ResearchPad - laryngology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Post-extubation stridor after prolonged intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU): a prospective observational cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N03e53756-dbba-4274-acf4-b76075cb7e0b Prolonged endotracheal intubation may lead to laryngeal damage, with stridor being the most relevant clinical symptom. Our objective was to determine the incidence of post-extubation stridor and their clinical consequences in children within a tertiary referral center and to identify contributing factors.Methods150 children, aged 0–16 years, intubated for more than 24 h were prospectively enrolled until discharge of the hospital. Potential relevant factors, thought to mediate the risk of laryngeal damage, were recorded and analyzed.ResultsThe median duration of intubation was 4 days, ranging from 1 to 31 days. Stridor following extubation occurred in 28 patients (18.7%); 3 of them required reintubation due to respiratory distress and in 1 child stridor persisted for which a surgical intervention was necessary. In multivariate analyses, we found the following independent predictors of stridor: intubation on the scene, the use of cuffed tubes and lower age.ConclusionDespite a high incidence for post-extubation stridor, only few children need reintubation or surgical intervention as a result of post-extubation lesions. Intubation on the scene, the use of cuffed tubes and young age are associated with a significant increased risk of post-extubation stridor. Awareness of these factors gives the possibility to anticipate on the situation and to minimize laryngeal injury and its possible future consequences. ]]> <![CDATA[The impact of a standardized vocal loading test on vocal fold oscillations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7cd8a2da-9252-40e5-a89c-293511b81927 Vocal loading capacity is an important aspect of vocal health and is measured using standardized vocal loading tests. However, it remains unclear how vocal fold oscillation patterns are influenced by a standardized vocal loading task.Methods21 (10 male, 11 female) vocally healthy subjects were analyzed concerning the dysphonia severity index (DSI) and high speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) on the vowel /i/ at a comfortable pitch and loudness before and after a standardized vocal loading test (10 min standardized text reading, at a level higher than 80 dB (A) measured at 30 cm from the mouth).ResultsChanges in DSI were statistically significant, diminishing by 1.2 points after the vocal loading test, which was mainly caused by an increase of the minimum intensity. However, the pre-post comparison of HSV derived measures failed to show any statistically significant changes.ConclusionIt seems necessary to analyze the effects of a standardized vocal loading test on vocal fold oscillation patterns with respect to softest phonation and phonation threshold pressure rather than comfortable pitch and loudness.Level of evidence2c ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of thyroplasty implant stiffness on glottal shape and voice acoustics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nab68174b-07f0-47f1-87dc-333bea4de1be

Abstract

Objectives

Vocal fold (VF) stiffness and geometry are determinant variables in voice production. Type 1 medialization thyroplasty (MT), the primary surgical treatment for glottic insufficiency, changes both of these variables. Understanding the cause and effect relationship between these variables and acoustic output might improve voice outcomes after MT. In this study, the effects of thyroplasty implants with variable stiffness on glottal shape and acoustics were investigated.

Methods

In an ex vivo human larynx phonation model, bilateral MT with implants of four stiffness levels (1386, 21.6, 9.3, and 5.5 kPa) were performed. Resulting acoustics and aerodynamics were measured across multiple airflow levels. A vertical partial hemilaryngectomy was performed and stereoscopic images of the VF medial surface taken to reconstruct its three‐dimensional (3D) surface contour. The results were compared across implants.

Results

The effects of implant stiffness on acoustics varied by airflow. Softer implants resulted in improved acoustics, as measured by cepstral peak prominence (CPP), at lower airflow levels compared to stiffer implants but this relationship reversed at high airflow levels. Stiffer implants generally required less airflow to generate a given subglottal pressure. Stiffer implants resulted in greater medialized surface area and maximal medialization, but all implants had similar effects on overall VF medial surface contour.

Conclusion

Softer implants result in less medialization but better acoustics at low airflow rates. Stiffer implants provide better acoustics and more stable pressure‐flow relationships at higher airflow rates. This highlights a potential role for patient‐specific customized thyroplasty implants of various stiffness levels.

Level of Evidence

NA.

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<![CDATA[Histologic effect of the potassium‐titanyl phosphorous laser on laryngeal papilloma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7e6bb6ea-73c0-4075-8a56-fc6253a1ff36

Objectives

Tissue effects occurring with potassium‐titanyl phosphorous (KTP) laser treatment are difficult to quantify due to the multiple variables that affect not only the fluence (energy delivered) but also the laser–tissue interaction. This histopathologic analysis of recurrent respiratory papilloma (RRP) removed after treatment with KTP laser therapy permits correlation of histologic effect with method of laser treatment.

