ResearchPad - knee https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Special footwear designed for pregnant women and its effect on kinematic gait parameters during pregnancy and postpartum period]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13821 During pregnancy, an array of changes occurs in women body to enable the growth and development of the future baby and the consequent delivery. These changes are reflected in the range of motion of trunk, pelvis, lower limbs and other body segments, affect the locomotion and some of these changes may persist to the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to describe the changes affecting the gait during pregnancy and to determine the effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait characteristics during pregnancy as previous studies indicate that special orthopaedic insoles and footwear might be useful in prevention of the common musculoskeletal pain and discomfort related to pregnancy. Participants from the control group (n = 18), without any intervention, and the experimental group (n = 23), which was wearing the tested shoes, were measured at their 14, 28 and 37 gestational weeks and 28 weeks postpartum to capture the complete pregnancy-related changes in gait. The gait 3D kinematic data were obtained using Simi Motion System. The differences between the control and experimental group at the first data collection session in most of the analysed variables, as well as relatively high standard deviations of analysed variables indicate large individual differences in the gait pattern. The effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait pattern changes may be explained by its preventive effect against the foot arches falling. In the control group, changes associated previously with the foot arches falling and hindfoot hyperpronation were observed during advanced phases of pregnancy and postpartum, e.g. increase in knee flexion or increase in spinal curvature. For the comprehensive evaluation of the tested footwear on pregnancy gait pattern, future studies combining the kinematic and dynamic plantographic methods are needed.

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<![CDATA[Long-term performance of oxidized zirconium on conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c1f0746-701a-461b-a092-eb6988646d6c Introduction: Polyethylene wear and subsequent osteolysis remain obstacles to the long-term survivorship of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) with radical quenching represents a massive leap forward with dramatically improved wear rates compared to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). In this study we evaluate the wear of UHMWPE and XLPE coupled with oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral heads. Methods: A longitudinal, retrospective analysis was performed identifying consecutive patients who received a 28-mm OxZr-on-polyethylene primary THA from 2003 to 2004 by a single, high-volume arthroplasty surgeon. Patients were divided into two groups: those that received (1) UHMWPE liner and (2) a highly XLPE liner. Patients were included if clinical follow-up was complete to 2014 or later. Radiographic analysis was performed by two blinded observers. Measures included cup position, annual linear wear rate, and presence of osteolysis. Pairwise comparisons, correlations, and inter-rater reliability were calculated. Results: Eighty patients were in the UHMWPE group with an average follow-up of 10 ± 1.23 years and 88 patients in the XLPE group with an average of 10 ± 1.03-year follow-up. Average age (68) was similar between groups (p = 0.288). Observer reliability was excellent for cup abduction (ICC = 0.940), anteversion (ICC = 0.942), and detection of osteolysis (ICC = 0.811). Annual linear wear rates were significantly higher (p = 1 × 10−19) with UHMWPE (0.21 ± 0.12 mm/year) compared to XLPE (0.05 ± 0.03 mm/year). Linear wear rate was significantly correlated to decreasing acetabular abduction (p = 0.035). Osteolysis was noted only in the UHMWPE group, with 17 patients (21.2%) exhibiting acetabular osteolysis and 37 (46.3%) patients exhibiting femoral osteolysis. Conclusions: OxZr coupled with XLPE showed minimal wear and no osteolysis at 10-year follow up. The yearly linear penetration rate is similar to that seen in other studies of XLPE THA. A careful longitudinal follow-up will be required to determine if advanced bearings such as OxZr or ceramic can show improved performance in the second decade of implantation.

