ResearchPad - kyphosis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Bisegmental posterior stabilisation of thoracolumbar fractures with polyaxial pedicle screws: Does additional balloon kyphoplasty retain vertebral height?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15725 We retrospectively evaluated single-level compression fractures (T12-L3) scheduled for a short-segment POS (posterior-only stabilization) using polyaxial screws. Patients averaged 55.7 years (range, 19–65). Patients received either POS or, concomitantly, BK (balloon kyphoplasty) of the fractured vertebrae as well. Primary endpoint was the radiological outcome at the last radiographic follow-up prior to implant removal. POS together with BK of the fractured vertebrae resulted in a significant improvement of the local kyphosis angle and vertebral body compression rates immediately post-OP. During the further course of FU, a considerable loss of correction was observed post-OP in both groups. (Local KA: pre-OP/ post-OP/ FU: 12.6±4.8/ 3.35±4.8/ 11.6±6.0; anterior vertebral body compression%: pre-OP/post-OP/ FU: 71.94±12.3/ 94.78±19.95/ 78.17±14.74). VAS was significantly improved from 7.2±1.3 pre-OP to 2.7±1.3 (P<0.001) at FU. We found a significant restoration of the vertebral body height by BK. Nevertheless, follow-up revealed a noticeable loss of reduction. Given the fact that BK used together with polyaxial screws did not maintain intra-operative reduction, our data do not support this additional maneuver when used together with bi-segmental polyaxial pedicle screw fixation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mice with an N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU) Induced Tyr209Asn Mutation in Natriuretic Peptide Receptor 3 (NPR3) Provide a Model for Kyphosis Associated with Activation of the MAPK Signaling Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da72ab0ee8fa60b95233

Non-syndromic kyphosis is a common disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and has a strong genetic involvement; however, the causative genes remain to be identified, as such studies are hampered by genetic heterogeneity, small families and various modes of inheritance. To overcome these limitations, we investigated 12 week old progeny of mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) using phenotypic assessments including dysmorphology, radiography, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. This identified a mouse with autosomal recessive kyphosis (KYLB). KYLB mice, when compared to unaffected littermates, had: thoraco-lumbar kyphosis, larger vertebrae, and increased body length and increased bone area. In addition, female KYLB mice had increases in bone mineral content and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Recombination mapping localized the Kylb locus to a 5.5Mb region on chromosome 15A1, which contained 51 genes, including the natriuretic peptide receptor 3 (Npr3) gene. DNA sequence analysis of Npr3 identified a missense mutation, Tyr209Asn, which introduced an N-linked glycosylation consensus sequence. Expression of wild-type NPR3 and the KYLB-associated Tyr209Asn NPR3 mutant in COS-7 cells demonstrated the mutant to be associated with abnormal N-linked glycosylation and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum that resulted in its absence from the plasma membrane. NPR3 is a decoy receptor for C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which also binds to NPR2 and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, thereby increasing the number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Histomorphometric analysis of KYLB vertebrae and tibiae showed delayed endochondral ossification and expansion of the hypertrophic zones of the growth plates, and immunohistochemistry revealed increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation throughout the growth plates of KYLB vertebrae. Thus, we established a model of kyphosis due to a novel NPR3 mutation, in which loss of plasma membrane NPR3 expression results in increased MAPK pathway activation, causing elongation of the vertebrae and resulting in kyphosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Trunk lean mass and its association with 4 different measures of thoracic kyphosis in older community dwelling persons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc15c

Background

The causes of age-related hyperkyphosis (HK) include osteoporosis, but only 1/3 of those most severely affected have vertebral fractures, suggesting that there are other important, and potentially modifiable causes. We hypothesized that muscle mass and quality may be important determinants of kyphosis in older persons.