Methods

The histopathology of RRP resected specimens in a single patient was compared following treatment with KTP laser in contact and non‐contact modes as documented with intraoperative photography and video imaging.

Results

Epithelial‐sparing injury selective to the microvasculature was identified on histopathologic assessment of a specimen treated with noncontact angiolysis. Highly cauterized papillomatous epithelium without identifiable vascular structures was identified on tissue removed after treatment with the KTP laser in contact mode.

Conclusion

The histopathologic assessment of acute KTP laser effect on papilloma permits correlation between technique of application and tissue effect. Similar assessments may be helpful to modify dosimetry for individual patients requiring repeated treatment and may also assist in refining the development of existing KTP laser treatment classification systems.

Level of Evidence

4

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<![CDATA[Comparison of electroglottographic variability index in euphonic and pathological voice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc697a874-dbb1-453d-b99b-bd3e1341a14c

SUMMARY

In a recent study we introduced a new approach for analysis of the electroglottographic (ECG) signal. This method is based on the evaluation of variation of the EGG signal and its first derivative, through new software developed by the Pisan phoniatric school. This software is designed to extract quantitative indices related to the contacting and decontacting phases of the vocal folds during phonation. The software allows us to study the combined variability of vibration amplitude and velocity (i.e. the first derivative of the EGG signal). Pathological voices show a much more variable EGG signal compared to normal voices, since cordal vibration is made irregular due to the presence of glottis plane pathologies. With the aim of demonstrating the differences between normal and pathological voices relevant to combined vibration amplitude and velocity variability, we have introduced a new quantitative parameter named “variability index, VI”. We studied 95 subjects (35 normal and 60 with pathological voice); among pathologic subjects, 15 showed functional dysphonia and 45 showed organic dysphonia. Subjects affected by organic dysphonia presented: 15 bilateral vocal nodules, 15 unilateral polyps and 15 unilateral cysts. All subjects were studied with videolaryngostroboscopy; electro-acoustic parameters of the voice were analysed with the KayPENTAX CSL (Model 4500) system. The EGG signal was recorded using KAY Model 6103 connected to the CSL system. The new software for the analysis of the EGG signal allows us to obtain not only a VI total value relevant to variability during all the recording, but also partial VI values relevant to the different glottis cycle phases. In fact, plotting the amplitude variation and its first derivative on a Lissajous graph, it is possible to divide the whole glottis cycle into four phases (each represented by four quadrants on the graph): the initial vocal folds contacting activity (VI-Q1), the last phase of vocal folds contacting (VI-Q2), the first phase of vocal folds decontacting (VI-Q3) and the last phase, up to the complete decontacting of vocal folds (VI-Q4). For each quadrant, it is also possible to work out the percent variability index. By comparing the variability indices in the normal and pathological groups, we obtained the following results: the total VI was significantly higher in the pathological subjects (0.25 vs 0.18; p = 0.01); the absolute value of VI was higher in pathological subjects, although the difference was not significant (VI-Q2, 0.041 vs 0.029; VI-Q3, 0.065 vs 0.058; VI-Q4, 0.054 vs 0.052). The percent variability in the Q2 quadrant (VI-Q2%) was significantly higher in pathological subjects compared to normal subjects (0.22 vs 0.16) (p = 0.01). The results of this study confirm that our new software for analysis of EGG signal can distinguish normal voice from pathological voice based on the new quantitative parameter VI. Moreover, this study emphasises that the final contact phase of vocal folds is the most representative of the difference between the normal and pathological voice and shows a wider variability in terms of amplitude and vibration velocity. Further studies on larger groups of subjects will be required to confirm these results and assess differences in the EGG signal among the various vocal fold pathologies.

