ResearchPad - labor-studies https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Factors associated with the job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in cancer care in Japan: Analysis based on the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15727 As the Japanese population ages, the number of cancer patients will likely increase. Therefore, qualified cancer health care providers should be recruited and retained. Nurse job satisfaction is influenced by numerous factors and may affect staff turnover and patient outcomes.ObjectivesTo evaluate the job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in Japanese cancer care and elucidate factors associated with job satisfaction.MethodsParticipants in this cross-sectional study comprised 200 certified nurse specialists and 1,472 certified nurses working in Japanese cancer care. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify job satisfaction factors.ResultsJob satisfaction was present in 38.45% and 49.00% of certified nurses and nurse specialists, respectively. Certified nurses associated job satisfaction with cross-departmental activities (OR 2.24, p<0.001), positive evaluation from senior stuff (OR 4.58, p<0.001), appropriate staff allocation (OR 1.75, p<0.001), more than five years certified nurse experience (OR 1.91, p<0.001), and positive evaluation of the development of certified nurses (OR 2.13, p<0.01) and nurse specialists (OR 1.37, p<0.05). Low job satisfaction was associated with working on a ward (OR 0.51, p<0.001) and a capacity of more than 200 beds (OR 0.33, p = 0.00). Certified nurse specialists associated job satisfaction with palliative care team participation (OR 2.64, p<0.05), cross–sectional activities (OR 7.06, p<0.01), positive evaluation from senior stuff (OR 13.15, p<0.001), presence of certified nurses in radiation therapy (OR 2.91, p<0.05), positive certified nurse specialist development evaluation (OR 7.35, p<0.001), medical service fees (OR 3.78, p<0.01), and independent activities (OR 11.34, p<0.01).ConclusionsWe identified factors related to activities, facilities, and the cancer care team associated with job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in Japanese cancer care. Suggestions are provided to enhance job satisfaction through Japan’s Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control, which may help hospital administrators retain nursing staff. ]]> <![CDATA[Do perceived working conditions and patient safety culture correlate with objective workload and patient outcomes: A cross-sectional explorative study from a German university hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390c01d5eed0c48491f5bb

Background

Workload and demands on hospital staff have been growing over recent years. To ensure patient and occupational safety, hospitals increasingly survey staff about perceived working conditions and safety culture. At the same time, routine data are used to manage resources and performance. This study aims to understand the relation between survey-derived measures of how staff perceive their work-related stress and strain and patient safety on the one hand, and routine data measures of workload and quality of care (patient safety) on the other.

Methods

We administered a written questionnaire to all physicians and nurses in the inpatient units at a German university hospital. The questionnaire was an amalgam of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) scale to assess patient-related burnout of and portions of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC). Indicators from administrative data used to assess workload and patient-related work-strain were: amount of overtime worked, work intensity recording of nurses, cost weight, occupancy rate and DRG-related length of stay. Quality of care was assessed using readmission rates and disease-related length of stay. Univariate associations were tested with Pearson correlations.

Results

Response rate were 37% (224) for physicians and 39% (351) for nurses. Physicians’ overtime correlated strongly with perceived quantitative demands (.706, 95% CI: 0.634 to 0.766), emotional demands (.765; 95% CI: 0.705 to 0.814), and perceived role conflicts (.655, 95% CI: 0.573 to 0.724). Nurses’ work-intensity measures were associated with decreasing physician job satisfaction and with less favorable perceptions of the appropriateness of staffing (-.527, 95% CI:-0.856 to 0.107). Both professional groups showed medium to strong associations between the morbidity measure (cost weight) and role conflicts; between occupancy rates and role clarity (-.482, 95% CI: -0.782 to -0.02) and predictability of work (-.62, 95% CI: -0.848 to -0.199); and between length of stay and internal team functioning (-.555, 95% CI: -0.818 to -0.101). Higher readmission rates were associated with lower perceived patient safety (-.476, 95% CI: -0.779 to 0.006), inadequate staffing (-.702, 95% CI: -0.884 to -0.334), and worse team functioning (-.520, 95% CI: -0.801 to -0.052). Shorter disease-related length of stay was associated with better teamwork within units (-.555, 95% CI: -0.818 to -0.101) and a lower risk of physician burnout (-.588, 95% CI: -0.846 to -0.108).

