ResearchPad - larva-migrans https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[<i>Toxocara</i> species environmental contamination of public spaces in New York City]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14754 Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are helminth worms that infect dogs and cats, respectively. Infected dogs and cats will defecate thousands of Toxocara eggs into the environment. Humans are incidental hosts and are exposed when consuming contaminated soils via the fecal-oral route. After leaving the gastrointestinal tract, the Toxocara larvae will enter the vasculature and can migrate to any major organ system, including lungs, ocular, and central nervous system. Symptoms can range from mild muscle aches to severe asthma, blindness, and encephalitis. Humans are not definitive hosts of the parasite and cannot transmit Toxocara eggs to the environment or other humans. There is a need for research on the sanitary impact of Toxocara for both humans and animals, especially in large urban cities such as New York City. Poverty is also associated with higher rates of toxocariasis, with more contamination in poorer neighborhoods where animal control, deworming of pets, and less sanitary conditions exist. This study aims to understand further the disparity of lower socioeconomic areas having higher rates of contaminated parks and playgrounds, comparing the five boroughs of New York City.

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<![CDATA[Sensitivity and specificity of recombinant proteins in Toxocara spp. for serodiagnosis in humans: Differences in adult and child populations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0aced5eed0c484426b18

Toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis that affects children and adults. Recombinant proteins have been widely investigated for diagnosis, achieving high sensitivity and specificity in an overall population; however, little is known about age as a factor in its application. This study aims to investigate the diagnostic potential of Toxocara canis TES-30 and TES-120 recombinant proteins in humans, differentiating between its performance in children and adults. Serum samples collected from children and adults seropositive to Toxocara spp. were tested with indirect ELISA using T. canis TES-30 and TES-120 recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. While rTES-30 sensitivity was not affected by age (81.8% in children and 87% in adults), rTES-120 sensitivity severely decreased in children to only 63.6%, down from 95.7% in adults. Furthermore, the sensitivity of rTES-30 increased to 97.8% after Western blotting confirmation. High specificity (>94%) against other geohelminths was reported for both recombinant proteins. Our study favors the use of rTES-30 with total IgG as the primary antibody in an indirect ELISA assay as a tool for epidemiological human studies.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology and morbidity of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM): Results of a cohort study over a period of six months in a resource-poor community in Manaus, Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b602190463d7e3d6d2261c2

Background

Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected parasitic skin disease, widespread in resource-poor communities in tropical and subtropical countries. Incidence and risk factors have never been investigated in a cohort study.

Methodology/Principal findings

To understand the seasonal epidemiology of HrCLM, an open cohort of 476 children in a resource-poor community in Manaus, Brazil was examined for HrCLM monthly over a period of 6 months. Monthly prevalence and intensity of infection were correlated with the amount of monthly precipitation. Multivariable Cox regression analysis indicated male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 3.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95–5.56), walking barefoot on sandy ground (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.03–5.16), poverty (HR 2.13; 95% CI 1.09–4.17) and age between 10 and 14 years (HR 1.87; 95% CI 1.01–3.46) as predictors of HrCLM. Monthly incidence rates ranged between 0.21 and 1.05 cases per person-year with an overall incidence of 0.52 per person-year.

Conclusions/Significance

HrCLM is a frequent parasitic skin disease in this resource-poor community. Every second child theoretically becomes infected during one year. Boys, 10 to 14 years old, belonging to the poorest households of the community, are the most vulnerable population group. Even in the tropical monsoonal climate of Amazonia there is a considerable seasonal variation with monthly incidence and number of lesions peaking in the rainy season.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Features and Course of Ocular Toxocariasis in Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd96cc

Purpose

To investigate the clinical features, clinical course of granuloma, serologic findings, treatment outcome, and probable infection sources in adult patients with ocular toxocariasis (OT).

Methods

In this retrospective cohort study, we examined 101 adult patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT. Serial fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of all the patients were reviewed. A clinic-based case-control study on pet ownership, occupation, and raw meat ingestion history was performed to investigate the possible infection sources.

Results

Among the patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with OT, 69.6% showed elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Granuloma in OT involved all retinal layers and several vitreoretinal comorbidities were noted depending on the location of granuloma: posterior pole granuloma was associated with epiretinal membrane and retinal nerve fiber layer defects, whereas peripheral granuloma was associated with vitreous opacity. Intraocular migration of granuloma was observed in 15 of 93 patients (16.1%). Treatment with albendazole (400 mg twice a day for 2 weeks) and corticosteroids (oral prednisolone; 0.5–1 mg/kg/day) resulted in comparable outcomes to patients on corticosteroid monotherapy; however, the 6-month recurrence rate in patients treated with combined therapy (17.4%) was significantly lower than that in patients treated with corticosteroid monotherapy (54.5%, P = 0.045). Ingestion of raw cow liver (80.8%) or meat (71.2%) was significantly more common in OT patients than healthy controls.