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<![CDATA[Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in detecting malignant lesions of vocal folds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne670a034-935d-48a6-a6c9-6a957aefbaa7

SUMMARY

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an innovative technique for real-time, non-invasive analysis of the surface epithelium. While being successfully used for diagnosis by experts, this method has not yet been established in clinical routine, partly due to the lack of standards and criteria for classifying various lesions. Our aim was to determine the diagnostic value and inter-rater reliability of CLE in detecting malignant lesions of the vocal cords. 58 video sequences were extracted from the probe-based CLE (GastroFlex probe with a Cellvizio® laser system) examinations of 3 patients with squamous cell carcinomas and 4 patients with benign alterations of the vocal folds. Two ENT surgeons, who were blinded to the histological result, were asked to identify the sequences representing a carcinoma. We showed an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 91.38-96.55%, 100%, 87.8-95.2%, 77.27-89.47% and 100%, respectively, with an inter-rater reliability of k = 0.89 (“almost perfect agreement”). Probe-based CLE is a promising method for diagnosis and assessment of vocal fold lesions in vivo. Our results suggest that, with adequate training, the diagnostic value of this technique can be improved and potentially provide important information during oncological surgery.

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<![CDATA[Occupational voice is a work in progress: active risk management, habilitation and rehabilitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7d552487-e682-4fcf-882f-e985c7b80d02

Purpose of review

The current article reviews recent literature examining occupational voice use and occupational voice disorders (January 2018–July 2019).

Recent findings

Our understanding of the prevalence of voice disorders and work-related vocal use, vocal load and vocal ergonomics (environmental and person influences) across different occupations is continuing to build. There is encouraging evidence for the value of intervention programs for occupational voice users, particularly of late with performers, teachers and telemarketers. Education and prevention programs are emerging for other ‘at risk’ occupations.

Summary

Occupational health and workforce legislation does not adequately acknowledge and guide educational, preventive and intervention approaches to occupational voice disorders. Voice disorders are prevalent in certain occupations and there is an urgent need for research to support occupational voice health and safety risk measurement, prevention and intervention. Large population-based studies are required with a focus on the health and economic burden of occupational voice disorders.

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<![CDATA[How a personalised transportable folding device for seating impacts dysphagia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6b43e18a-1ad8-451f-8428-1fc5173cb4b4

Purpose

A personalised transportable folding device for seating (DATP) on a standard seat was developed by an occupational therapist at the Toulouse University Hospital Centre (patent no. WO 2011121249 A1) based on the hypothesis that the use of a seat to assist with better positioning on any chair during meals modifies the sitting posture and has an impact on cervical statics which increases the amplitude of movements of the axial skeleton (larynx and hyoid bone) and benefits swallowing. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that an improvement in sitting posture with the help of the DATP, through Hyoid bone motion, has an impact on the quality of swallowing in a dysphagic population which benefits from the device in comparison to a dysphagic population which does not benefit from the device after 1 month of care. The secondary endpoints concern the evaluation of the impact on other characteristics of swallowing, posture, the acceptability of the device and the quality of life.

Methodology

This is a randomised comparative clinical trial. The blind was not possible for the patients but the examiner who evaluated the outcome criterion was blinded to the group to which the patient belonged. The outcome criterion was the measurement of the hyoid bone movement during swallowing. The other criteria were collected during the videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing and by use of a questionnaire. Fifty-six (56) patients were included: 30 in the group without device (D−) and 26 in the group with the device (D+). All the patients benefited from a training course on seating. Only the D+ patients participated in this course where the use of the device was explained and the device was then kept for use at home for 1 month.

Results

A significant improvement was noted in the postural criteria before and after use, in favour of a better posture for the two groups (p < 0.001) and more hyoid bone motion in the D+ group. The difference was significant in the bivariate analysis for horizontal movement (p = 0.04). After adjustment of potential factors of confusion, we noted a significant mean difference for the three distances in the D+ group in comparison to the D− group, of + 0.33 (95% CI [+ 0.17; + 0.48]) for horizontal movement, + 0.22 (95% CI [+ 0.03; + 0.40]) for vertical movement and + 0.37 (95% CI = [+ 0.20; + 0.53]) for horizontal movement. However, the other parameters, and notably the other swallowing markers were not significantly modified by the use of the device.

Conclusion

The personalised transportable folding device for seating developed to reduce dysphagia has an action on hyoid bone motion during swallowing. However, this positive effect on an intermediate outcome criterion of the quality of swallowing was not associated with an improvement in swallowing efficiency in the study population. The diversity of diseases with which the patients in this study were afflicted is a factor to be controlled in future studies with this device.

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<![CDATA[RecoverNow: A mobile tablet-based therapy platform for early stroke rehabilitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644889d5eed0c484c2e894

Introduction

Stroke survivors frequently experience a range of post-stroke deficits. Specialized stroke rehabilitation improves recovery, especially if it is started early post-stroke. However, resource limitations often preclude early rehabilitation. Mobile technologies may provide a platform for stroke survivors to begin recovery when they might not be able to otherwise. The study objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of RecoverNow, a tablet-based stroke recovery platform aimed at delivering speech and cognitive therapy.