Methods

We recruited 72 persons >65 years to participate in a prospective study designed to evaluate kyphosis and fall risk. At the baseline visit, participants had their body composition measures completed using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). They had kyphosis measured in either the standing [S] or lying [L] position: 1) Cobb angle from DXA [L]; 2) Debrunner kyphometer [S]; 3) architect’s flexicurve ruler [S]; and 4) blocks method [L]. Multivariable linear/logistic regression analyses were done to assess the association between each body composition and 4 kyphosis measures.

Results

Women (n = 52) were an average age of 76.8 (SD 6.7) and men 80.5 (SD 7.8) years. They reported overall good/excellent health (93%), the average body mass index was 25.3 (SD 4.6) and 35% reported a fall in the past year. Using published cut-offs, about 20–30% were determined to have HK. For the standing assessments of kyphosis only, after adjusting for age, sex, weight and hip BMD, persons with lower TLM were more likely to be hyperkyphotic.

Conclusions

Lower TLM is associated with HK in older persons. The results were stronger when standing measures of kyphosis were used, suggesting that the effects of muscle on thoracic kyphosis are best appreciated under spinal loading conditions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Long-term effects of conservative treatment of Milwaukee brace on body image and mental health of patients with idiopathic scoliosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfa78b3d5eed0c48468fa1f

We aimed to provide a complex assessment of adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) after a minimum of 23 years after completed Milwaukee brace treatment. In the present study, a comparison between healthy female and AIS patients’ perception of trunk disfigurement, self-image, mental health, pain level and everyday activity was made. Thirty AIS patients with a mean of 27.77 yrs (SD 3.30) after the treatment were included in the study. The control group consisted of 42 females, matching the age profile of the patient group. Study participants from both groups were examined using the same protocol, except for the radiological evaluation. Patients and healthy controls completed the Polish versions of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) and Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ). Patients additionally filled the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity (BSSQ-Deformity) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace (BSSQ-Brace). The study group’s SAQ results differ significantly in regard to the total score and all individual domains, indicating better functioning among healthy controls. Except for the General domain (p = 0.002), among the remaining subscales the study group’s results differed significantly at p<0.001. Considering SRS-22 results, it was revealed that the patient group scored higher, signaling better functioning with reference to pain level (p = 0.016), function/activity (p<0.001) and the total score (p<0.001). The findings add to the complexity of long-term effect evaluations of AIS, particularly amongst females treated with a Milwaukee brace. Long-term results were not conclusive in terms of nonverbal assessment of body image and emotional tension regarding the experiences of brace-wearing. Future patients can be reassured that scoliosis treated conservatively does not negatively affect everyday activity, pain level, childbearing and mental health. Subjects who declared to have psychological problems due to scoliosis had a bigger curve size after treatment and in this study than the other AIS patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[3D-modeling of the spine using EOS imaging system: Inter-reader reproducibility and reliability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc56b

Objectives

To retrospectively assess the interreader reproducibility and reliability of EOS 3D full spine reconstructions in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Methods

73 patients with mean age of 17 years and a moderate AIS (median Cobb Angle 18.2°) obtained low-dose standing biplanar radiographs with EOS. Two independent readers performed “full spine” 3D reconstructions of the spine with the “full-spine” method adjusting the bone contour of every thoracic and lumbar vertebra (Th1-L5). Interreader reproducibility was assessed regarding rotation of every single vertebra in the coronal (i.e. frontal), sagittal (i.e. lateral), and axial plane, T1/T12 kyphosis, T4/T12 kyphosis, L1/L5 lordosis, L1/S1 lordosis and pelvic parameters. Radiation exposure, scan-time and 3D reconstruction time were recorded.