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<![CDATA[Factors lead to return to sports and recreational activity after total knee replacement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf57faf32-687a-4573-8dd2-19a0ea7a1cdb Introduction: The number of total knee replacements performed (TKR) is increasing and so are patient expectations and functional demands. The mean age at which orthopedic surgeons may indicate TKR is decreasing, and therefore return to sport (RTS) after TKR is often an important expectation for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the mid-term RTS, recreational activities, satisfaction level, and forgotten joint level after TKR. Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2016, 536 TKR (same implant design, same technique) were performed in our center. The mean age at survey was 69 years with a mean follow-up of 43 months. All patients who did not have a follow-up in the last 6 months were called. Finally, 443 TKR were analyzed. RTS was assessed using the University of California Los Angeles Scale (UCLA), forgotten joint score (FJS), and Satisfaction Score. Results: In this study, 85% of patients had RTS after TKR with a mean UCLA score increasing from 4.48 to 5.92 and a high satisfaction rate. Satisfaction with activity level was 93% (satisfied and very satisfied patients). The RTS is more important for people with a higher preoperative UCLA score and a lower American Society of Anesthesiologist score (ASA). Each point increase in ASA score is associated with reduced probability to RTS by 52%. Discussion: RTS and recreational activity were likely after TKR with a high satisfaction score. Preoperative condition and activity are the two most significant predictive factors for RTS. Level of evidence: Retrospective case series, level IV.

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<![CDATA[The effects of knee meniscectomy on the development of osteoarthritis in the patellofemoral joint 40 years following meniscectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N62dcbcf3-b3fa-4a15-b268-f27338e24207

Most knee osteoarthritis and meniscectomy studies focus on osteoarthritis in the tibiofemoral joint and ignore the patellofemoral joint. This study aims to assess the long-term effects of total meniscectomy on the patellofemoral joint. To our knowledge, this is the only study of osteoarthritis in the patellofemoral joint following meniscectomy that extends to a 40-year follow-up period. Twenty-two patients with osteoarthritis were evaluated at a mean of 40 years post-meniscectomy using standardised weight-bearing radiographs of the operated and non-operated knees. Patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis was diagnosed by the presence of osteophytes and joint space narrowing to less than 5 mm. Kellgren and Lawrence scores were calculated from the radiographs. Patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis and tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis were correlated with International Knee Documentation Committee scores and range of movement measurements. A significant difference was observed between the operated and non-operated knees in terms of patellofemoral joint osteophyte formation. There was a significant difference in tibiofemoral joint Kellgren and Lawrence scores, International Knee Documentation Committee scores and range of movement measurements between knees with lateral facet patellofemoral joint space of < 5 mm and > 5 mm. This study shows an association between open total meniscectomy and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis at 40 years following surgery. There was also an association between patellofemoral joint space narrowing in the lateral facet and tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Possible causes include altered biomechanical loading patterns following meniscectomy as well as global processes within the knee.

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<![CDATA[A meta-analysis of total knee arthroplasty following high tibial osteotomy versus primary total knee arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfc5de51f-97e7-4f7c-a17a-cfccac4f8329

Background

This study was performed to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following high tibial osteotomy (HTO) versus primary TKA.

Methods

Relevant trials were identified via a search of Ovid, PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to 10 January 2019. A meta-analysis was performed to compare postoperative outcomes between revising HTO to TKA (RHTO) and primary TKA (PTKA) with respect to Knee Society Score (KSS), 10-year survival rate, operative time, flexion and extension angle, infection rate and radiographic results.

Results

Sixteen of 340 studies involving 103,552 adult patients (RHTO group, n = 3955; PTKA group, n = 99,597) were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Compared with primary TKA, revising HTO to TKA required longer operative time and had a higher infection rate (P < 0.05). The PTKA group had better flexion angle than the RHTO group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the KSS, extension angle, radiographic results and 10-year survival rate (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Patients who undergo conversion of HTO to TKA have similar 10-year survival rate, KSS, extension angle and radiographic results as patients who undergo primary TKA. However, conversion of HTO to TKA required longer operative time and had a higher infection rate than performing primary TKA. Moreover, conversion of HTO to TKA is associated with poorer flexion angle than primary TKA.

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<![CDATA[Similar revision rates in clinical studies and arthroplasty registers and no bias for developer publications in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6e8a8cd-0a83-4c32-9114-54cc72019639

Purpose

Our aim was to assess the outcome with respect to cumulative revision rates of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) by comparing published literature and arthroplasty registry data. Our hypothesis was that there is a superior outcome of UKA described in dependent clinical studies compared to independent studies or arthroplasty registers.

Methods

A systematic review of all clinical studies on UKA in the past decade was conducted with the main endpoint revision rate. Revision rate was calculated as “revision per 100 component years (CY)”. The respective data were analysed with regard to a potential difference of the percentage of performed revision surgeries as described in dependent and independent clinical studies. Clinical data were further compared to arthroplasty registers in a systematic search algorithm.