Methods

We recruited a convenience sample of 30 acute stroke patients to use RecoverNow for up to 3 months. Allied health professionals assigned specific applications based on standard of care assessments. Participants were encouraged to take home the RecoverNow tablets upon discharge from acute care. The study team contacted participants to return for a follow-up interview 3 months after enrollment. The primary outcome of interest was feasibility, defined using 5 facets: recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, the proportion of successful follow-up interventions, and protocol deviations. We tracked barriers to tablet-based care as a secondary outcome.

Results

We successfully recruited 30 of 62 eligible patients in 15 weeks (48% recruitment rate). Participants were non-adherent to tablet-based therapy inside and outside of acute care, using RecoverNow for a median of 12 minutes a day. Retention was high with 23 of 30 patients participating in follow-up interviews (77% retention rate) and all but 3 of the 23 interviews (87%) were successfully completed. Only 2 major protocol deviations occurred: one enrollment failure and one therapy protocol violation. Barriers to tablet-based care were frequently encountered by study participants with many expressing the assigned applications were either too easy or too difficult.

Conclusions

Acute stroke patients are interested in attempting tablet-based stroke rehabilitation and are easily recruited early post-stroke. However, tablet-based therapy may be challenging due to patient, device and system-related barriers. Reducing the frequency of common barriers will be essential to keeping patients engaged in tablet-based therapy.

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<![CDATA[Survey of suspected dysphagia prevalence in home-dwelling older people using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217d3d5eed0c48479462b

Objective

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of suspected dysphagia and its features in both independent and dependent older people living at home.

Materials and methods

The 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) questionnaire was sent to 1,000 independent older people and 2,000 dependent older people living at home in a municipal district of Tokyo, Japan. The participants were selected by stratified randomization according to age and care level. We set the cut-off value of EAT-10 at a score of ≥3. The percentage of participants with an EAT-10 score ≥3 was defined as the prevalence of suspected dysphagia. The chi-square test was used for analyzing prevalence in each group. Analysis of the distribution of EAT-10 scores, and comparisons among items, age groups, and care levels to identify symptom features were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results

Valid responses were received from 510 independent older people aged 65 years or older (mean age 75.0 ± 7.2) and 886 dependent older people (mean age 82.3 ± 6.7). The prevalences of suspected dysphagia were 25.1% and 53.8%, respectively, and showed significant increases with advancing age and care level. In both groups, many older people assigned high scores to the item about coughing, whereas individuals requiring high-level care assigned higher scores to the items about not only coughing but also swallowing of solids and quality of life.

Conclusion

In independent people, approximately one in four individuals showed suspected dysphagia and coughing was the most perceivable symptom. In dependent people, approximately one in two individuals showed suspected dysphagia and their specifically perceivable symptoms were coughing, difficulties in swallowing solids and psychological burden.

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<![CDATA[Ambulatory assessment of phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction using glottal airflow measures estimated from neck-surface acceleration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254519d5eed0c48442be9a

Phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction (PVH) is associated with chronic misuse and/or abuse of voice that can result in lesions such as vocal fold nodules. The clinical aerodynamic assessment of vocal function has been recently shown to differentiate between patients with PVH and healthy controls to provide meaningful insight into pathophysiological mechanisms associated with these disorders. However, all current clinical assessment of PVH is incomplete because of its inability to objectively identify the type and extent of detrimental phonatory function that is associated with PVH during daily voice use. The current study sought to address this issue by incorporating, for the first time in a comprehensive ambulatory assessment, glottal airflow parameters estimated from a neck-mounted accelerometer and recorded to a smartphone-based voice monitor. We tested this approach on 48 patients with vocal fold nodules and 48 matched healthy-control subjects who each wore the voice monitor for a week. Seven glottal airflow features were estimated every 50 ms using an impedance-based inverse filtering scheme, and seven high-order summary statistics of each feature were computed every 5 minutes over voiced segments. Based on a univariate hypothesis testing, eight glottal airflow summary statistics were found to be statistically different between patient and healthy-control groups. L1-regularized logistic regression for a supervised classification task yielded a mean (standard deviation) area under the ROC curve of 0.82 (0.25) and an accuracy of 0.83 (0.14). These results outperform the state-of-the-art classification for the same classification task and provide a new avenue to improve the assessment and treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders.

