ResearchPad - jobs https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Factors associated with the job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in cancer care in Japan: Analysis based on the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15727 As the Japanese population ages, the number of cancer patients will likely increase. Therefore, qualified cancer health care providers should be recruited and retained. Nurse job satisfaction is influenced by numerous factors and may affect staff turnover and patient outcomes.ObjectivesTo evaluate the job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in Japanese cancer care and elucidate factors associated with job satisfaction.MethodsParticipants in this cross-sectional study comprised 200 certified nurse specialists and 1,472 certified nurses working in Japanese cancer care. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify job satisfaction factors.ResultsJob satisfaction was present in 38.45% and 49.00% of certified nurses and nurse specialists, respectively. Certified nurses associated job satisfaction with cross-departmental activities (OR 2.24, p<0.001), positive evaluation from senior stuff (OR 4.58, p<0.001), appropriate staff allocation (OR 1.75, p<0.001), more than five years certified nurse experience (OR 1.91, p<0.001), and positive evaluation of the development of certified nurses (OR 2.13, p<0.01) and nurse specialists (OR 1.37, p<0.05). Low job satisfaction was associated with working on a ward (OR 0.51, p<0.001) and a capacity of more than 200 beds (OR 0.33, p = 0.00). Certified nurse specialists associated job satisfaction with palliative care team participation (OR 2.64, p<0.05), cross–sectional activities (OR 7.06, p<0.01), positive evaluation from senior stuff (OR 13.15, p<0.001), presence of certified nurses in radiation therapy (OR 2.91, p<0.05), positive certified nurse specialist development evaluation (OR 7.35, p<0.001), medical service fees (OR 3.78, p<0.01), and independent activities (OR 11.34, p<0.01).ConclusionsWe identified factors related to activities, facilities, and the cancer care team associated with job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in Japanese cancer care. Suggestions are provided to enhance job satisfaction through Japan’s Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control, which may help hospital administrators retain nursing staff. ]]> <![CDATA[Innovative machine learning approach and evaluation campaign for predicting the subjective feeling of work-life balance among employees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14744 At present, many researchers see hope that artificial intelligence, machine learning in particular, will improve several aspects of the everyday life for individuals, cities and whole nations alike. For example, it has been speculated that the so-called machine learning could soon relieve employees of part of the duties, which may improve processes or help to find the most effective ways of performing tasks. Consequently, in the long run, it would help to enhance employees’ work-life balance. Thus, workers’ overall quality of life would improve, too. However, what would happen if machine learning as such were employed to try and find the ways of achieving work-life balance? This is why the authors of the paper decided to utilize a machine learning tool to search for the factors that influence the subjective feeling of one’s work-life balance. The possible results could help to predict and prevent the occurrence of work-life imbalance in the future. In order to do so, the data provided by an exceptionally sizeable group of 800 employees was utilised; it was one of the largest sample groups in similar studies in Poland so far. Additionally, this was one of the first studies where so many employees had been analysed using an artificial neural network. In order to enable replicability of the study, the specific setup of the study and the description of the dataset are provided. Having analysed the data and having conducted several experiments, the correlations between some factors and work-life balance have indeed been identified: it has been found that the most significant was the relation between the feeling of balance and the actual working hours; shifting it resulted in the tool predicting the switch from balance to imbalance, and vice versa. Other factors that proved significant for the predicted WLB are the amount of free time a week the employee has for themselves, working at weekends only, being self-employed and the subjective assessment of one’s financial status. In the study the dataset gets balanced, the most important features are selected with the selectKbest algorithm, an artificial neural network of 2 hidden layers with 50 and 25 neurons, ReLU and ADAM is constructed and trained on 90% of the dataset. In tests, it predicts WLB based on the prepared dataset and selected features with 81% accuracy.