Results

In total, 48 study cohorts fulfilled our inclusion criteria and revealed 1.11 revisions per 100 CY. This corresponds to a revision rate of 11.1% after 10 years. No deviations with regard to revision rates for UKA among dependent and independent clinical literature were detected. Data from four arthroplasty registers showed lower survival rates after 10 years compared to published literature without being significant.

Conclusions

The outcomes of UKA in dependent and independent clinical studies do not differ significantly and are in line with arthroplasty register datasets. We cannot confirm biased results and the authors recommend the use of UKAs in properly selected patients by experts in their field.

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<![CDATA[The Chinese ACL injury population has a higher proportion of small ACL tibial insertion sizes than Western patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb2972715-190e-4084-9578-cddc52af38d5

Purpose

The study purpose is to characterize the sizes of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site and intercondylar notch in Chinese patients undergoing ACL surgery. The findings will provide a reference for individualized clinical treatment of ACL rupture.

Methods

For this study, 137 patients (102 males, 35 females) with an average age of 30.3 ± 9.5 years (range 14–52 years) undergoing ACL reconstruction were included. The tibial ACL insertion site length and width and the intercondylar notch width were measured on MRI and arthroscopically using a ruler. Descriptive statistics of the patients, the distribution of the measurements and the differences between males and females were calculated.

Results

The ACL tibial insertion size and intercondylar notch width in Chinese patients with ACL injuries, as obtained by MRI and intra-operatively, exhibited significant individual variability. The tibial ACL insertion site had a mean length of 13.5 ± 2.1 mm and width of 10.9 ± 1.5 mm as measured on MRI and a mean length of 13.3 ± 2.1 mm and width of 11.0 ± 1.6 mm as measured intra-operatively. The mean intercondylar notch width was 15.2 ± 2.4 mm on MRI and the mean length was 15.0 ± 2.5 mm intra-operatively. The inter-rater reliability between MRI and intra-operative measurements confirmed that the two methods were consistent. In 65.7% of individuals, the ACL tibial insertion length was < 14 mm.

Conclusion

The distribution of tibial footprint size in Chinese patients is different from that in Western populations. There is a higher proportion of subjects with a tibial footprint size < 14 mm among Chinese patients with ACL injury. Therefore, great care should be taken when treating this population with the double-bundle technique or larger graft options.

Level of evidence IV.

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<![CDATA[The actual knee function was not influenced by joint line obliquity after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne0a4a5c0-96e2-4c1a-814e-20e2d6e276b4

Purpose: Excessive joint line obliquity (JLO) after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) induces detrimental stress on the articular cartilage. The purpose of this article is to assess the correlation between JLO and the clinical results after OWHTO.

Methods: 68 patients were followed up for more than 1 year. JLO was assessed using a long-leg standing anteroposterior radiograph. The knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and KSS (Knee Society score) objective knee score were assessed as clinical scores. The Weight-bearing line ratio (WBLR), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA), and joint line convergence angle (JLCA) were assessed as radiological parameters. The timed up-and-go (TUG) test and single-leg standing (SLS) test were performed, and the isometric muscle strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings was assessed to evaluate the knee function. The primary outcomes were the correlations between the JLO and the clinical score, radiological parameters and knee function after OWHTO. The secondary objective of this study was to detect the factor with the greatest influence on JLO.

Results: There were significant correlations between the postoperative JLO and the KOOS in the subcategories of pain, activities of daily living (ADL), and sports and recreation (r = −0.311, −0.302, −0.282, p = 0.011, 0.014, 0.022, respectively). However, the postoperative JLO was not significantly correlated with the KSS, knee function, or muscle strength. The preoperative LDFA and postoperative MPTA were factors influencing increased JLO after OWHTO.

Discussion: There was no significant correlation between the JLO and the actual knee function. The preoperative LDFA and postoperative MPTA were factors that influenced the increase in JLO after OWHTO.