Conclusion

Perceptions of hospital personnel regarding sub-optimal workplace safety and teamwork issues correlated with worse patient outcome measures. Furthermore, objective measures of overtime work as well as objective measures of workload correlated clearly with subjective work-related stress and strain. This suggests that objective workload measures (such as overtime worked) could be used to indirectly monitor job-related psychosocial strain on employees and, thus, improve not only staff wellbeing but also patient outcomes. On the other hand, listening to their personnel could help hospitals to improve patient (and employee) safety.

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<![CDATA[The association between workplace violence and physicians’ and nurses’ job satisfaction in Macau]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b65d5eed0c484699060

Background

This paper describes the association between workplace violence and job satisfaction among physicians and nurses in Macau. Convenience sampling was sourced from six health centers under the Macau Health Bureau.

Methods

This study uses a cross-sectional self-administrative survey. The study used case studies research instruments for workplace violence in the health sector by country (from the ILO, ICN, WHO, PSI), the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale. The data collection period spanned from August to December, 2014.

Data analysis

Multiple logistic regression examines levels of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction in physicians and nurses and significant correlates affecting their job satisfaction.

Results

A total of 720 (14.9% physicians) participants were recruited. 57.2% of participants reported physical and psychological workplace violence in the preceding year. The most common forms of workplace violence were verbal abuse (53.4%), physical assault (16.1%), bullying / harassment (14.2%), sexual harassment (4.6%) and racial harassment (2.6%). Nurses were at a significantly higher risk of physical assault and verbal abuse compared to physicians. Patients, patients’ relatives, and colleagues were the main perpetrators. Worry about WPV, on-call duty and shift work, experience of bullying and verbal abuse and employment sector emerged as significant correlates affecting the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction of physicians and nurses. Frontline staff, aged 30 and 39, coming from an ethnic minority, and perceived stress were significant correlates affecting nurses’ job satisfaction.

Conclusions

WPV remains a significant concern in healthcare settings in Macau. Stakeholders should legally enforce a zero-tolerance policy towards WPV within healthcare workplaces. WPV is detrimental to healthcare professionals’ mental wellbeing, risking irreversible physical and psychological harm for its victims.

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<![CDATA[Staff Nurses’ Perceptions and Experiences about Structural Empowerment: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae7ab0ee8fa60bbde4a

The aim of the study reported in this article was to investigate staff nurses’ perceptions and experiences about structural empowerment and perceptions regarding the extent to which structural empowerment supports safe quality patient care. To address the complex needs of patients, staff nurse involvement in clinical and organizational decision-making processes within interdisciplinary care settings is crucial. A qualitative study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews of 11 staff nurses assigned to medical or surgical units in a 600-bed university hospital in Belgium. During the study period, the hospital was going through an organizational transformation process to move from a classic hierarchical and departmental organizational structure to one that was flat and interdisciplinary. Staff nurses reported experiencing structural empowerment and they were willing to be involved in decision-making processes primarily about patient care within the context of their practice unit. However, participants were not always fully aware of the challenges and the effect of empowerment on their daily practice, the quality of care and patient safety. Ongoing hospital change initiatives supported staff nurses’ involvement in decision-making processes for certain matters but for some decisions, a classic hierarchical and departmental process still remained. Nurses perceived relatively high work demands and at times viewed empowerment as presenting additional. Staff nurses recognized the opportunities structural empowerment provided within their daily practice. Nurse managers and unit climate were seen as crucial for success while lack of time and perceived work demands were viewed as barriers to empowerment.

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<![CDATA[Positive mental health among health professionals working at a psychiatric hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be0445

Background

Positive mental health (PMH) is a combination of emotional, psychological and social well-being that is necessary for an individual to be mentally healthy. The current study aims to examine the socio-demographic differences of PMH among mental health professionals and to explore the association between job satisfaction and total PMH.

Methods

Doctors, nurses and allied health staff (n = 462) completed the online survey which included the multidimensional 47-item PMH instrument as well as a single item job satisfaction question. Associations of PMH with job satisfaction were investigated via linear regression models.

Results

Significant differences in PMH total and domain specific scores were observed across socio-demographic characteristics. Age and ethnicity were significantly correlated with PMH total scores as well as various domain scores, while gender, marital and residency status and the staff’s position were only significantly correlated with domain specific scores. Job satisfaction was also found to be a significantly associated with total PMH.