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<![CDATA[Dental pulp-derived stem cell conditioned medium to regenerate peripheral nerves in a novel animal model of dysphagia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c196696d5eed0c484b52502

In nerve regeneration studies, various animal models are used to assess nerve regeneration. However, because of the difficulties in functional nerve assessment, a visceral nerve injury model is yet to be established. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) plays an essential role in swallowing. Although a treatment for SLN injury following trauma and surgery is desirable, no such treatment is reported in the literature. We recently reported that stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have a therapeutic effect on various tissues via macrophage polarization. Here, we established a novel animal model of SLN injury. Our model was characterized as having weight loss and drinking behavior changes. In addition, the SLN lesion caused a delay in the onset of the swallowing reflex and gain of laryngeal residue in the pharynx. Systemic administration of SHED-conditioned media (SHED-CM) promoted functional recovery of the SLN and significantly promoted axonal regeneration by converting of macrophages to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. In addition, SHED-CM enhanced new blood vessel formation at the injury site. Our data suggest that the administration of SHED-CM may provide therapeutic benefits for SLN injury.

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<![CDATA[Posture and firmness changes in a pressure-relieving air mattress affect cough strength in elderly people with dysphagia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19668bd5eed0c484b522fa

Dysphagia is the major pathophysiologic mechanism leading to aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. Elderly people with dysphagia who show low levels of the cough peak flow (CPF) are at greater risk for aspiration pneumonia. It has been reported that CPF values were significantly lower in the “soft” versus “hard” mode of a pressure-relieving air mattress in healthy volunteers in a supine position. Parameters such as spinal curvature, however, were not evaluated in detail. In this study, we clarified whether the changes in posture associated with two different firmness levels of a pressure-relieving air mattress were associated with cough production and related factors in the elderly with dysphagia. The body sinking distance, pelvic tilt angle, and immersion of the lumbar spine were measured to evaluate changes in posture. Forty subjects met the study criteria for dysphagia. The “soft” mode showed significantly lower CPF values than the “hard” mode (soft 274.9 ± 107.2 L/min vs. hard 325.0 ± 99.5 L/min, MD 50.0 95%CI 33.1–66.9 P < 0.001). Values of forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were significantly lower in the “soft” mode than in the “hard” mode (MD 0.10 95%CI 0.04–0.17, P = 0.002, MD 3.2 95%CI 0.9–5.5, P = 0.007, respectively). Although there was no significant difference between the two firmness levels, maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax) values also tended to be lower in the “soft” than in the “hard” mode, (MD 2.9 95%CI -0.6–6.3 P = 0.1). At both firmness levels, CPF values were significantly correlated with FVC, PImax, and PEmax. The difference in sinking distance in the anterior superior iliac spine was significantly larger than that in the lesser tubercle of the humerus and patella. Additionally, in the soft mode, the pelvic tilt angle and contact area around the lumbar spine were significantly larger than those observed in the “hard” mode. Parameters associated with the production of cough, including inspiratory muscle strength, lung volume, and ultimately CPF, may be affected by immersion of the lumbar spine and curvature of the spine that results from the “soft” mode in elderly patients with dysphagia.

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<![CDATA[ASQ3 and/or the Bayley-III to support clinicians' decision making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc359

Background

Appropriate tools are essential to support a clinician’s decision to refer very preterm infants to developmental resources. Streamlining the use of developmental assessment or screening tools to make clinical decisions offers an alternative methodology to help to choose the most effective way to assess this very high-risk population.

Objective

To examine the influence of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3rd edition (ASQ3) and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-3rd edition (Bayley-III) scores within a clinically-based decision-making process.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study includes children born at less than 29 weeks gestation who had completed both psychologist-administered Bayley-III and physician-observed ASQ3 assessments at 18 months corrected age. Theoretical referral decisions (TRDs) based on each assessment results were formulated, using cut-off scores between the lower first and second standard deviation values and below the lower second standard deviation values. TRDs to refer to developmental resources were evaluated in light of the multidisciplinary team’s actual final integrated decisions (FID).

Results

Complete data was available for 67 children. The ASQ3 and the Bayley-III had similar predictive value for the FID, with comparable kappa values. Comparisons of the physicians’ and psychologists’ TRDs with the FIDs demonstrated that the ASQ3 in conjunction with the medical and socio-familial findings predicted 93% of referral decisions.

