ResearchPad - life-cycles https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Juvenile hormone suppresses aggregation behavior through influencing antennal gene expression in locusts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7742 A behavioral change from shy solitarious individuals to highly social gregarious individuals is critical to the formation of disastrous swarms of locusts. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of behavioral plasticity regulated by hormones is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on the behavioral transition in fourth-instar gregarious and solitarious locusts. We found that JH induced the behavioral shift of the gregarious locust from attraction to repulsion to the volatiles of gregarious locusts. The solitarious locust significantly decreased repulsion behavior after deprivation of JH by precocene or knockdown of JHAMT, a key enzyme to synthesize JH. JH application on gregarious locusts caused significant expression alteration of genes, especially the olfactory genes TO and CSP in the antennae. We further demonstrated that the JH signaling pathway suppressed aggregation behavior in gregarious locusts by increasing TO1 expression and decreasing CSP3 expression at the same time. Our results suggested that internal physiological factors can directly modulate periphery olfactory system to produce behavioral plasticity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Digestibility of black soldier fly larvae (<i>Hermetia illucens</i>) fed to leopard geckos (<i>Eublepharis macularius</i>)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7714 Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae have been marketed as an excellent choice for providing calcium to reptiles without the need of dusting or gut loading. However, previous studies have indicated that they have limited calcium digestibility and are deficient in fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E). In this feeding and digestibility trial, 24 adult male leopard geckos were fed one of three diets for 4 months: 1) whole, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; 2) needle pierced, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; or 3) whole, non-gut loaded larvae. Fecal output from the geckos was collected daily and apparent digestibility was calculated for dry matter, protein, fat, and minerals. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients among groups. Most nutrients were well digested by the leopard geckos when compared to previous studies, with the exception of calcium (digestibility co-efficient 43%), as the calcium-rich exoskeleton usually remained intact after passage through the GI tract. Biochemistry profiles revealed possible deficits occurring over time for calcium, sodium, and total protein. In regards to vitamin A digestibility, plasma and liver vitamin A concentrations were significantly higher in the supplemented groups (plasma- gut loaded groups: 33.38 ± 7.11 ng/ml, control group: 25.8 ± 6.72 ng/ml, t = 1.906, p = 0.04; liver- gut loaded groups: 28.67 ± 18.90 μg/g, control group: 14.13 ± 7.41 μg/g, t = 1.951, p = 0.03). While leopard geckos are able to digest most of the nutrients provided by BSF larvae, including those that have been gut loaded, more research needs to be performed to assess whether or not they provide adequate calcium in their non-supplemented form.

]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of confinement in vehicle trunks on decomposition and entomological colonization of carcasses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nffbdbe54-85a9-48b9-9e05-57433aec6303

In order to investigate the impact of confinement in a car trunk on decomposition and insect colonization of carcasses, three freshly killed pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Erxleben) carcasses were placed individually in the trunks of older model cars and deployed in a forested area in the southwestern region of British Columbia, Canada, together with three freshly killed carcasses which were exposed in insect-accessible protective cages in the same forest. Decomposition rate and insect colonization of all carcasses were examined twice a week for four weeks. The exposed carcasses were colonized immediately by Calliphora latifrons Hough and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) followed by Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen) and Protophormia terraenovae (R.-D.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). There was a delay of three to six days before the confined carcasses were colonized, first by P. regina, followed by Pr. terraenovae. These species represented the vast majority of blow fly species on the confined carcasses. Despite the delay in colonization, decomposition progressed much more rapidly in two of the confined carcasses in comparison with the exposed carcasses due to the greatly increased temperatures inside the vehicles, with the complete skeletonization of two of the confined carcasses ocurring between nine and 13 days after death. One confined carcass was an anomaly, attracting much fewer insects, supporting fewer larval calliphorids and decomposing much more slowly than other carcasses, despite similarly increased temperatures. It was later discovered that the vehicle in which this carcass was confined had a solid metal fire wall between the passenger area and the trunk, which served to reduce insect access and release of odors. These data may be extremely valuable when analyzing cadavers found inside vehicle trunks.