Results

Interclass correlation (ICC) ranged between 0.83 and 0.98 for frontal vertebral rotation, between 0.94 and 0.99 for lateral vertebral rotation and between 0.51 and 0.88 for axial vertebral rotation. ICC was 0.92 for T1/T12 kyphosis, 0.95 for T4/T12 kyphosis, 0.90 for L1/L5 lordosis, 0.85 for L1/S1 lordosis, 0.97 for pelvic incidence, 0.96 for sacral slope, 0.98 for sagittal pelvic tilt and 0.94 for lateral pelvic tilt. The mean time for reconstruction was 14.9 minutes (reader 1: 14.6 minutes, reader 2: 15.2 minutes, p<0.0001). The mean total absorbed dose was 593.4μGy ±212.3 per patient.

Conclusion

EOS “full spine” 3D angle measurement of vertebral rotation proved to be reliable and was performed in an acceptable reconstruction time. Interreader reproducibility of axial rotation was limited to some degree in the upper and middle thoracic spine due the obtuse angulation of the pedicles and the processi spinosi in the frontal view somewhat complicating their delineation.

]]>
<![CDATA[The influence of sagittal profile alteration and final lordosis on the clinical outcome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A Delta-Omega-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc9c

Purpose

Decompression and maintaining or restoring a cervical lordosis are major goals in the surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Numerous studies support the assumption that cervical lordosis is a key factor for neurological recovery and pain reduction. However, even kyphotic patients can be asymptomatic. The balance of the spine is subject of an increasing number of publications. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity of lordotic alignment on the course of CSM and to set this parameter in context with well-validated tools, namely the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system (mJOAS) and the visual analogue scale (VAS), to predict and measure the clinical outcome after surgery.

Methods

This is a retrospective study with prospectively collected data of a heterogeneous cohort. The authors analyzed the records of 102 patients suffering from CSM that underwent decompressive surgery and instrumentation. Clinical outcome was assessed by using the mJOAS, VAS and Odom’s criteria. The radiological analysis involved comparison of pre- and postoperative radiographs. The patients were divided into subgroups to be able to compare the influence of various amounts of correction (3 Delta-groups: <0°, 1–7° and ≥8°) and final lordosis (4 Omega-groups: 0–7°, 8–14°, 15–21°, ≥22°).

Results

219 levels were fused in 102 patients. Surgery improved the clinical outcome of all groups significantly. A lordotic profile was achieved in all analyzed groups. Patients that showed small lordosis after surgery (<8°) did not have an inferior clinical outcome compared to patients with larger cervical lordosis (>14°). The comparison of Odom’s criteria showed that preoperatively kyphotic patients benefitted more from surgery than lordotic patients (p = 0.029), but no differences could be seen comparing neck pain and neurological improvement. The improvement of pain and neurological impairment measured by VAS and mJOAS supports the statistical impact and validity of the data despite comparatively small numbers of patients. The lack of postoperative kyphosis is a major limitation of the study to encompass the impact of sagittal alignment on clinical outcome.

Conclusions

Decompression and stabilization appear to be key elements of surgical treatment of CSM. While the achievement of cervical lordosis remains a major goal of surgery, clinical improvement is not hindered in patients who show small lordosis. However, kyphosis should be eliminated in symptomatic patients. The terms “balance” and “physiologic lordosis” remain complex entities without clear definition. To check the results of our study controlled randomized trials to validate and determine the exact role of cervical balance on the course of CSM would be helpful.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pleural Effusion in Spinal Deformity Correction Surgery- A Report of 28 Cases in a Single Center]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da70ab0ee8fa60b947d7

Objectives

To analyze the occurrence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of postoperative pleural effusion after spinal deformity correction surgery.

Methods

The clinical and imaging data of 3325 patients undergoing spinal deformity correction were collected from the database of our hospital. We analyzed the therapeutic process of the 28 patients who had postoperative pleural effusion, and we identified the potential risk factors using logistic regression.

