diabetics without retinopathy.

Conclusion

Retinopathy is not a predictor of stroke recurrence or carotid stenosis in type 2 diabetes patients.

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<![CDATA[Direct mechanical thrombectomy in tPA-ineligible and -eligible patients versus the bridging approach: a meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e1a7d5eed0c484112074

Background

Whether pretreatment with intravenous thrombolysis prior to mechanical thrombectomy (IVT+MTE) adds additional benefit over direct mechanical thrombectomy (dMTE) in patients with large vessel occlusions (LVO) is a matter of debate.

Methods

This study-level meta-analysis was presented in accord with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using the inverse variance heterogeneity model and displayed as summary Odds Ratio (sOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Sensitivity analysis was performed by distinguishing between studies including dMTE patients eligible for IVT (IVT-E) or ineligible for IVT (IVT-IN). Primary outcome measures were functional independence (modified Rankin Scale≤2) and mortality at day 90, successful reperfusion, and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

Results

Twenty studies, incorporating 5279 patients, were included. There was no evidence that rates of successful reperfusion differed in dMTE and IVT+MTE patients (sOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28). In studies including IVT-IN dMTE patients, patients undergoing dMTE tended to have lower rates of functional independence and had higher odds for a fatal outcome as compared with IVT+MTE patients (sOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01 and sOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.73). However, no such treatment group effect was found when analyses were confined to cohorts with a lower risk of selection bias (including IVT-E dMTE patients).

Conclusion

The quality of evidence regarding the relative merits of IVT+MTE versus dMTE is low. When considering studies with lower selection bias, the data suggest that dMTE may offer comparable safety and efficacy as compared with IVT+MTE. The conduct of randomized-controlled clinical trials seems justified.

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<![CDATA[Maintenance of body weight is an important determinant for the risk of ischemic stroke: A nationwide population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7acd5eed0c4844908b8

Background

Overweight is known as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the effect of weight change on the development of ischemic stroke remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between weight change and the risk of ischemic stroke using a nationwide population-based cohort.

Methods

Our study enrolled 11,084,683 participants (Mean age 49.7±13.5 years, range 20–114 years) in the Korean National Health Screening Program from 2009 to 2012. Weight change was calculated using the difference between the baseline weight and the weight at health screening four years prior to the baseline. The occurrence of newly-diagnosed ischemic stroke was observed until the end of 2015. We categorized the study population according to weight change and performed multivariable analysis to compare the risk.

Results

Ischemic stroke was newly diagnosed in 113,591 subjects. The crude incidence rates of ischemic stroke per 1000 person-years according to the change in body weight were 3.059, 1.906, and 1.491 in the <-5%, ±5%, and ≥+5% groups, respectively. After adjusting all variables, the hazard ratio (HR) of ischemic stroke was higher in subjects who underwent weight loss (HR 1.152) or weight gain (HR 1.087) than in those who maintained their weight. When analyzed by eight groups of 5% intervals, the risk showed a U-shaped curve with those who maintained their weight showing the lowest risk.

Conclusions

The risk of ischemic stroke was gradually increased in those who lost or gained more than 5% of their weight over four years, after adjusting for confounders. We should be aware of the increased risk of ischemic stroke in people who undergo weight change and should identify and manage the cause of weight change.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between the extent of aortic replacement and stent graft for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection and outcomes: Results from a medical center in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bbcd5eed0c48491e113

Background

Total arch replacement (TAR) and/or stent graft implantation has been proposed as the primary surgical treatment for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection. However, the suggestion was based on excellent outcomes of high-volume or aortic centers. How about the real results in most places around the world? The purpose of this study was intended to compared in-hospital mortality, major complications, and aortic remodeling between TAR and/or stent graft implantation in a medical center of northern Taiwan.

Methods

Between January 2008 and August 2017, 156 patients with acute type I aortic dissection underwent surgery at our institution, including proximal aortic replacement only (Group I, n = 72), concomitant TAR (Group II, n = 23), concomitant TAR extended with stent grafting (Group III, n = 45), and proximal aortic replacement with descending aortic stent grafting (Group IV, n = 16).

Results

No significant differences were found in underlying disease and preoperative presentations, including operative risk among four groups. Overall in-hospital mortality was 22.4% (13 patients in Group I, 9 in Group II, 12 in Group III, and 1 in Group IV). New-onset stroke occurred in 15 patients postoperatively (3 patients [5.2%] in Group I, 3 [21.4%] in Group II, and 9 [26.5%] in Group III after excluding 36 patients with documented preoperative cerebrovascular accident or cerebral malperfusion). Root reconstruction and TAR were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. TAR was significantly associated with surgery-related stroke. Compared to those in Group I, true lumen expansion and false lumen shrinkage during 1-year aortic remodeling were significantly higher in Groups III and IV. Both TAR and descending aorta stent grafting were significantly associated with decreased risk of patent false lumen.

Conclusions

Proximal aortic replacement remains the preferred surgical strategy for acute type I aortic dissection, with lower mortality and neurological complications. Proximal descending aorta stent grafting may benefit aortic remodeling, even without TAR.

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