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<![CDATA[A sustainable working life in the car manufacturing industry: The role of psychosocial factors, gender and occupation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14576 In order to add to the existing knowledge about factors associated with retirement timing, in the car industry, it is useful to consider the psychosocial working conditions prior to retirement. This case-control study aimed to investigate relationships between psychosocial job factors and extended work after the age of 62 years among workers in the car industry in Sweden.MethodsA study invitation with a survey was sent to workers in one of Sweden’s largest car manufacturing company, who were employed 2005–2015 and either retired at the age 55–62 years or working at 63 years or older. Psychosocial variables such as job demand-control (JDC) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were recorded through the survey. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between psychosocial variables and retirement in 572 cases that had continued to work ≥ 63 years, and 771 controls who had retired at 62 or earlier.ResultsNo associations were found between JDC-variables and retirement in the total sample or gender stratified analyses, but high demands-low control (high strain) was related to retirement before the age of 63 years in blue-collar workers. In contrast, high strain was related to continuing to work after 62 years for white-collar men and, high ERI was associated with extended work for the total sample of white-collar workers, and white-collar men, however these effects became non-significant in fully adjusted models.ConclusionsThe relationships between psychosocial factors and extended work after 62 years were inconsistent, with high strain being related to retiring earlier for blue-collar workers. ]]> <![CDATA[Implementation of maternity protection legislation: Gynecologists’ perceptions and practices in French-speaking Switzerland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11226 In several countries, maternity protection legislations (MPL) confer an essential role to gynecologist-obstetricians (OBGYNs) for the protection of pregnant workers and their future children from occupational exposures. This study explores OBGYNs’ practices and difficulties in implementing MPL in the French-speaking part of Switzerland.MethodsAn online survey was sent to 333 OBGYNs. Data analysis included: 1) descriptive and correlational statistics and 2) hierarchical cluster analysis to identify patterns of practices.ResultsOBGYNs evoked several problems in MPL implementation: absence of risk analysis in the companies, difficult collaboration with employers, lack of competencies in the field of occupational health. Preventive leave was underused, with sick leave being prescribed instead. Training had a positive effect on OBGYNs’ knowledge and implementation of MPL. Hierarchical cluster analysis highlighted three main types of practices: 1) practice in line with legislation; 2) practice on a case-by-case basis; 3) limited practice. OBGYNs with good knowledge of MPL more consistently applied its provisions.ConclusionThe implementation of MPL appears challenging for OBGYNs. Collaboration with occupational physicians and training might help OBGYNs to better take on their role in maternity protection. MPL in itself could be improved. ]]> <![CDATA[The effect of admitting fault versus shifting blame on expectations for others to do the same]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc40d5eed0c48498f2ed

A wealth of research has investigated how and why people cast blame. However, less is known about blame-shifting (i.e., blaming someone else for one’s own failures) and how exposure to a blame-shifting agent might lead to expectations that other agents will also shift blame. The present research tested whether exposure to a blame-shifting (versus responsibility-taking) agent would lead perceivers to expect a second, unrelated target to also shift blame. Contrary to our expectations, people expected greater blame-shifting after exposure to a responsible agent, particularly when perceivers were surprised by this reaction to failure. Discussion focuses on how people habitually expect some people to shift blame for their mishaps, and how expectancy violations when people act in unexpected ways predict the extent to which perceivers expect unrelated agents to also shift blame.

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<![CDATA[Just how miserable is work? A meta-analysis comparing work and non-work affect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823b0d5eed0c484638e4a

Although we spend much of our waking hours working, the emotional experience of work, versus non-work, remains unclear. While the large literature on work stress suggests that work generally is aversive, some seminal theory and findings portray working as salubrious and perhaps as an escape from home life. Here, we examine the subjective experience of work (versus non-work) by conducting a quantitative review of 59 primary studies that assessed affect on working days. Meta-analyses of within-day studies indicated that there was no difference in positive affect (PA) between work versus non-work domains. Negative affect (NA) was higher for work than non-work, although the magnitude of difference was small (i.e., .22 SD, an effect size comparable to that of the difference in NA between different leisure activities like watching TV versus playing board games). Moderator analyses revealed that PA was relatively higher at work and NA relatively lower when affect was measured using “real-time” measurement (e.g., Experience Sampling Methodology) versus measured using the Day Reconstruction Method (i.e., real-time reports reveal a more favorable view of work as compared to recall/DRM reports). Additional findings from moderator analyses included significant differences in main effect sizes as a function of the specific affect, and, for PA, as a function of the age of the sample and the time of day when the non-work measurements were taken. Results for the other possible moderators including job complexity and affect intensity were not statistically significant.