Results

Among the 28 patients with postoperative pleural effusion, 24 (85.7%) suffered from hemothorax, 2 (7.1%) from chylothorax, and 2 (7.1%) from subarachnoid-pleural fistula. The pleural effusion occurred on the convex side in 19 patients (67.9%), on the concave side in 4 patients (14.3%), and on both sides in 4 patients (14.3%). One patient with left hemothorax was diagnosed with kyphosis. The treatment included conservative clinical observation for 5 patients and chest tube drainage for 23 patients. One patient also underwent thoracic duct ligation and pleurodesis. All of these treatments were successful. Logistic regression analysis showed that adult patients(≥18 years old), congenital scoliosis, osteotomy and thoracoplasty were risk factors for postoperative pleural effusion in spinal deformity correction surgery.

Conclusions

The incidence of postoperative pleural effusion in spinal deformity correction surgery was approximately 0.84% (28/3325), and hemothorax was the most common type. Chest tube drainage treatment was usually successful, and the prognosis was good. Adult patients(≥18 years old), congenital scoliosis, and had undergone osteotomy or surgery with thoracoplasty were more likely to suffer from postoperative pleural effusion.

]]>
<![CDATA[Comparison between titanium mesh and autogenous iliac bone graft to restore vertebral height through posterior approach for the treatment of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc695

Object

To compare the clinical efficacy of titanium mesh cages and autogenous iliac bone graft to restore vertebral height through posterior approach in patients with thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis.

Method

59 patients with spinal tuberculosis underwent interbody fusion and internal fixation through posterior approach in our department from January 2011 to December 2013. In group A, 34 patients obtained titanium mesh for the reconstruction of vertebral height, among them 25 patients (group A1) suffered from single-segment spinal tuberculosis, and 9 patients, (group A2) had multi-segment spinal tuberculosis. In group B, 25 patients got autogenous iliac bone graft to restore vertebral height, including 24 patients with single-segment spinal tuberculosis (group B1), and 1 patient with multi-segment spinal tuberculosis (group B2). The clinical efficacy was evaluated based on average operation time, blood loss, hospital stays, hospitalization expenses, visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive protein (CRP), neurological function recovery, bony fusion, intervertebral height, Cobb angle and postoperative complications.

Results

Final follow-up time was an average of 35.5 months ranging from 15 to 56 months. All patients were completely cured and obtained solid bone fusion. The bony fusion time was 9.4±6.1 months in group A1, 10.2±2.7 months in group A2 and 8.7±3.6 months in group B1. There were no significant difference among three groups (P>0.05). The Cobb correction and restoration of intervertebral height significantly improved compared with those in preoperation, but without significant difference among three groups (P>0.05). The loss of angular correction and intervertebral height in group A1 were found to be less than those in group B1 (P<0.05), but with no significant difference between group A1 and group A2, and between group A2 and group B1 (P>0.05). Patients in group B1 got the most loss of angular correction and intervertebral height. In addition, neurological function was revealed to be significantly improved after surgery. There were significant differences of VAS, ODI, ESR and CRP between preoperation and postoperation at the final follow-up time (P<0.05), with no significant difference among three groups (P>0.05). No statistically significant difference was found when analyzing blood loss, hospital stays, hospitalization expenses, and corrective cost among three groups (P>0.05). Complications included cerebrospinal fluid leakage (2 cases in group A1 and group A2), sinus formation (3 cases in group A1, group A2 and group B1), and intervertebral infection (1 case in group B1), but no implant failure or donor site complications was found in any patient.

Conclusions

Titanium mesh cages could obtain good clinical efficacy comparable to autogenous iliac bone graft when treating single-segment spinal tuberculosis, and may be better than autogenous iliac bone graft for treating multi-segment spinal tuberculosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effects of Multilevel Facetectomy and Screw Density on Postoperative Changes in Spinal Rod Contour in Thoracic Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8bab0ee8fa60b9dfbe

