ResearchPad - lifestyle https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Body Fat Is Related to Sedentary Behavior and Light Physical Activity but Not to Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5985e054-4605-4fa5-ad43-c16ee5c634e7 Sedentary behavior (SB) has emerged as a new risk factor for cardiovascular accidents. We investigated whether physical activity levels or SB were related to percent body fat (%BF) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsIn this cross sectional study, we measured the duration of SB, light physical activity (LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total energy expenditure, and step counts using a wireless activity tracker (Fitbit HR; FB) for 7 days in free-living conditions, along with %BF using a bio impedance analyzer (Inbody; Biospace) in 120 smartphone users with T2DM. Subjects were divided into exercise (Exe, n=68) and non-exercise (nonExe, n=52) groups based on self-reports of whether the recommended exercises (30 min/day, 3 days/week for 3 months) were performed. SBt, LPAt, MVPAt were transformed from SB, LPA, MVPA for normally distributed variables.ResultsParticipants were: female, 59.2%; age, 59.3±8.4 years; body mass index, 25.5±3.4 kg/m2; glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 7.6%±1.2%; %BF, 30.4%±7.1%. They performed SB for 15.7±3.7 hr/day, LPA for 4.4±1.7 hr/day, and MVPA for 0.9±0.8 hr/day. The %BF was related to SBt and LPAt, but not to MVPA after adjustments for age, gender, and HbA1c. VPA was significantly higher in the Exe group than in the nonExe group, but SB, LPA, and moderate physical activity were not different. Predicted %BF was 89.494 to 0.105 (age), −13.047 (gender), −0.507 (HbA1c), −7.655 (LPAt) (F[4, 64]=62.929, P<0.001), with an R2 of 0.785 in multiple linear regression analysis.ConclusionReduced body fat in elderly diabetic patients might be associated with reduced inactivity and increased LPA. ]]> <![CDATA[Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Provision of Lifestyle Counseling for Diabetes or Prediabetes With Comorbid Obesity: Analysis of Office-Based Physician Visits Made by Patients 20 Years of Age or Older]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0babe6ad-ce70-4e66-a34d-f431a14d40fa ]]> <![CDATA[Perceptions of How the Transition From Home Life to College Life Affects Type 1 Diabetes Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c11c0bbd5eed0c484785137 ]]> <![CDATA[Body Size, Physical Activity and Risk of Colorectal Cancer with or without the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b6a26c

Background

We investigated how body size and physical activity influence the risk of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods

In the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852), risk factors were self-reported at baseline in 1986. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 603 cases and 4,631 sub-cohort members were available. CIMP status according to the Weisenberger markers was determined using methylation specific PCR on DNA from paraffin embedded tumor tissue. Hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for CIMP (27.7%) and non-CIMP (72.3%) tumors were calculated according to BMI, BMI at age 20, BMI change, trouser/skirt size, height, and physical activity.

Results

BMI modeled per 5 kg/m2 increase was associated with both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors, however, HRs were attenuated when additionally adjusted for trouser/skirt size. Trouser/skirt size, per 2 size increase, was associated with both tumor subtypes, even after adjustment for BMI (CIMP HR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.01–1.43; non-CIMP HR: 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04–1.28). Height per 5 cm was associated with both tumor sub-types, but HRs were attenuated when adjusted for body weight. BMI at age 20 was positively associated with increased risk of CIMP tumors and the association was significantly less pronounced for non-CIMP tumors (P-heterogeneity = 0.01). Physical activity was inversely associated with both subtypes, but a dose-response association was observed only for non-CIMP tumors (P-trend = 0.02).

Conclusions

Body size, especially central adiposity, may increase the risk of both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors. Body fat at young age may differentially influence risk. Physical activity appears to decrease the risk of CRC regardless of these molecular subtypes.

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<![CDATA[Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b907d0

Background

The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospective studies and explore whether there is a non-linear association of red and processed meats with colorectal cancer risk.