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<![CDATA[The mediating role of coping behavior on the age-technostress relationship: A longitudinal multilevel mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823acd5eed0c484638de4

This study seeks to explain the interplay between chronological age and technology-related strain through techno-stressors and coping strategy choices in organizational settings. Grounded in Lazarus´ stress theory, theories of cognitive aging, the life span theory of control and socioemotional selectivity theory, this study argues that even though older workers are more prone to techno-stressors, aging is connected to gaining coping skills, which in turn reduce technology-related strain over time. Understanding these processes enables modifying employees’ coping strategy choices and mitigating negative outcomes of technostress at the workplace. Longitudinal data from 1,216 employees over a time period of 8 months were used to perform multilevel mediation modeling. The findings reveal that age was negatively related to technology-related strain. The link between age and technology-related strain was explained through behavioral disengagement, which older workers used less than younger workers. Active coping and social coping did not act as mediators of this relationship across time points. These relationships were stable after controlling for dependency on technology.

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<![CDATA[Is there an association between working conditions and health? An analysis of the Sixth European Working Conditions Survey data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75c9d5eed0c4843d01a5

This paper analyses the association between working conditions and physical health using data from the Sixth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS6) released in 2017. The econometric analysis uses two indicators to describe health status: self-assessed health (SAH), which is a subjective indicator of health; and an objective indicator of health (SICK), which is based on the occurrence of any illness or health problem that has lasted or is expected to last for more than 6 months. The theoretical hypotheses concerning the association between working conditions and SAH and the association between working conditions and SICK are tested using a standard ordered probit model and a standard probit model, respectively. The results show that encouraging working conditions, work environment, and job support are associated with both better self-assessed health and better objective health.

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<![CDATA[Workplace burnout and health issues among Colombian correctional officers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e7d5eed0c4843d047c

Introduction

Correctional employees typically work under adverse conditions that may enhance the occurrence of different negative psychological states. Burnout constitutes a high-risk phenomenon that may affect people’s physical/mental health and welfare, especially in vulnerable occupational groups.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to characterize the burnout profile of correctional officers, and to associate their burnout profile with health issues and lifestyle factors.

Methods

The full sample was composed of 219 Colombian correctional officers with a mean age of 30.18 years. A questionnaire composed of three sections was employed: demographic data, burnout, and health information.

Results

A high proportion of participants reported burnout indicators, also significantly correlated to their health indicators and lifestyle factors. Cluster analyses were used in order to characterize the burnout/age (model A) and burnout/age/psychological disturbance (model B) profiles of correctional officers. Furthermore, significant differences were found when comparing frequencies of alcohol consumption and physical exercise (lifestyle indicators) and perceived social support of officers depending on their profile.

Conclusions

the discussion focused on the negative impact of burnout on health, and on the importance of strengthening occupational programs aimed at reducing the impact of hazardous working conditions that contribute to the development of burnout, and to the arise different mid and long-term health complains among correctional workers.

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<![CDATA[Supported employment: Meta-analysis and review of randomized controlled trials of individual placement and support]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe41d5eed0c484e5b7ab

Supported employment is a treatment whereby those with severe mental illness (or other disabilities) receive aid searching for competitive employment and mental health (or other) treatments concurrently. The most popular implementation of supported employment is individual placement and support (IPS). We conducted meta-analytic analyses of the randomized controlled trials of IPS. We found that subjects in IPS, compared to usual treatment conditions, had better vocational outcomes (obtained any competitive employment: RR = 1.63, 95%CI = [1.46, 1.82]; job tenure: d = 0.55, 95%CI = [0.33, 0.79]; job length: d = 0.46, 95%CI = [0.35, 0.57]; income: d = 0.48, 95%CI = [0.36, 0.59]) Non-vocational outcomes estimates, while favoring IPS, included the null (quality of life: d = 0.30, 95%CI = [-0.07, 0.67]; global functioning: d = 0.09, 95%CI = [-0.09, 0.27]; mental health: d = 0.03, 95%CI = [-0.15, 0.21]). Analysis of the expected proportion of studies with a true effect on non-vocational outcomes with d>0.2 showed some reason to expect a possible improvement for quality of life for at least some settings (Prop = 0.57, 95%CI = [0.30, 0.84]).

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<![CDATA[Work stress among older employees in Germany: Effects on health and retirement age]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8c1d5eed0c48496f0cd

Background

Policy makers in aging societies aim for the extension of work lives by increasing the official retirement age. Despite these efforts, many people stop working before reaching this retirement age. The main reason for early retirement is poor health. Health in turn is influenced by exposure to the work environment. Furthermore, health and work stress are influenced by education, which may lead to different effects for the lowly and the highly educated.