Conclusion

The workplace is a key environment that affects the mental health and well-being of working adults. In order to promote and foster PMH, workplaces need to consider the importance of psychosocial well-being and the wellness of staff whilst providing an environment that supports and maintains overall health and work efficiency.

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<![CDATA[Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db27ab0ee8fa60bd0723

Background

Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts.

Methods

Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 women), and 3) a construction company (n = 38 men). Total (over the whole day) and occupational sedentary time, physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts (lasting ≥30 minutes) were calculated by work setting. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine general, health and work-related factors associated with sedentary time.

Results

The employees of the financial service provider and the research institutes spent 76–80% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 18–20% in light intensity physical activity and 3–5% in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Occupational time in prolonged sedentary bouts was 27–30%. Total time was less sedentary (64–70%), and had more light intensity physical activity (26–33%). The employees of the construction company spent 44% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 49% in light, and 7% in moderate intensity physical activity, and spent 7% in sedentary bouts. Total time spent in sedentary behavior was 56%, 40% in light, and 4% in moderate intensity physical behaviour, and 12% in sedentary bouts. For women, low to intermediate education was the only factor that was negatively associated with occupational sedentary time.

Conclusions

Sedentary behaviour is high among white-collar employees, especially in highly educated women. A relatively small proportion of sedentary time was accrued in sedentary bouts. It is recommended that worksite health promotion efforts should focus on reducing sedentary behaviour through improving light intensity physical activity.

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<![CDATA[Measuring Psychological Capital: Construction and Validation of the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3aab0ee8fa60bd4ad9

With the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) being the standard measure to assess psychological capital (PsyCap) in the context of organizations, this paper aims to broaden this domain-specific approach by introducing a measure with universal claim. Two studies were conducted to create and validate a German self-report scale (CPC-12) measuring PsyCap. We performed confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other positive psychological constructs on the data of two German samples (N1 = 321; N2 = 202). The twelve-item CPC-12 exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap.

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<![CDATA[Transitions in Fertility for Brazilian Women: An Analysis of Impact Factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da36ab0ee8fa60b863d0

The labor participation of Brazilian women has increased during the last few decades. According to the World Bank, the percentage of Brazilian women participating in the labor market rose from 20% in the early 1970s to 65% (for women between 16 and 64 years of age) in 2009. The fertility profile has also changed, the fertility rate has decreased from 6.2 in 1960 to 1.9 in 2009, below the replacement rate, according to the World Bank. This paper will present Brazilian fertility trends during the previous (20th) and present (21st) centuries and, emphasize the importance of individual profiles for fertility decisions. This work uses Brazilian data from PNAD (Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra por Domicilios) to understand the cause of this relationship and to predict the consequences of these choices on women’s economic development.

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<![CDATA[The Role of Social Context in Shaping Student-Athlete Opinions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da54ab0ee8fa60b8e8e2

How do student-athletes form opinions? This is a particularly important question given ongoing debates about whether student-athletes should be paid and/or allowed to unionize. These debates concern the rights and benefits accrued directly to student-athletes, and thus, understanding their attitudes is of obvious import. Yet, virtually no recent work has delved into how student-athletes form opinions on these issues. We fill this gap with a theoretical framework that predicts changes in social context alter opinions. This leads to the hypothesis that opinions will change once a student-athlete completes his/her career and finds him/herself in a distinct social network. We test the prediction with a survey, implemented in 2012, of one of the most notable athletic conferences in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA): the Big Ten. We find that post-career student-athletes demonstrate higher levels of support for pay for play and unionization. Our results suggest that student-athletes' opinions seem to depend on their extant social contexts. While our data, from 2012, neither speak to current opinions – given the quickly evolving landscape of college athletics – nor demonstrate what reforms may be “best,” they do accentuate the power of social context in shaping student-athletes' attitudes.