]]>
<![CDATA[Induced aneuploidy in neural stem cells triggers a delayed stress response and impairs adult life span in flies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79a3e7d5eed0c4841d1c08

Studying aneuploidy during organism development has strong limitations because chronic mitotic perturbations used to generate aneuploidy usually result in lethality. We developed a genetic tool to induce aneuploidy in an acute and time-controlled manner during Drosophila development. This is achieved by reversible depletion of cohesin, a key molecule controlling mitotic fidelity. Larvae challenged with aneuploidy hatch into adults with severe motor defects shortening their life span. Neural stem cells, despite being aneuploid, display a delayed stress response and continue proliferating, resulting in the rapid appearance of chromosomal instability, a complex array of karyotypes, and cellular abnormalities. Notably, when other brain-cell lineages are forced to self-renew, aneuploidy-associated stress response is significantly delayed. Protecting only the developing brain from induced aneuploidy is sufficient to rescue motor defects and adult life span, suggesting that neural tissue is the most ill-equipped to deal with developmental aneuploidy.

]]>
<![CDATA[A field test on the effectiveness of male annihilation technique against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) at varying application densities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1939d5eed0c484b4d1d4

Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) is a key tool to suppress or eradicate pestiferous tephritid fruit flies for which there exist powerful male lures. In the case of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a highly invasive and destructive species, current implementations of MAT utilize a combination of the male attractant methyl eugenol (ME) and a toxicant such as spinosad (“SPLAT-MAT-ME”) applied at a high density with the goal of attracting and killing an extremely high proportion of males. We conducted direct comparisons of trap captures of marked B. dorsalis males released under three experimental SPLAT-MAT-ME site densities (110, 220, and 440 per km2) near Hilo, Hawaii using both fresh and aged traps to evaluate the effectiveness of varying densities and how weathering of the SPLAT-MAT-ME formulation influenced any density effects observed. Counterintuitively, we observed decreasing effectiveness (percent kill) with increasing application density. We also estimated slightly higher average kill for any given density for weathered grids compared with fresh. Spatial analysis of the recapture patterns of the first trap service per replicate x treatment reveals similar positional effects for all grid densities despite differences in overall percent kill. This study suggests that benefits for control and eradication programs would result from reducing the application density of MAT against B. dorsalis through reduced material use, labor costs, and higher effectiveness. Additional research in areas where MAT programs are currently undertaken would be helpful to corroborate this study’s findings.

]]>
<![CDATA[In vitro activity and mode of action of phenolic compounds on Leishmania donovani]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95f4d5eed0c48473501e

Background

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite, Leishmania. The disease remains a global threat to public health requiring effective chemotherapy for control and treatment. In this study, the effect of some selected phenolic compounds on Leishmania donovani was investigated. The compounds were screened for their anti-leishmanial activities against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani.

Methodology/Principal findings

The dose dependent effect and cytotoxicity of the compounds were determined by the MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to determine the effect of the compounds on the cell cycle. Parasite morphological analysis was done by microscopy and growth kinetic studies were conducted by culturing cells and counting at 24 hours intervals over 120 hours. The cellular levels of iron in promastigotes treated with compounds was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the effect of compounds on the expression of iron dependent enzymes was investigated using RT-qPCR.

The IC50 of the compounds ranged from 16.34 μM to 198 μM compared to amphotericin B and deferoxamine controls. Rosmarinic acid and apigenin were the most effective against the promastigote and the intracellular amastigote forms. Selectivity indexes (SI) of rosmarinic acid and apigenin were 15.03 and 10.45 respectively for promastigotes while the SI of 12.70 and 5.21 respectively was obtained for intracellular amastigotes. Morphologically, 70% of rosmarinic acid treated promastigotes showed rounded morphology similar to the deferoxamine control. About 30% of cells treated with apigenin showed distorted cell membrane. Rosmarinic acid and apigenin induced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase in promastigotes. Elevated intracellular iron levels were observed in promastigotes when parasites were treated with rosmarinic acid and this correlated with the level of expression of iron dependent genes.

Conclusions/Significance

The data suggests that rosmarinic acid exerts its anti-leishmanial effect via iron chelation resulting in variable morphological changes and cell cycle arrest.