Objective

This study examines the relationship between work stress and retirement age. It investigates whether this relationship is mediated by health and moderated by education. Three dimensions of health are taken into account: self-rated health (SRH), depressive symptoms, and high cardiovascular risk diseases (HCVR).

Methods

A German subsample of the longitudinal Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was linked with register data of the German Public Pension Scheme (SHARE-RV). The sample followed 302 individuals aged 50 to 65 years at baseline from 2004 to 2014. The data contains information on work stress, measured by job control and effort–reward–imbalance (ERI), health, and age of retirement. Multi-group structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the direct and indirect effects of work stress on retirement age via health. Work stress was lagged so that it temporally preceded health and retirement age.

Results

Lower job control and poorer SRH lead to a lower retirement age. Health does not operate as a mediator in the relationship between work stress and retirement age. Education moderates the relationship between work stress and health: high ERI leads to better SRH and better physical health of higher educated persons. Low job control increases the risk of depressive symptoms for persons with less education.

Conclusions

Improving stressful working conditions, particularly improving job control, can prolong the working lives of employees and postpone retirement.

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<![CDATA[Investigating changes within the handling system of the largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca28dd5eed0c48441e603

The current extinction crisis leaves us increasingly reliant on captive populations to maintain vulnerable species. Approximately one third of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are living in semi-captive conditions in range countries. Their relationship with humans stretches back millennia, yet elephants have never been fully domesticated. We rely on the expertise of traditional handlers (mahouts) to manage these essentially wild animals, yet this profession may be threatened in the modern day. Here, we study the handling system of semi-captive timber elephants in Myanmar; the largest global semi-captive population (~5 000). We investigate how recent changes in Myanmar may have affected the keeping system and mahout-elephant interactions. Structured interviews investigated changes to mahout attitude and experience over the last two decades, as perceived by those who had worked in the industry for at least 10 years (n = 23) and as evaluated in current mahouts (n = 210), finding mahouts today are younger (median age 22yrs), less experienced (median experience 3yrs), and change elephants frequently, threatening traditional knowledge transfer. Mahout-elephant interactions manifested as 5 components (‘job appreciation’; ‘experience is necessary’; ‘human-elephant interaction’; ‘own knowledge’; ‘elephant relationship’), according to Principal Components Analysis. Experienced mahouts and mahouts of bulls and younger elephants were more likely to agree that ‘experience is necessary’ to be a mahout. Mahouts with difficult elephants scored lower on ‘human-elephant interaction’ and a mahout’s perception of their ‘own knowledge’ increased with more experience. Our finding of change in terms of mahout experience, age and commitment in the largest semi-captive elephant population suggests need for formal training and assessment of impacts on elephant welfare; these are findings applicable to thousands of elephants under similar management.

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<![CDATA[Gender differences in self-view and desired salaries: A study on online recruitment website users in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7e3d5eed0c484386b87

One explanation for the gender pay differences in labor markets is that women propose lower desired salaries. By using an actual job seeking resume database and applying text mining techniques, we are able to observe both the extent of gender differences in desired salaries and job-related self-view. We find gender differences in global self-view favoring females, and in some domain-specific self-view favoring males. Previous findings of disadvantaged groups having levels of self-view at least as high as those of advantaged groups lend credibility to our findings. Moreover, we argue that the differences in global self-view favoring females may be related to the theories of “belief flipping”, since women in our sample of online-recruitment markets are distinct from the general population, with on average 15.2 years of education and 8.99 years of work experience, due to self-selection. In addition, we find that women do propose lower desired salary than men, after controlling for various factors such as human capital, marital status, industries. We further investigate the role of self-view and find it contributes to explain desired salaries, with modest mediator effect but little moderator effect on gender differences in desired salaries.

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<![CDATA[Predicting return to work after acute myocardial infarction: Socio-occupational factors overcome clinical conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ae3d5eed0c484426da0

Objectives

Return to work after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a leading cause of death globally, is a multidimensional process influenced by clinical, psychological, social and occupational factors, the single impact of which, however, is still not well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate these 4 factors on return to work (RTW) within 365 days after AMI in a homogeneous cohort of patients who had undergone an urgent coronary angioplasty.

Participants

We studied 102 patients, in employment at the time of AMI (88.24% of men), admitted to the Department of Cardiology of the University-Hospital of Ferrara between March 2015 to December 2016. Demographical and clinical characteristics were obtained from the cardiological records. After completing an interview on social and occupational variables and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) questionnaire, patients underwent exercise capacity measurement and spirometry.