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<![CDATA[Restoring the constitutional alignment with a restrictive kinematic protocol improves quantitative soft-tissue balance in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf9030c38-f9f7-4922-b9b7-2a2373d421fc

Aims

It is unknown whether kinematic alignment (KA) objectively improves knee balance in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), despite this being the biomechanical rationale for its use. This study aimed to determine whether restoring the constitutional alignment using a restrictive KA protocol resulted in better quantitative knee balance than mechanical alignment (MA).

Methods

We conducted a randomized superiority trial comparing patients undergoing TKA assigned to KA within a restrictive safe zone or MA. Optimal knee balance was defined as an intercompartmental pressure difference (ICPD) of 15 psi or less using a pressure sensor. The primary endpoint was the mean intraoperative ICPD at 10° of flexion prior to knee balancing. Secondary outcomes included balance at 45° and 90°, requirements for balancing procedures, and presence of tibiofemoral lift-off.

Results

A total of 63 patients (70 knees) were randomized to KA and 62 patients (68 knees) to MA. Mean ICPD at 10° flexion in the KA group was 11.7 psi (SD 13.1) compared with 32.0 psi in the MA group (SD 28.9), with a mean difference in ICPD between KA and MA of 20.3 psi (p < 0.001). Mean ICPD in the KA group was significantly lower than in the MA group at 45° and 90°, respectively (25.2 psi MA vs 14.8 psi KA, p = 0.004; 19.1 psi MA vs 11.7 psi KA, p < 0.002, respectively). Overall, participants in the KA group were more likely to achieve optimal knee balance (80% vs 35%; p < 0.001). Bone recuts to achieve knee balance were more likely to be required in the MA group (49% vs 9%; p < 0.001). More participants in the MA group had tibiofemoral lift-off (43% vs 13%; p < 0.001).

Conclusion

This study provides persuasive evidence that restoring the constitutional alignment with KA in TKA results in a statistically significant improvement in quantitative knee balance, and further supports this technique as a viable alternative to MA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J. 2020;102-B(1):117–124

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<![CDATA[REVIEW OF TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY AND THE BRAZILIAN UNIFIED HEALTH SYSTEM: A NATIONAL PROBLEM]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32052528-2c75-43bf-a617-f086839389b1

ABSTRACT

Objectives:

To analyze, through DATASUS data, the historical trend of revision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the period between 2008-2016 and to relate them to demographic, regional and national aspects.

Methods:

Elaboration of a historical series between the period 2008-2016, using the database of DATASUS, in the area of Health Information (TABNET). In order to calculate the incidence, the total number of TKA revisions and as denominator the total national, regional or state population for the period studied was used as numerator.

Results:

The national rate of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants varied between 0.41 and 0.48 in the analyzed period (mean of 0.44). The Southeast region, with 69% of the SBCJ accredited services and 61% of the SBCJ members, was responsible for 60% of the absolute number of procedures performed in Brazil.

Conclusions:

In absolute numbers, the Southeast region has the highest volume of procedures. However, the highest rate is found in the South region. The North, Northeast and Central-West regions presented unsatisfactory results, well below the others. Level of evidence IV, Economic and decision analysis - development of economic model or decision.

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<![CDATA[PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP) AND TRANEXAMIC ACID (TXA) APPLIED IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N954c6625-b689-4c84-8f8b-461404363888

ABSTRACT

Objective:

To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and tranexamic acid (TXA) applied in total knee arthroplasty.

Methods:

We selected and randomized 84 patients. TXA was applied in 23 patients, PRP in 20, and PRP in combination with TXA in 20. Hemoglobin was measured preoperatively and 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. The function questionnaire, pain scale and gain of knee flexion were monitored until the second postoperative year.

Results:

There was a difference (p <0.01) in the decrease in hemoglobin 48 hours after surgery between the TXA group and the control and PRP groups. In terms of pain, the TXA group at 24 and 48 hours after surgery and the PRP group at 48 hours after surgery showed advantages (p <0.01). Knee flexion gain in the first 24 hours postoperatively was better in the TXA group (p <0.05).

Conclusion:

TXA was effective in lowering the drop in hemoglobin level, reducing pain and improving movement gain 48 hours after the procedure. PRP was not effective in reducing bleeding or improving knee function after arthroplasty, but provided better control of postoperative pain. Level of Evidence I, Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial.