]]>
<![CDATA[Urban and semi-urban mosquitoes of Mexico City: A risk for endemic mosquito-borne disease transmission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897788d5eed0c4847d2f3b

Since past century, vector-borne diseases have been a major public health concern in several states of Mexico. However, Mexico City continues to be free of endemic mosquito-borne viral diseases. The city is the most important politic and economic state of Mexico and one of the most important city of Latin America. Its subtropical highland climate and high elevation (2240 masl) had historically made the occurrence of Aedes species unlikely. However, the presence of other potential disease vectors (Culex spp, Culiseta spp), and the current intermittent introductions of Aedes aegypti, have revealed that control programs must adopt routine vector surveillance in the city. In this study, we provide an updated species list from a five-years of vector surveillance performed in Mexico City. A total of 18,553 mosquito larvae were collected. Twenty-two species from genus Culex, Aedes, Culiseta, Anopheles, Lutzia and Uranotaenia were observed. Nine new mosquito records for the city were found. Ae. albopictus was recorded for the first time in Mexico City. Interestingly, a new record, Ae. epactius was the most frequent species reported. Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus exhibited the highest number of individuals collected. We detected six areas which harbor the highest mosquito species records in the city. Cemeteries included 68.9% of our collection sites. Temporarily ponds showed the highest species diversity. We detected an increasing presence of Ae. aegypti, which was detected for three consecutive years (2015–2017), predominantly in the warmer microclimates of the city. We found a possible correlation between increasing temperature and Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus expanding range. This study provides a starting point for developing strategies related to environmental management for mosquito control. The promotion of mosquito control practices through community participation, mass media and education programmes in schools should be introduced in the city.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reprogramming of Trypanosoma cruzi metabolism triggered by parasite interaction with the host cell extracellular matrix]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d19d5eed0c484c81fa6

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, affects 8 million people predominantly living in socioeconomic underdeveloped areas. T. cruzi trypomastigotes (Ty), the classical infective stage, interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), an obligatory step before invasion of almost all mammalian cells in different tissues. Here we have characterized the proteome and phosphoproteome of T. cruzi trypomastigotes upon interaction with ECM (MTy) and the data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010970. Proteins involved with metabolic processes (such as the glycolytic pathway), kinases, flagellum and microtubule related proteins, transport-associated proteins and RNA/DNA binding elements are highly represented in the pool of proteins modified by phosphorylation. Further, important metabolic switches triggered by this interaction with ECM were indicated by decreases in the phosphorylation of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglycerate kinase in MTy. Concomitantly, a decrease in the pyruvate and lactate and an increase of glucose and succinate contents were detected by GC-MS. These observations led us to focus on the changes in the glycolytic pathway upon binding of the parasite to the ECM. Inhibition of hexokinase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in MTy were observed and this correlated with the phosphorylation levels of the respective enzymes. Putative kinases involved in protein phosphorylation altered upon parasite incubation with ECM were suggested by in silico analysis. Taken together, our results show that in addition to cytoskeletal changes and protease activation, a reprogramming of the trypomastigote metabolism is triggered by the interaction of the parasite with the ECM prior to cell invasion and differentiation into amastigotes, the multiplicative intracellular stage of T. cruzi in the vertebrate host.

]]>
<![CDATA[Subunits of the mechano-electrical transduction channel, Tmc1/2b, require Tmie to localize in zebrafish sensory hair cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d15d5eed0c484c81f40

Mutations in transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) cause deafness in humans; previous studies suggest involvement in the mechano-electrical transduction (MET) complex in sensory hair cells, but TMIE’s precise role is unclear. In tmie zebrafish mutants, we observed that GFP-tagged Tmc1 and Tmc2b, which are subunits of the MET channel, fail to target to the hair bundle. In contrast, overexpression of Tmie strongly enhances the targeting of Tmc1-GFP and Tmc2b-GFP to stereocilia. To identify the motifs of Tmie underlying the regulation of the Tmcs, we systematically deleted or replaced peptide segments. We then assessed localization and functional rescue of each mutated/chimeric form of Tmie in tmie mutants. We determined that the first putative helix was dispensable and identified a novel critical region of Tmie, the extracellular region and transmembrane domain, which is required for both mechanosensitivity and Tmc2b-GFP expression in bundles. Collectively, our results suggest that Tmie’s role in sensory hair cells is to target and stabilize Tmc channel subunits to the site of MET.