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<![CDATA[Peer norm guesses and self-reported attitudes towards performance-related pay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc750

Due to a variety of reasons, people see themselves differently from how they see others. This basic asymmetry has broad consequences. It leads people to judge themselves and their own behavior differently from how they judge others and others’ behavior. This research, first, studies the perceptions and attitudes of Greek Public Sector employees towards the introduction of Performance-Related Pay (PRP) systems trying to reveal whether there is a divergence between individual attitudes and guesses on peers’ attitudes. Secondly, it is investigated whether divergence between own self-reported and peer norm guesses could mediate the acceptance of the aforementioned implementation once job status has been controlled for. This study uses a unique questionnaire of 520 observations which was designed to address the questions outlined in the preceding lines. Our econometric results indicate that workers have heterogeneous attitudes and hold heterogeneous beliefs on others’ expectations regarding a successful implementation of PRP. Specifically, individual perceptions are less skeptical towards PRP than are beliefs on others’ attitudes. Additionally, we found that managers are significantly more optimistic than lower rank employees regarding the expected success of PRP systems in their jobs. However, they both expect their peers to be more negative than they themselves are.

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<![CDATA[Using a Mixed Model to Evaluate Job Satisfaction in High-Tech Industries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac4ab0ee8fa60bb1f3f

R&D professionals are the impetus behind technological innovation, and their competitiveness and capability drive the growth of a company. However, high-tech industries have a chronic shortage of such indispensable professionals. Accordingly, reducing R&D personnel turnover has become a major human resource management challenge facing innovative companies. This study combined importance–performance analysis (IPA) with the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method to propose an IPA–DEMATEL model. Establishing this model involved three steps. First, an IPA was conducted to measure the importance of and satisfaction gained from job satisfaction criteria. Second, the DEMATEL method was used to determine the causal relationships of and interactive influence among the criteria. Third, a criteria model was constructed to evaluate job satisfaction of high-tech R&D personnel. On the basis of the findings, managerial suggestions are proposed.

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<![CDATA[The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da31ab0ee8fa60b84b9a

Teachers’ self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used ‘Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)’ measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers’ self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers’ self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross-cultural generalizability of the corresponding measurement model.

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<![CDATA[Validation study of the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) in public hospitals of Heilongjiang province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1158

Purpose

The objective of this study was to validate the reliability and validity of the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) in Heilongjiang province, northern China.

Methods

The SAQ was distributed to 27 public hospitals in five cities across Heilongjiang province. The Cronbach’s α, item–dimension and dimension–dimension correlations were calculated. Descriptive analyses and confirmatory factor analysis were also performed.

Results

The recovery rate of the questionnaire was 84.45%. The validity and reliability measures of the SAQ were acceptable. The goodness-of-fit index from the confirmatory factor analysis showed a reasonable model fit (CFI = 0.93, GFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.05). The Cronbach’s α value for the scale was 0.91 and ranged from 0.66 to 0.91 for each of the scales. The SAQ showed good internal consistency reliability.

Conclusion

The SAQ had satisfactory psychometric properties and could be a useful tool to measure safety attitudes in public hospitals in Heilongjiang province in China.

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<![CDATA[Joint analyses of open comments and quantitative data: Added value in a job satisfaction survey of hospital professionals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc7b8

Objective

To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the job opinions of hospital professionals by conducting qualitative analyses of the open comments included in a job satisfaction survey and combining these results with the quantitative results.

Design

A cross-sectional survey targeting all Lausanne University Hospital professionals was performed in the fall of 2013.

Material and methods

The survey considered ten job satisfaction dimensions (e.g. self-fulfilment, workload, management, work-related burnout, organisational commitment, intent to stay) and included an open comment section. Computer-assisted qualitative analyses were conducted on these comments. Satisfaction rates on the included dimensions and professional groups were entered as predictive variables in the qualitative analyses.

Participants

Of 10 838 hospital professionals, 4978 participated in the survey and 1067 provided open comments. Data from 1045 respondents with usable comments constituted the analytic sample (133 physicians, 393 nurses, 135 laboratory technicians, 247 administrative staff, including researchers, 67 logistic staff, 44 psycho-social workers, and 26 unspecified).

Results

Almost a third of the comments addressed scheduling issues, mostly related to problems and exhaustion linked to shifts, work-life balance, and difficulties with colleagues’ absences and the consequences for quality of care and patient safety. The other two-thirds related to classic themes included in job satisfaction surveys. Although some comments were provided equally by all professional groups, others were group specific: work and hierarchy pressures for physicians, healthcare quality and patient safety for nurses, skill recognition for administrative staff. Overall, respondents’ comments were consistent with their job satisfaction ratings.