Flattening of the preimplantation rod contour in the sagittal plane influences thoracic kyphosis (TK) restoration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. The effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on postoperative changes in spinal rod contour have not been documented. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on changes in spinal rod contour from before implantation to after surgical correction of thoracic curves in patients with AIS prospectively. The concave and convex rod shapes from patients with thoracic AIS (n = 49) were traced prior to insertion. Postoperative sagittal rod shape was determined by computed tomography. The angle of intersection of the tangents to the rod end points was measured. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used to identify variables independently predictive of change in rod contour (Δθ). Average Δθ at the concave and convex side were 13.6° ± 7.5° and 4.3° ± 4.8°, respectively. The Δθ at the concave side was significantly greater than that of the convex side (P < 0.0001) and significantly correlated with Risser sign (P = 0.032), the preoperative main thoracic Cobb angle (P = 0.031), the preoperative TK angle (P = 0.012), and the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.007). Furthermore, a Δθ at the concave side ≥14° significantly correlated with the postoperative TK angle (P = 0.003), the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.021), and screw density at the concave side (P = 0.008). Rod deformation at the concave side suggests that corrective forces acting on that side are greater than on the convex side. Multilevel facetectomy and/or screw density at the concave side have positive effects on reducing the rod deformation that can lead to a loss of TK angle postoperatively.

]]>
<![CDATA[Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in adults: The Wakayama Spine Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0363

Objectives

To establish the normal values of spino-pelvic alignment and to clarify the effect of age-related changes using large, community-based cohorts.

Methods

In this study, data from 1461 participants (466 men, 995 women) were analyzed. On lateral standing radiographs, the following parameters were measured: thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), and C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA). All values are expressed as the mean±standard deviation. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to examine correlations between variables of spino-pelvic parameters. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between age and spino-pelvic parameters. Therefore, we entered values for the body mass index (BMI), SVA, TK, and PI-LL into a multiple regression model to adjust for potential confounding factors.

Results

The SVA, TK, and PT increased with age, and LL decreased with age. Regarding sex differences, the TK was statistically significantly larger in men than in women, and LL, PT, and PI were statistically significantly smaller in men than in women. Correlation coefficients between the SVA and TK, between the SVA and PI-LL, and between TK and PI-LL were none, strong, and weak, respectively. Results of multiple regression analysis between age and spino-pelvic parameters showed that the standardized partial regression coefficients for the SVA, TK, and PI-LL were 0.17, 0.30, and 0.23, respectively, in men and 0.29, 0.32, and 0.23, respectively, in women.

Conclusions

We found that all parameters were significantly associated with age in men and women. The SVA, TK, and PT increased with age, and LL decreased with age. Results of multiple regression analysis also demonstrated that the SVA, TK, and PI-LL are related to age. Indeed, the PI-LL value increased with age. In this study, a more excessive PI-LL mismatch was shown, indicating an increased risk of spinal malalignment. Differences in the absolute values of spino-pelvic parameters in each sex were small yet statistically significant. Thus, further study should be performed to corroborate this finding.

]]>
<![CDATA[Y Shape Osteotomy in Ankylosing Spondylitis, a Prospective Case Series with Minimum 2 Year Follow-Up]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e7ab0ee8fa60b6b82a

The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a spinal osteotomy technique, Y shape osteotomy, for correcting kyphosis in AS patients planned preoperatively with computer software-assistance. 36 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis were treated with one-stage posterior Y shape osteotomy and preoperative surgical planning was done with the aid of the Surgimap Spine. Radiological parameters of simulation and immediate postoperation were documented. Clinical and radiological results were evaluated in the preoperative, the early postoperative periods and during the last follow-up. The lumbar lordosis was found as 40.7 ± 4.1 degrees in the surgical planning and 49.7 ± 3.9 degrees postoperatively (p<0.01). PI-LL was 3.8± 0.9°in the simulation procedure and 6.6± 1.5°postoperatively (p<0.01). At the final follow-up, Global sagittal balance was restored and Both Oswestry Disability Index and Scoliosis Research Society scores improved largely. In conclusion, Y shape osteotomy is a safe and effective treatment option for AS patients with kyphosis deformity.

]]>