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<![CDATA[Low relative muscle volume: Correlation with prevalence of venous thromboembolism following total knee arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823ced5eed0c484639081

Background

There have been many efforts to find modifiable risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the perioperative period of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), while no study has investigated the relationship between the muscle mass and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism frequency following TKA. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between muscle volume and the prevalence of symptomatic and radiologically confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods

A total of 261 consecutive patients who underwent primary TKA between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled. Computed tomographic venography with pulmonary angiography (CTVPA) was performed between the 5th and 7th postoperative days to assess the presence of VTE. Four parameters of muscle volume at three levels were evaluated on CTVPA: (i) the cross-sectional area of all skeletal muscles (skeletal muscle index) and total psoas area at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae; (ii) the vastus lateralis muscle at the thigh level; and (iii) the posterior crural muscle at the lower leg level. The relationship between the muscle volume at each level and the prevalence of VTE after TKA was evaluated with multivariate adjusted logistic regression models.

Results

The CTVPA scan showed no proximal DVT, and all thrombi were located in muscular, peroneal, and posterior tibial veins. In unilateral TKA, patients with lower muscle volume of the vastus lateralis at the thigh level in the nonoperated limb had significantly higher prevalence of distal DVT in the operated limb (adjusted OR: 2.97 at subclinical DVT revealed by CTVPA and adjusted OR: 2.68 at symptomatic DVT). This finding was also discovered in patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral TKA (adjusted OR: 1.73–2.97 at subclinical DVT and adjusted OR:1.76–1.86 at symptomatic DVT).

Conclusions

The relative muscle volume of the vastus lateralis at the thigh level was negatively associated with the prevalence of symptomatic and radiologically confirmed DVT, suggesting that low thigh muscle mass is an independent risk factor for VTE in the postoperative period of TKA.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of Valgus Offloading Knee Braces in the Treatment of Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c970a42d5eed0c48491dff4

Context:

Knee osteoarthritis affects 9.3 million adults over age 45 years in the United States. There is significant disability associated with this condition. Given the potential complications and the significant cost to the health care system with the dramatic increase in total knee arthroplasties performed for this condition, assessment of the efficacy of nonoperative modalities, such as offloading knee braces, is essential as part of optimizing nonoperative treatment for this condition.

Objective:

To determine the effectiveness of valgus offloader braces in improving clinical outcomes for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

Data Sources:

Three databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from database inception through July 28, 2017.

Study Selection:

Studies reporting outcomes of valgus offloader knee braces in the treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were included.

Study Design:

Systematic review.

Level of Evidence:

Level 4.

Data Extraction:

Data pertaining to demographics, descriptive statistics, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the included studies. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated.

Results:

A total of 31 studies were included, with a total of 619 patients. The majority of studies reported improved pain outcomes using valgus offloader braces. However, variable results were reported as to whether valgus offloader braces significantly improved functional outcomes and stiffness. Offloader bracing was more effective at reducing pain when compared with neutral braces or neoprene sleeves.

Conclusion:

Valgus offloader bracing is an effective treatment for improving pain secondary to medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The literature remains unclear on the effectiveness of valgus offloader braces with regard to functional outcomes and stiffness. Larger prospective randomized trials with consistent outcome assessment tools and consideration of patient compliance would be beneficial to more accurately determine treatment effects of valgus offloader bracing.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic stability and stepping strategies of young healthy adults walking on an oscillating treadmill]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9dad5eed0c48452a314

Understanding how people modify their stepping to maintain gait stability may provide information on fall risk and help to understand strategies used to reduce loss of balance. The purpose of this study was to identify the stepping strategies healthy young individuals select to maintain balance while walking on a destabilizing surface in various directions. A treadmill mounted on top of a 6 degree-of-freedom motion base was used to generate support surface oscillations in different degrees of freedom and amplitudes. Fifteen healthy young adults (21.3 ± 1.4 years) walked at self-selected speeds while continuous sinusoidal oscillations were imposed to the support surface in a one degree of freedom: rotation or translation in the mediolateral (ML) direction and rotation or translation in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, with each condition repeated at three different amplitudes. We compared step width, length, and frequency and the mean and variability of margin of stability (MoS) during each experimental walking condition with a control condition, in which the support surface was stationary. Subjects chose a common strategy of increasing step width (p < 0.001) and decreasing step length (p = 0.008) while increasing mediolateral MoS (p < 0.001), particularly during oscillations that challenged frontal plane control, with rotations of the walking surface producing the greatest changes to stepping.