]]>
<![CDATA[Detection of municipalities at-risk of Lyme disease using passive surveillance of Ixodes scapularis as an early signal: A province-specific indicator in Canada]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac66d5eed0c484d086db

Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in North America, is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in eastern Canada and Ixodes pacificus in western Canada. Recently, the northward range expansion of I. scapularis ticks, in south-eastern Canada, has resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of human Lyme disease. Detecting emerging areas of Lyme disease risk allows public health to target disease prevention efforts. We analysed passive tick surveillance data from Ontario and Manitoba to i) assess the relationship between the total numbers of I. scapularis submissions in passive surveillance from humans, and the number of human Lyme disease cases, and ii) develop province-specific acarological indicators of risk that can be used to generate surveillance-based risk maps. We also assessed associations between numbers of nymphal I. scapularis tick submissions only and Lyme disease case incidence. Using General Estimating Equation regression, the relationship between I. scapularis submissions (total numbers and numbers of nymphs only) in each census sub-division (CSD) and the number of reported Lyme disease cases was positively correlated and highly significant in the two provinces (P ≤ 0.001). The numbers of I. scapularis submissions over five years discriminated CSDs with ≥ 3 Lyme disease cases from those with < 3 cases with high accuracy when using total numbers of tick submission (Receiver Operating Characteristics area under the curve [AUC] = 0.89) and moderate accuracy (AUC = 0.78) when using nymphal tick submissions only. In Ontario the optimal cut-off point was a total 12 tick submissions from a CSD over five years (Sensitivity = 0.82, Specificity = 0.84), while in Manitoba the cut-off point was five ticks (Sensitivity = 0.71, Specificity = 0.79) suggesting regional variability of the risk of acquiring Lyme disease from an I. scapularis bite. The performances of the acarological indicators developed in this study for Ontario and Manitoba support the ability of passive tick surveillance to provide an early signal of the existence Lyme disease risk areas in regions where ticks and the pathogens they transmit are expanding their range.

]]>
<![CDATA[Normalization of large-scale behavioural data collected from zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706738d5eed0c4847c6c63

Many contemporary neuroscience experiments utilize high-throughput approaches to simultaneously collect behavioural data from many animals. The resulting data are often complex in structure and are subjected to systematic biases, which require new approaches for analysis and normalization. This study addressed the normalization need by establishing an approach based on linear-regression modeling. The model was established using a dataset of visual motor response (VMR) obtained from several strains of wild-type (WT) zebrafish collected at multiple stages of development. The VMR is a locomotor response triggered by drastic light change, and is commonly measured repeatedly from multiple larvae arrayed in 96-well plates. This assay is subjected to several systematic variations. For example, the light emitted by the machine varies slightly from well to well. In addition to the light-intensity variation, biological replication also created batch-batch variation. These systematic variations may result in differences in the VMR and must be normalized. Our normalization approach explicitly modeled the effect of these systematic variations on VMR. It also normalized the activity profiles of different conditions to a common baseline. Our approach is versatile, as it can incorporate different normalization needs as separate factors. The versatility was demonstrated by an integrated normalization of three factors: light-intensity variation, batch-batch variation and baseline. After normalization, new biological insights were revealed from the data. For example, we found larvae of TL strain at 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) responded to light onset much stronger than the 9-dpf larvae, whereas previous analysis without normalization shows that their responses were relatively comparable. By removing systematic variations, our model-based normalization can facilitate downstream statistical comparisons and aid detecting true biological differences in high-throughput studies of neurobehaviour.