Conclusion

Open comment analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of hospital professionals’ job experiences, allowing better consideration of quality initiatives that match the needs of professionals with reality.

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<![CDATA[Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacaab0ee8fa60bb3ce7

This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

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<![CDATA[Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db10ab0ee8fa60bcbd70

This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings.

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<![CDATA[Knowledge and attitudes of theatre staff prior to the implementation of robotic-assisted surgery in the public sector]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9405bcd5eed0c484539116

Background

The use of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) is becoming increasingly prevalent across a range of surgical specialties within public hospitals around Australia. As a result, it is critical that organisations consider workplace factors such as staff knowledge, attitudes and behaviours prior to the implementation of such new technology. This study aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of operating theatre staff from a large public tertiary referral hospital prior to the commencement of an RAS program.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey of nursing, medical and support staff working in the operating theatre complex of a large public tertiary referral hospital was completed over a one-week period in June 2016. A 23-item questionnaire was utilised for data collection.

Results

164 (66%) theatre staff returned the surveys and were included in this study. The majority of medical staff reported being knowledgeable about RAS, whilst the majority of nursing and support staff did not. Overall the theatre staff were neutral about the potential benefits of RAS to patients. The majority of medical staff believed the implementation of RAS will increase the value of staff roles and job satisfaction, while nursing and support staff were uncertain about these benefits. All three staff groups were concerned about the impact of an RAS program on Workplace Health and Safety, and care and handling.

Conclusion

Operating theatre staff presented different knowledge and attitudes prior to the introduction of RAS. Whilst theatre staff were more favourable towards RAS than negative, they largely reserved their judgement about the new system prior to their own experiences. Collectively, these findings should be taken into consideration for training and support strategies prior to the implementation of a RAS program.

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<![CDATA[Relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support and job satisfaction to burnout syndrome among medical workers in southwest China: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc332

Background

Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS). A total of 1382 medical workers were enrolled in the study. Pearson correlation analysis and general linear model univariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction with burnout syndrome in medical workers.

Results

We observed that five dimensions of job satisfaction and self-reported social support were negatively associated with burnout syndrome, whereas three dimensions of work-family conflict showed a positive correlation. In a four-stage general linear model analysis, we found that demographic factors accounted for 5.4% of individual variance in burnout syndrome (F = 4.720, P<0.001, R2 = 0.054), and that work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction accounted for 2.6% (F = 5.93, P<0.001, R2 = 0.080), 5.7% (F = 9.532, P<0.001, R2 = 0.137) and 17.8% (F = 21.608, P<0.001, R2 = 0.315) of the variance, respectively. In the fourth stage of analysis, female gender and a lower technical title correlated to a higher level of burnout syndrome, and medical workers without administrative duties had more serious burnout syndrome than those with administrative duties.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the present study suggests that work-family conflict and self-reported social support slightly affect the level of burnout syndrome, and that job satisfaction is a much stronger influence on burnout syndrome in medical workers of southwest China.

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<![CDATA[The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians’ Assistants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae7ab0ee8fa60bbde84

Background

Community health workers (CHWs) provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW’s clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME) activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS)-based mobile CME (mCME) intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician’s Assistants–CBPAs) who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations.

Methods

The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model) participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model) participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D) in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later). Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy.

Results

638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%). Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did not improve. Average times spent on self-study per week did not increase, and the kinds of knowledge resources used by the CBPAs did not differ between the three groups; textbooks, while widely available, were seldom used.

Conclusions

The SMS-based mCME intervention, while feasible and acceptable, did not result in increased medical knowledge. We hypothesize that this was because the intervention failed to stimulate lateral learning. For an intervention of this kind to be effective, it will be essential to find more effective ways to couple SMS as a stimulus to promote increased self-study behaviors.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02381743

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<![CDATA[Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb47

Background

Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006–2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period.

Methodology

Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Result

From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36–12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001–0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48–40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01–11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53–20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38–50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37–22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from coworker relation and the standard of care they provided to clients.

Conclusion

Half of study subjects were satisfied with their job. Governmental and Nongovernmental organizations should consider the factors that contribute to job dissatisfaction in order to improve service provision.

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