Results

Of the 102 patients, only 12 (12.76%) held a university degree, 68.63% were employees and 31.37% self-employed. The median number of sick-leave days was 44 (IQR 33–88). At day 30, 78.5% of all subjects had not returned to work, at day 60, 40.8% and at day 365 only 7.3% had not resumed working. At univariate analyses, educational degree (p = 0.026), self-employment status (p = 0.0005), white collar professional category (p = 0.020) and HADS depression score were significant for earlier return to work. The multivariate analysis confirms that having a university degree, being self-employed and presenting a lower value of HADS depression score increase the probability of a quicker return to work.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that the strongest predictors of returning to work within 1 year after discharge for an acute myocardial infarction are related more to socio-occupational than to clinical parameters.

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<![CDATA[Employment predictors of exit from work among workers with disabilities: A survival analysis from the household income labour dynamics in Australia survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f12d5eed0c484d29857

Objectives

Across high-income countries, unemployment rates among workers with disabilities are disproportionately high. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of employment associated with dropping out of work and assess whether these were different for workers with versus without disabilities.

Methods

Using a longitudinal panel study of working Australians (2001 to 2015), the current study estimated Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models to identify predictors of leaving employment, including psychosocial job quality, employment arrangement, and occupational skill level. Effect modification by disability status of the relationship between employment-related factors and exit from the labour market were assessed by including interaction terms and assessing model fit with a likelihood ratio test. Models were adjusted for a range of socio-demographic and health related factors.

Results

Compared to those without disability, those with disability had a greater risk of leaving employment (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.35, p<0.001). Other predictors of exit from work included low-skilled occupation (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29, p = 0.001), being in a job with low psychosocial job quality (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19, p = 0.007), and casual, labour hire or fixed-term contract employment (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.69, p<0.001). There was no effect modification by disability status.

Conclusions

More research is needed to understand the experiences of workers with disabilities who stay in and leave employment.

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<![CDATA[The association between workplace violence and physicians’ and nurses’ job satisfaction in Macau]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b65d5eed0c484699060

Background

This paper describes the association between workplace violence and job satisfaction among physicians and nurses in Macau. Convenience sampling was sourced from six health centers under the Macau Health Bureau.

Methods

This study uses a cross-sectional self-administrative survey. The study used case studies research instruments for workplace violence in the health sector by country (from the ILO, ICN, WHO, PSI), the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale. The data collection period spanned from August to December, 2014.

Data analysis

Multiple logistic regression examines levels of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction in physicians and nurses and significant correlates affecting their job satisfaction.

Results

A total of 720 (14.9% physicians) participants were recruited. 57.2% of participants reported physical and psychological workplace violence in the preceding year. The most common forms of workplace violence were verbal abuse (53.4%), physical assault (16.1%), bullying / harassment (14.2%), sexual harassment (4.6%) and racial harassment (2.6%). Nurses were at a significantly higher risk of physical assault and verbal abuse compared to physicians. Patients, patients’ relatives, and colleagues were the main perpetrators. Worry about WPV, on-call duty and shift work, experience of bullying and verbal abuse and employment sector emerged as significant correlates affecting the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction of physicians and nurses. Frontline staff, aged 30 and 39, coming from an ethnic minority, and perceived stress were significant correlates affecting nurses’ job satisfaction.

Conclusions

WPV remains a significant concern in healthcare settings in Macau. Stakeholders should legally enforce a zero-tolerance policy towards WPV within healthcare workplaces. WPV is detrimental to healthcare professionals’ mental wellbeing, risking irreversible physical and psychological harm for its victims.

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<![CDATA[Interpersonal justice climate, extra-role performance and work family balance: A multilevel mediation model of employee well-being]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb38cd5eed0c4845ca57c

The global economic recession is relevant in public administration, especially in terms of the human factor. If we pretend to empower people as a resource, a key aspect is the perception of equity in their relationships. Previous research has shown how a positive shared interpersonal justice climate (IJC) in a work team impacts employee well-being, affecting the level of engagement and burnout. This influence is crucial in achieving positive results in the organization and for employees. The objective was to analyze the relationship between IJC and extra-role performance (ERP) and the mediating role of two indicators of well-being (burnout and engagement) in work teams. Furthermore, the study examined the Job Demands and Resources model (JD-R) including the relationship with the work family balance (WFB) of public employees. The sample was composed of 404 technical and administrative staff in a Spanish public university. The results indicated the significant relationships between the perceptions of IJC and burnout, engagement, and the two work outcomes WFB and ERP. When burnout and engagement were introduced in the regression equations, total mediation effects were produced.