]]>
<![CDATA[Genomic instability at the locus of sterol C24-methyltransferase promotes amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania parasites]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e92cd5eed0c48496f91a

Amphotericin B is an increasingly important tool in efforts to reduce the global disease burden posed by Leishmania parasites. With few other chemotherapeutic options available for the treatment of leishmaniasis, the potential for emergent resistance to this drug is a considerable threat. Here we characterised four novel amphotericin B-resistant Leishmania mexicana lines. All lines exhibited altered sterol biosynthesis, and hypersensitivity to pentamidine. Whole genome sequencing demonstrated resistance-associated mutation of the sterol biosynthesis gene sterol C5-desaturase in one line. However, in three out of four lines, RNA-seq revealed loss of expression of sterol C24-methyltransferase (SMT) responsible for drug resistance and altered sterol biosynthesis. Additional loss of the miltefosine transporter was associated with one of those lines. SMT is encoded by two tandem gene copies, which we found to have very different expression levels. In all cases, reduced overall expression was associated with loss of the 3’ untranslated region of the dominant gene copy, resulting from structural variations at this locus. Local regions of sequence homology, between the gene copies themselves, and also due to the presence of SIDER1 retrotransposon elements that promote multi-gene amplification, correlate to these structural variations. Moreover, in at least one case loss of SMT expression was not associated with loss of virulence in primary macrophages or in vivo. Whilst such repeat sequence-mediated instability is known in Leishmania genomes, its presence associated with resistance to a major antileishmanial drug, with no evidence of associated fitness costs, is a significant concern.

]]>
<![CDATA[Spatiotemporal expression of the putative MdtABC efflux pump of Phtotorhabdus luminescens occurs in a protease-dependent manner during insect infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f153dd5eed0c48467af26

Photorhabdus luminescens is an enterobacterium establishing a mutualistic symbiosis with nematodes, that also kills insects after septicaemia and connective tissue colonization. The role of the bacterial mdtABC genes encoding a putative multidrug efflux system from the resistance/nodulation/cell division family was investigated. We showed that a mdtA mutant and the wild type had similar levels of resistance to antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, metals, detergents and bile salts. The mdtA mutant was also as pathogenic as the wild-type following intrahaemocoel injection in Locusta migratoria, but had a slightly attenuated phenotype in Spodoptera littoralis. A transcriptional fusion of the mdtA promoter (PmdtA) and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) encoding gene was induced by copper in bacteria cultured in vitro. The PmdtA-gfp fusion was strongly induced within bacterial aggregates in the haematopoietic organ during late stages of infection in L. migratoria, whereas it was only weakly expressed in insect plasma throughout infection. A medium supplemented with haematopoietic organ extracts induced the PmdtA-gfp fusion ex vivo, suggesting that site-specific mdtABC expression resulted from insect signals from the haematopoietic organ. Finally, we showed that protease inhibitors abolished ex vivo activity of the PmdtA-gfp fusion in the presence of haematopoietic organ extracts, suggesting that proteolysis by-products play a key role in upregulating the putative MdtABC efflux pump during insect infection with P. luminescens.

]]>
<![CDATA[The growing importance of lone star ticks in a Lyme disease endemic county: Passive tick surveillance in Monmouth County, NJ, 2006 – 2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75cbd5eed0c4843d01e0

As human cases of tick-borne disease continue to increase, there is a heightened imperative to collect data on human-tick encounters to inform disease prevention. Passive tick surveillance programs that encourage members of the public to submit ticks they have encountered can provide a relatively low-cost means of collecting such data. We report the results of 11 years of tick submissions (2006–2016) collected in Monmouth County, New Jersey, an Atlantic coastal county long endemic for Lyme disease. A total of 8,608 ticks acquired in 22 U.S. states were submitted, 89.7% of which were acquired in Monmouth County, from 52 of the County’s 53 municipalities. Seasonal submission rates reflected known phenology of common human-biting ticks, but annual submissions of both Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis increased significantly over time while numbers of Ixodes scapularis remained static. By 2016, A. americanum had expanded northward in the county and now accounted for nearly half (48.1%) of submissions, far outpacing encounters with I. scapularis (28.2% of submissions). Across all tick species and stages the greatest number of ticks were removed from children (ages 0–9, 40.8%) and older adults (ages 50+, 23.8%) and these age groups were also more likely to submit partially or fully engorged ticks, suggesting increased risk of tick-borne disease transmission to these vulnerable age groups. Significantly more people (43.2%) reported acquiring ticks at their place of residence than in a park or natural area (17.9%). This pattern was more pronounced for residents over 60 years of age (72.7% acquired at home). Education that stresses frequent tick checks should target older age groups engaged in activity around the home. Our results strongly suggest that encounter rates with ticks other than I. scapularis are substantial and increasing and that their role in causing human illness should be carefully investigated.