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<![CDATA[A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of osteoarticular brucellosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f2bd5eed0c484840b19

Background

Infection of bones and joints remains one of the most commonly described complications of brucellosis in humans and is predominantly reported in all ages and sexes in high-risk regions, such as the Middle East, Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. We aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of osteoarticular brucellosis (OAB).

Methodology

Major bibliographic databases were searched using keywords and suitable combinations. All studies reporting the incidence and clinical manifestations of osteoarticular brucellosis in humans, and demonstrated by two or more diagnostic methods (bacteriological, molecular, serological, and/or radiographic) were included. Random model was used, and statistical significance was set at 0.05%

Principal findings

A total of 56 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. There was an evidence of geographical variation in the prevalence of osteoarticular disease with estimates ranging from 27% in low-risk regions to 36% in high-risk regions. However, the difference was not significant. Thus, brucellosis patients have at least a 27% chance of developing osteoarticular disease.

Conclusions

The prevalence of OAB is not dependent on the endemicity of brucellosis in a particular region. Hence, further research should investigate the potential mechanisms of OAB, as well as the influence of age, gender, and other socioeconomic factor variations in its global prevalence, as this may provide insight into associated exposure risks and management of the disease.

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<![CDATA[Mid-term results of impaction bone grafting in tibial bone defects in complex primary knee arthroplasty for severe varus deformity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6db0c9d5eed0c48450c5bc

Introduction: Bone defects are a challenging problem encountered occasionally during primary knee arthroplasty. These defects should be meticulously addressed so as to avoid malalignment and premature loosening and failure. Out of the many options available to deal with these defects, impaction bone grafting provides a more biological solution, which is especially important in case of primary knees.

Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was done and patients with severe varus deformity of more than 20 degrees who had undergone primary knee arthroplasty with impaction bone grafting of the tibial condyle defect were followed up.

Results: Between 2008 and 2014, out of the 1124 patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty, only 26 knees in 23 patients met the inclusion criteria. The amount of varus deformity ranged from 20 to 35 degrees. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 8 years with an average of 6 years. The average pre-operative Knee Society Score (KSS) and Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score were 24.2 and 78, respectively. There were significant improvements in the post-op scores, with the average KSS being 90.2 and the WOMAC being 38.

Conclusion: Impaction bone grafting provides an invaluable option to the orthopedic surgeon for managing bone defects, especially in case of primary knee arthroplasty as it reconstitutes the bone stock.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics of trunk and lower limb alignment at maximum reach during the Star Excursion Balance Test in subjects with increased knee valgus during jump landing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6e7d5eed0c484ef425c

Background

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is often injured during sport. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) has been used to evaluate ankle and knee stability of the supporting leg while reaching in eight different directions with the non-stance leg. We hypothesized that the SEBT might be useful in categorising ACL injury risk. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between knee valgus alignment during single leg drop landing (SDL) and alignment of the trunk and lower limb during the SEBT.

Methods

A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure the trunk, hip and knee angles during SDL and the SEBT. Groupings were allocated based on 5 degrees of knee valgus angle during SDL. Independent t-test’s were used to identify differences in the trunk, hip and knee angles between the two groups.

Results

The knee valgus angles in the knee valgus group were greater than those in the control group in five directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05). In addition, the hip internal rotation angle in the knee valgus group was lower than that in the control group during two directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the knee flexion and trunk right rotation angles in the knee valgus group were lower than those in the control group in two directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Decreases in hip internal rotation, knee flexion and trunk rotation to the supporting leg during the SEBT might be considered as risk factors for non-contact ACL injury.