Conclusion

Taking into consideration potential methodological biases, the results suggest that either ASQ3 or Bayley-III, along with socio-environmental, medical and neurological assessment, are sufficient to guide the majority of clinicians’ decisions regarding referral for specialty services. This retrospective study suggests that the physician-supervised ASQ3 may be sufficient to assess children who had been extremely preterm infants for referral purposes. The findings need to be confirmed in a larger, well-designed prospective study to minimize and account for potential sources of bias.

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<![CDATA[Age of Child, More than HPV Type, Is Associated with Clinical Course in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8d2f

Background

RRP is a devastating disease in which papillomas in the airway cause hoarseness and breathing difficulty. The disease is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 or 11 and is very variable. Patients undergo multiple surgeries to maintain a patent airway and in order to communicate vocally. Several small studies have been published in which most have noted that HPV 11 is associated with a more aggressive course.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Papilloma biopsies were taken from patients undergoing surgical treatment of RRP and were subjected to HPV typing. 118 patients with juvenile-onset RRP with at least 1 year of clinical data and infected with a single HPV type were analyzed. HPV 11 was encountered in 40% of the patients. By our definition, most of the patients in the sample (81%) had run an aggressive course. The odds of a patient with HPV 11 running an aggressive course were 3.9 times higher than that of patients with HPV 6 (Fisher's exact p = 0.017). However, clinical course was more closely associated with age of the patient (at diagnosis and at the time of the current surgery) than with HPV type. Patients with HPV 11 were diagnosed at a younger age (2.4y) than were those with HPV 6 (3.4y) (p = 0.014). Both by multiple linear regression and by multiple logistic regression HPV type was only weakly associated with metrics of disease course when simultaneously accounting for age.

Conclusions/Significance Abstract

The course of RRP is variable and a quarter of the variability can be accounted for by the age of the patient. HPV 11 is more closely associated with a younger age at diagnosis than it is associated with an aggressive clinical course. These data suggest that there are factors other than HPV type and age of the patient that determine disease course.

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<![CDATA[Factors Associated with Interstitial Lung Disease in Patients with Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b74220

Objectives

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an extramuscular manifestation that results in increased morbidity and mortality from polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate risk factors associated with the development of ILD in PM/DM.

Methods

Observational studies were identified from searching PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained for the relationships between risk factors and ILD in PM/DM using either fixed- or random-effects models, whichever were appropriate. Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias assessments were also performed.

Results

Twenty-three studies were selected for a meta-analysis that included 834 patients and 1245 control subjects. Risk factors that may have increased the risk of developing ILD in PM/DM patients included older age at diagnosis (SMD, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18–0.52; P < 0.0001), arthritis/arthralgia (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.99–5.04; P < 0.00001), fever (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.42–3.76; P = 0.0007), presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 2.16–5.16; P < 0.00001), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; SMD, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.32–0.64; P < 0.00001), presence of anti-MDA5 antibodies (OR, 18.26; 95% CI, 9.66–34.51; P < 0.00001), and elevated C-reactive protein level (CRP; OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.48–8.28; P = 0.004). Meanwhile, malignancy (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18–0.72; P = 0.004) reduced the risk of developing ILD in PM/DM patients.

Conclusion

Our meta-analysis results suggest that the association between PM/DM and ILD may be due to such risk factors as older age at diagnosis, arthritis/arthralgia, fever, presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies, elevated ESR, presence of anti-MDA5 antibodies, and elevated CRP level, while malignancy was associated with a reduced risk of developing ILD. Thus, these variables may be used to guide screening processes for ILD in patients with PM/DM.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Candidate Variants in Two Multigenerational Families with Childhood Apraxia of Speech]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbd7af

Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a severe and socially debilitating form of speech sound disorder with suspected genetic involvement, but the genetic etiology is not yet well understood. Very few known or putative causal genes have been identified to date, e.g., FOXP2 and BCL11A. Building a knowledge base of the genetic etiology of CAS will make it possible to identify infants at genetic risk and motivate the development of effective very early intervention programs. We investigated the genetic etiology of CAS in two large multigenerational families with familial CAS. Complementary genomic methods included Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis, copy-number analysis, identity-by-descent sharing, and exome sequencing with variant filtering. No overlaps in regions with positive evidence of linkage between the two families were found. In one family, linkage analysis detected two chromosomal regions of interest, 5p15.1-p14.1, and 17p13.1-q11.1, inherited separately from the two founders. Single-point linkage analysis of selected variants identified CDH18 as a primary gene of interest and additionally, MYO10, NIPBL, GLP2R, NCOR1, FLCN, SMCR8, NEK8, and ANKRD12, possibly with additive effects. Linkage analysis in the second family detected five regions with LOD scores approaching the highest values possible in the family. A gene of interest was C4orf21 (ZGRF1) on 4q25-q28.2. Evidence for previously described causal copy-number variations and validated or suspected genes was not found. Results are consistent with a heterogeneous CAS etiology, as is expected in many neurogenic disorders. Future studies will investigate genome variants in these and other families with CAS.

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<![CDATA[The incidences and risk factors related to early dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: A prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcae8

Dysphagia is a common complication following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). The incidences of dysphagia were variable and controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of early dysphagia after ACSS with a new scoring system, and to identify the risk factors of it. A prospective study was carried out and patients who underwent ACSS from March 2014 to August 2014 in our hospital were included in this study. A self-designed dysphagia questionnaire was delivered to all of the patients from the first day to the fifth day after ACSS. Perioperative characteristics of patients were recorded, and incidences and risk factors of dysphagia were analyzed. A total of 104 patients who underwent ACSS were included and incidences of dysphagia from the first to the fifth day after ACSS was 87.5%, 79.81%, 62.14%, 50% and 44.23%, respectively. There was a good correlation between the new dysphagia scoring system and Bazaz scoring system (P < 0.001). Operative time and body mass index (BMI) were the risk factors for dysphagia during the first to the second day postoperatively. However, the dC2-C7angle was the main risk factor for dysphagia from the third to the fifth day after surgery. There were comparatively high incidences of early dysphagia after ACSS, which may be ascribed to operative time, BMI and the dC2-C7 angle.

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<![CDATA[Attentional Demands Influence Vocal Compensations to Pitch Errors Heard in Auditory Feedback]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db03ab0ee8fa60bc74a3

Auditory feedback is required to maintain fluent speech. At present, it is unclear how attention modulates auditory feedback processing during ongoing speech. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants vocalized/a/, while they heard their vocal pitch suddenly shifted downward a ½ semitone in both single and dual-task conditions. During the single-task condition participants passively viewed a visual stream for cues to start and stop vocalizing. In the dual-task condition, participants vocalized while they identified target stimuli in a visual stream of letters. The presentation rate of the visual stimuli was manipulated in the dual-task condition in order to produce a low, intermediate, and high attentional load. Visual target identification accuracy was lowest in the high attentional load condition, indicating that attentional load was successfully manipulated. Results further showed that participants who were exposed to the single-task condition, prior to the dual-task condition, produced larger vocal compensations during the single-task condition. Thus, when participants’ attention was divided, less attention was available for the monitoring of their auditory feedback, resulting in smaller compensatory vocal responses. However, P1-N1-P2 ERP responses were not affected by divided attention, suggesting that the effect of attentional load was not on the auditory processing of pitch altered feedback, but instead it interfered with the integration of auditory and motor information, or motor control itself.

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<![CDATA[Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da64ab0ee8fa60b919a5

Objectives

Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Methods

This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration secondary to reduced laryngeal elevation velocity after adjusting for the effects of other indices. Intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated using Pearson’s correlation coefficients.

Results

Data from 89 patients were analyzed. This cohort included 71 males and 18 females with a mean age of 59.31±11.46 years. The mean time from stroke onset to the VFS study was 3 days (1–7). Twenty one (23%) patients aspirated while swallowing 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v). Aspiration was associated with age, the velocity (%/s) of laryngeal elevation and duration, delayed pharyngeal phase, pharyngeal transit time, abnormal epiglottic tilt, and invalid laryngeal elevation before true swallowing, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. After adjusting for the effects of the indices mentioned above, logistic regression analysis revealed that a reduced of laryngeal elevation velocity before vestibule closure was predictive of aspiration independently (OR, 0.993; 95% CI, 0.987–1.000).

Discussions

Reduced laryngeal elevation velocity for laryngeal elevated to position where laryngeal vestibule is fully closed was an independent predictor of aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This may be related to a decreased contraction velocity of the muscles involved in hyolaryngeal elevation. Therapeutic methods aimed at improving laryngeal elevation velocity may decrease aspiration events and pneumonias after stroke.

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