]]>
<![CDATA[Protein composition of the occlusion bodies of Epinotia aporema granulovirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e6d5eed0c4843d0423

Within family Baculoviridae, members of the Betabaculovirus genus are employed as biocontrol agents against lepidopteran pests, either alone or in combination with selected members of the Alphabaculovirus genus. Epinotia aporema granulovirus (EpapGV) is a fast killing betabaculovirus that infects the bean shoot borer (E. aporema) and is a promising biopesticide. Because occlusion bodies (OBs) play a key role in baculovirus horizontal transmission, we investigated the composition of EpapGV OBs. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics we could identify 56 proteins that are included in the OBs during the final stages of larval infection. Our data provides experimental validation of several annotated hypothetical coding sequences. Proteogenomic mapping against genomic sequence detected a previously unannotated ac110-like core gene and a putative translation fusion product of ORFs epap48 and epap49. Comparative studies of the proteomes available for the family Baculoviridae highlight the conservation of core gene products as parts of the occluded virion. Two proteins specific for betabaculoviruses (Epap48 and Epap95) are incorporated into OBs. Moreover, quantification based on emPAI values showed that Epap95 is one of the most abundant components of EpapGV OBs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Optimization of irradiation dose to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in a sterile insect technique program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac86d5eed0c484d0898f

The sterile insect technique (SIT) may offer a means to control the transmission of mosquito borne diseases. SIT involves the release of male insects that have been sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation. We determined the effects of different doses of radiation on the survival and reproductive capacity of local strains of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in southern Mexico. The survival of irradiated pupae was invariably greater than 90% and did not differ significantly in either sex for either species. Irradiation had no significant adverse effects on the flight ability (capacity to fly out of a test device) of male mosquitoes, which consistently exceeded 91% in Ae. aegypti and 96% in Ae. albopictus. The average number of eggs laid per female was significantly reduced in Ae. aegypti at doses of 15 and 30 Gy and no eggs were laid by females that had been exposed to 50 Gy. Similarly, in Ae. albopictus, egg production was reduced at doses of 15 and 25 Gy and was eliminated at 35 Gy. In Ae. aegypti, fertility in males was eliminated at 70 Gy and was eliminated at 30 Gy in females, whereas in Ae. albopictus, the fertility of males that mated with untreated females was almost zero (0.1%) in the 50 Gy treatment and female fertility was eliminated at 35 Gy. Irradiation treatments resulted in reduced ovary length and fewer follicles in both species. The adult median survival time of both species was reduced by irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, sterilizing doses of 35 Gy and 50 Gy resulted in little reduction in survival times of males of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, indicating that these doses should be suitable for future evaluations of SIT-based control of these species. The results of the present study will be applied to studies of male sexual competitiveness and to stepwise evaluations of the sterile insect technique for population suppression of these vectors in Mexico.

]]>
<![CDATA[Conserved regulation of neurodevelopmental processes and behavior by FoxP in Drosophila]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75bdd5eed0c4843d00af

FOXP proteins form a subfamily of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors involved in the development and functioning of several tissues, including the central nervous system. In humans, mutations in FOXP1 and FOXP2 have been implicated in cognitive deficits including intellectual disability and speech disorders. Drosophila exhibits a single ortholog, called FoxP, but due to a lack of characterized mutants, our understanding of the gene remains poor. Here we show that the dimerization property required for mammalian FOXP function is conserved in Drosophila. In flies, FoxP is enriched in the adult brain, showing strong expression in ~1000 neurons of cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic nature. We generate Drosophila loss-of-function mutants and UAS-FoxP transgenic lines for ectopic expression, and use them to characterize FoxP function in the nervous system. At the cellular level, we demonstrate that Drosophila FoxP is required in larvae for synaptic morphogenesis at axonal terminals of the neuromuscular junction and for dendrite development of dorsal multidendritic sensory neurons. In the developing brain, we find that FoxP plays important roles in α-lobe mushroom body formation. Finally, at a behavioral level, we show that Drosophila FoxP is important for locomotion, habituation learning and social space behavior of adult flies. Our work shows that Drosophila FoxP is important for regulating several neurodevelopmental processes and behaviors that are related to human disease or vertebrate disease model phenotypes. This suggests a high degree of functional conservation with vertebrate FOXP orthologues and established flies as a model system for understanding FOXP related pathologies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Moderate plant water stress improves larval development, and impacts immunity and gut microbiota of a specialist herbivore]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe62d5eed0c484e5b9b6