Conclusions

Our study discusses the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies for OT. Evaluation of total IgE, in addition to anti-toxocara antibody, can assist in the serologic diagnosis of OT. Combined albendazole and corticosteroid therapy may reduce intraocular inflammation and recurrence. Migrating feature of granuloma is clinically important and may further suggest the diagnosis of OT. Clinicians need to carefully examine comorbid conditions for OT. OT may be associated with ingestion of uncooked meat, especially raw cow liver, in adult patients.

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<![CDATA[The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010: Interpretation and Implications for the Neglected Tropical Diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7eab0ee8fa60b999d9 ]]> <![CDATA[Life Quality Impairment Caused by Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Resource-Poor Communities in Manaus, Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db43ab0ee8fa60bd7966

Background

Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a common but neglected tropical skin disease caused by the migration of animal hookworm larvae in the epidermis. The disease causes intense pruritus and is associated with important morbidity. The extent to which CLM impairs skin disease-associated life quality has never been studied.

Methods

A modified version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (mDLQI) was used to determine skin disease-associated life quality in 91 adult and child patients with CLM, living in resource-poor communities in Manaus, Brazil. Symptoms and signs were documented and skin disease-associated life quality was semi-quantitatively assessed using mDLQI scores. The assessment was repeated two and four weeks after treatment with ivermectin.

Results

Ninety-one point five percent of the study participants showed a considerable reduction of skin disease-associated life quality at the time of diagnosis. The degree of impairment correlated with the intensity of infection (rho = 0.76, p<0.001), the number of body areas affected (rho = 0.30; p = 0.004), and the presence of lesions on visible areas of the skin (p = 0.002). Intense pruritus, sleep disturbance (due to itching) and the feeling of shame were the most frequent skin disease-associated life quality restrictions (reported by 93.4%, 73.6%, and 64.8% of the patients, respectively). No differences were observed in skin disease-associated life quality restriction between boys and girls or men and women. Two weeks after treatment with ivermectin, skin disease-associated life quality improved significantly. After four weeks, 73.3% of the patients considered their disease-associated life quality to have returned to normal.

Conclusions

CLM significantly impaired the skin disease-associated life quality in child and adult patients living in urban slums in North Brazil. After treatment with ivermectin, life quality normalised rapidly.

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<![CDATA[The serodiagnostic potential of recombinant proteins TES–30 and TES–120 in an indirect ELISA in the diagnosis of toxocariasis in cattle, horses, and sheep]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9405d7d5eed0c484539311

Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals alike. Although recombinant proteins are widely used for its diagnosis in humans, their performance in companion and production animals remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the serodiagnostic potential of the recombinant proteins rTES–30 and rTES–120 from Toxocara canis in an indirect ELISA for cattle, horses, and sheep. Serum samples collected from the animals were tested with indirect ELISA and Western Blotting using T. canis TES–30 and TES–120 recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli, as well as native-TES. In the ELISA, rTES–30 showed high serodiagnostic potential in sheep and horses (92.6% and 85.2%, respectively), while the sensitivity of rTES–120 was higher in cattle and horses (97.2% and 92.6%, respectively). Furthermore, a highly positive association was observed between native and recombinant proteins in seropositive samples, while a moderately positive association was observed in seronegative samples, probably due to the lower specificity of native TES. In conclusion, our study indicates that the use of recombinant proteins in an indirect ELISA is an effective tool for the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis in animals, with the choice of protein being species-dependent.

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<![CDATA[Toxocariasis in North America: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db20ab0ee8fa60bcf385

Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans (HrCLM) in a Resource-Poor Community in Manaus, Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db41ab0ee8fa60bd6e69

Background

Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected tropical skin disease associated with significant clinical pathology. Little knowledge exists about prevalence and risk factors of HrCLM in endemic regions.

Methodology/ Principal Findings

To understand the epidemiology of HrCLM in Amazonia, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a resource-poor township in Manaus, Brazil. HrCLM was diagnosed in 8.2% (95% CI, 6.3–10.1%) of the study population (N = 806) with a peak prevalence of 18.2% (95% CI, 9.3–27.1%) in children aged 10–14. Most of the tracks (62.4%) were located on the feet, and 10.6% were superinfected. HrCLM was associated independently with age under 15, male sex, presence of animal faeces on the compound, walking barefoot on sandy ground and poverty.

Conclusions/ Significance

HrCLM is common in resource-poor communities in Amazonia and is related to poverty. To reduce the disease burden caused by HrCLM, living conditions have to be improved.

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<![CDATA[Neglected Parasitic Infections and Poverty in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac3ab0ee8fa60bb1699 ]]>