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<![CDATA[The prevalence of osteoarthritis: Higher risk after transfemoral amputation?—A database analysis with 1,569 amputees and matched controls]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c47bd5eed0c4845e87f8

Background

Several studies have shown that patients with a unilateral amputation have an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA) in the knee of their sound leg. OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to investigate whether amputees are more frequently affected by gon-, cox- or polyarthritis as well as back pain or spinal disorders. We hypothesized that mobile and active transfemoral amputees more often experience OA and spinal disorders than non-amputees. The second objective was to compare the mean age of the patients with OA.

Patients

Patients with a unilateral transfemoral amputation (n = 1,569) and five abled-body control groups (each n = 1,569) matched in terms of age and gender resulting in total of 9,414 participants.

Methods

Groups were analyzed regarding the prevalence of six selected diagnoses regarding musculoskeletal disorders.

Results

A significantly decreased prevalence of OA and specific disorders of the spine in transfemoral amputees compared to a control group was found. The amputees with OA are significantly younger than patients with OA in the control group.

Conclusion

The results from the presented study contradict previously published literature. Apparently circumstances of life play an important role, like physical work and strenuous activities which are likely to be underrepresented in the amputee group. The results of the study need to be used cautiously due to the major limitation of the study which is the lack of detail in individual patients caused by the methodology.

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<![CDATA[Prenatal growth map of the mouse knee joint by means of deformable registration technique]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7b3d5eed0c4844909ca

Joint morphogenesis is the process during which distinct and functional joint shapes emerge during pre- and post-natal joint development. In this study, a repeatable semi-automatic protocol capable of providing a 3D realistic developmental map of the prenatal mouse knee joint was designed by combining Optical Projection Tomography imaging (OPT) and a deformable registration algorithm (Sheffield Image Registration toolkit, ShIRT). Eleven left limbs of healthy murine embryos were scanned with OPT (voxel size: 14.63μm) at two different stages of development: Theiler stage (TS) 23 (approximately 14.5 embryonic days) and 24 (approximately 15.5 embryonic days). One TS23 limb was used to evaluate the precision of the displacement predictions for this specific case. The remaining limbs were then used to estimate Developmental Tibia and Femur Maps. Acceptable uncertainties of the displacement predictions computed from repeated images were found for both epiphyses (between 1.3μm and 1.4μm for the proximal tibia and between 0.7μm and 1.0μm for the femur, along all directions). The protocol was found to be reproducible with maximum Modified Housdorff Distance (MHD) differences equal to 1.9 μm and 1.5 μm for the tibial and femoral epiphyses respectively. The effect of the initial shape of the rudiment affected the developmental maps with MHD of 21.7 μm and 21.9 μm for the tibial and femoral epiphyses respectively, which correspond to 1.4 and 1.5 times the voxel size. To conclude, this study proposes a repeatable semi-automatic protocol capable of providing mean 3D realistic developmental map of a developing rudiment allowing researchers to study how growth and adaptation are directed by biological and mechanobiological factors.

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<![CDATA[Computational model for the patella onset]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966c6d5eed0c484b52d75

The patella is a sesamoid bone embedded within the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon that articulates with the femur. However, how is it formed is still unknown. Therefore, here we have evaluated, computationally, how three theories explain, independently, the patella onset. The first theory was proposed recently, in 2015. This theory suggested that the patella is initially formed as a bone eminence, attached to the anterodistal surface of the femur, while the quadriceps tendon is forming. Thereafter, a joint develops between the eminence and the femur, regulated by mechanical load. We evaluated this theory by simulating the biochemical environment that surrounds the tendon development. As a result, we obtained a patella-like structure embedded within the tendon, especially for larger flexion angles. The second and third theories are the most accepted until now. They state that the patella develops within tendons in response to the mechanical environment provided by the attaching muscles. The second theory analyzed the mechanical conditions (high hydrostatic stress) that (according to previous Carter theories) lead to the differentiation from tendon to fibrocartilage, and then, to bone. The last theory was evaluated using the self-optimizing capability of biological tissue. It was considered that the development of the patella, due to tissue topological optimization of the developing quadriceps tendon, is a feasible explanation of the patella appearance. For both theories, a patella onset was obtained as a structure embedded within the tendon. This model provided information about the relationship between the flexion angle and the patella size and shape. In conclusion, the computational models used to evaluate and analyze the selected theories allow determining that the patella onset may be the result of a combination of biochemical and mechanical factors that surround the patellar tendon development.

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