While host plant drought is generally viewed as a negative phenomenon, its impact on insect herbivores can vary largely depending on the species involved and on the intensity of the drought. Extreme drought killing host plants can clearly reduce herbivore fitness, but the impact of moderate host plant water stress on insect herbivores can vary, and may even be beneficial. The populations of the Finnish Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) have faced reduced precipitation in recent years, with impacts even on population dynamics. Whether the negative effects of low precipitation are solely due to extreme desiccation killing the host plant or whether moderate drought reduces plant quality for the larvae remains unknown. We assessed the performance of larvae fed on moderately water-stressed Plantago lanceolata in terms of growth, survival, and immune response, and additionally were interested to assess whether the gut microbial composition of the larvae changed due to modification of the host plant. We found that larvae fed on water-stressed plants had increased growth, with no impact on survival, up-regulated the expression of one candidate immune gene (pelle), and had a more heterogeneous bacterial community and a shifted fungal community in the gut. Most of the measured traits showed considerable variation due to family structure. Our data suggest that in temperate regions moderate host plant water stress can positively shape resource acquisition of this specialized insect herbivore, potentially by increasing nutrient accessibility or concentration. Potentially, the better larval performance may be mediated by a shift of the microbiota on water-stressed plants, calling for further research especially on the understudied gut fungal community.

]]>
<![CDATA[Analysis of development and evolution rules of civil aviation in China based on life cycle theory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe58d5eed0c484e5b913

The development of CAAC began in the early days of 1949. From a comparatively less popular means of transport to the world's second largest by volume, this means of transport has undergone major and minor changes in the last 70 years. It is not known whether there are significant laws in the process of development. For this reason, we analyze the statistical indicators of the development of civil aviation transport and select representative indicators, namely, the total turnover of transport, the number of routes, the number of aircraft, the number of transport aircraft, and the number of domestic city connections. At the same time, the life cycle theory is introduced, and the typical growth curve model is used to fit the data. It is found that the evolution life cycle of civil aviation in China can be divided into three stages: the first life cycle stage from 1950 to 1981, the second from 1982 to 2003, and the third from 2004 to 2017. Each life cycle follows the growth characteristics of occurrence, growth and maturity, and each life cycle has a time range of approximately 30 years. At present, China's civil aviation industry is in the period of rapid growth in the third life cycle. This industry is expected to reach maturity in approximately 2026 and then to begin to grow slowly. Relevant departments can adopt corresponding development strategies to guide the smooth development of civil aviation in accordance with the growth law of the development and evolution life cycle of civil aviation in China.

]]>
<![CDATA[Drosophila ZDHHC8 palmitoylates scribble and Ras64B and controls growth and viability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730b5d5eed0c484f37f58

Palmitoylation is an important posttranslational modification regulating diverse cellular functions. Consequently, aberrant palmitoylation can lead to diseases such as neuronal disorders or cancer. In humans there are roughly one hundred times more palmitoylated proteins than enzymes catalyzing palmitoylation (palmitoyltransferases). Therefore, it is an important challenge to establish the links between palmitoyltransferases and their targets. From publicly available data, we find that expression of human ZDHHC8 correlates significantly with cancer survival. To elucidate the organismal function of ZDHHC8, we study the Drosophila ortholog of hZDHHC8, CG34449/dZDHHC8. Knockdown of dZDHHC8 causes tissue overgrowth while dZDHHC8 mutants are larval lethal. We provide a list of 159 palmitoylated proteins in Drosophila and present data suggesting that scribble and Ras64B are targets of dZDHHC8.

]]>