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<![CDATA[Informal healthcare sector and marginalized groups: Repeat visits in rural North India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a28a0463d7e4513b8980f

The interrelationship between the public and private sectors, and formal and informal healthcare sectors effects market-level service quality, pricing behaviour and referral networks. However, health utilisation analysis of national survey data from many low and middle income countries is constrained by the lack of disaggregated health provider data. This study is concerned with the pattern of repeat outpatient consultations for a single episode of fever from public and private qualified providers and private unqualified providers. Cross-sectional survey data from 1173 adult respondents sampled from three districts within India’s most populous state—Uttar Pradesh is analysed. Data was collected during the monsoon season—September to October—in 2012. Regression analysis focuses on the pattern of repeats visits for a single episode of mild-sever fever as the dependent variable. Results show that Women and Muslims in rural north India are more likely to not access healthcare, and if they do, consult with low quality unqualified outpatient healthcare providers. For fever durations of four or more days, men are more likely to access unqualified providers compared to women. Results of the current study supports the literature that women’s utilisation of outpatient healthcare for communicable illnesses in LMICs is often less than men. A relative lack of access to household resources explains why fever duration parameter estimates for women and men differ.

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<![CDATA[Variations in diagnostic testing utilization in Italy: Secondary analysis of a national survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b297b7c463d7e06147f8d6e

Background

According to the principle of horizontal equity, individuals with similar need may have the same possibility of access to health services. The aim of this study is to identify patterns of diagnostic services utilization, in people with, and without chronic disease in Italy.

Methods

Secondary analysis of data from the national survey on Health and use of health care in Italy, carried out in 2013, including 99,497 participants. Multilevel analysis has been used to study the variables associated to diagnostic services utilization.

Results

13.78% of participants have had one diagnostic testing in the four weeks before the interview. In healthy people, utilization of diagnostic testing is reduced in people with low educational level (OR 0.75; 95%CI 0.67–0.84), in housewives (OR 0.66; 95%CI 0.51–0.87), or in those unable to work (OR 0.48; 95%CI 0.26–0.87), while increased in those perceiving a worse health status (up to OR 4.00, 95%CI 2.00–8.01 in very bad health). In people afflicted with chronic disease, access to diagnostic assessment is impaired by educational level (OR 0.69; 95%CI 0.61–0.78) and low household income (OR 0.75; 95%CI 0.58–0.97), while it is increased in the presence of a ticket exemption (OR 1.55, 95%CI 1.42–1.68), and fixed-term occupation (OR2.28, 95%CI 1.31–3.95). Being former-smokers in associated to an increased utilization of services in both groups.

Conclusions

Despite a universal and theoretically egalitarian, public, health care system, variations in diagnostic services utilization are still registered in Italy, both in healthy people and those afflicted by chronic diseases, on socio-economic/occupational basis, and self-perceived health status. Moreover, this significant effect of occupation on healthcare utilization, suggests the need for a comprehensive evaluation of economics in occupational health.

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<![CDATA[Association between Work-Related Stress and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da95ab0ee8fa60ba1769

Background/Objective

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly around the world. Work-related stress is thought to be a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes; however, this association has not been widely studied, and the findings that have been reported are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to explore the association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A systematic literature search and manual search limited to articles published in English were performed to select the prospective cohort studies evaluated the association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes up to September 2014 from four electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. A random-effects model was used to estimate the overall risk.

Results

No significant association was found between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes based on meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies involving 214,086 participants and 5,511 cases (job demands: relative risk 0.94 [95% confidence interval 0.72–1.23]; decision latitude: relative risk 1.16 [0.85–1.58]; job strain: relative risk 1.12 [.0.95–1.32]). However, an association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes was observed in women (job strain: relative risk 1.22 [1.01–1.46]) (P = 0.04). A sensitivity analysis conducted by excluding one study in each turn yielded similar results. No publication bias was detected with a funnel plot despite the limited number of studies included in the analysis.

Conclusions

The results of this meta-analysis did not confirm a direct association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes. In subgroup analyses we found job strain was a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in women.

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