Methods and Findings

Relevant prospective studies were identified in PubMed until March 2011. For each study, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled with a random-effects model, weighting for the inverse of the variance, in highest versus lowest intake comparison, and dose-response meta-analyses. Red and processed meats intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. The summary relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.22 (95% CI  = 1.11−1.34) and the RR for every 100 g/day increase was 1.14 (95% CI  = 1.04−1.24). Non-linear dose-response meta-analyses revealed that colorectal cancer risk increases approximately linearly with increasing intake of red and processed meats up to approximately 140 g/day, where the curve approaches its plateau. The associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer risk. When analyzed separately, colorectal cancer risk was related to intake of fresh red meat (RR for 100 g/day increase  = 1.17, 95% CI  = 1.05−1.31) and processed meat (RR for 50 g/day increase  = 1.18, 95% CI  = 1.10−1.28). Similar results were observed for colon cancer, but for rectal cancer, no significant associations were observed.

Conclusions

High intake of red and processed meat is associated with significant increased risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers. The overall evidence of prospective studies supports limiting red and processed meat consumption as one of the dietary recommendations for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

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<![CDATA[SLC5A8 Gene, A Transporter of Butyrate: A Gut Flora Metabolite, Is Frequently Methylated in African American Colon Adenomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa2ab0ee8fa60ba6590

Background

Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths. Its impact on African Americans (AAs) is higher than in the general population both in the incidence and mortality from the disease. Colon cancer aggressiveness in AAs as well as non-frequent check-ups and follow up in this population have been proposed as ways to explain the observed discrepancies. These facts made the detection of early carcinogenesis markers in this population a priority.

Materials and Methods

Here, we analyzed 50 colon adenomas from AA patients for both microsatellite instability (MSI) and the methylation status of SLC5A8 gene. This gene's product is involved in the transport of butyrate that has anti-proliferative properties through its effects on histone acetylation and gene expression. A proteomic analysis to check the expressed histones in adenoma and normal tissues was also performed.

Results

The analyzed samples displayed 82% (n = 41) methylation level of SLC5A8 gene in adenomas. The MSI-H (high) adenoma were about 18% (n = 9) while the rest were mostly MSS (microsatellite stable) with few MSI-L (Low). No association was found between SLC5A8 methylation and the MSI status. Also, there was no association between SLC5A8 methylation and the sex and age of the patients. However, there were more right sided adenomas with SLC5A8 methylation than the left sided ones. The proteomic analysis revealed distinct histone expression profiles between normal and adenoma tissues.

Conclusion

SLC5A8 is highly methylated in AA colon adenomas which points to its potential use as a marker for early detection. The MSI rate is similar to that found in colon cancer tumors in AAs. These findings suggest that both processes stem from the same epigenetic and genetic events occurring at an early stage in colon carcinogenesis in AAs.

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<![CDATA[High Fat Diet Induces Formation of Spontaneous Liposarcoma in Mouse Adipose Tissue with Overexpression of Interleukin 22]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f6ab0ee8fa60b70445

Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is a T-cell secreted cytokine that modulates inflammatory response in nonhematopoietic tissues such as epithelium and liver. The function of IL-22 in adipose tissue is currently unknown. We generated a transgenic mouse model with overexpression of IL-22 specifically in adipose tissue. The IL-22 transgenic mice had no apparent changes in obesity and insulin resistance after feeding with high fat diet (HFD). Unexpectedly, all the IL-22 transgenic mice fed with HFD for four months developed spontaneous tumors in epididymal adipose tissue. Histological analysis indicated that the tumors were well-differentiated liposarcomas with infiltration of inflammatory cells. IL-22 overexpression promotes production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-10 and stimulates ERK phosphorylation in adipose tissue. Furthermore, IL-22 treatment in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes could induce IL-1β and IL-10 expression, together with stimulation of ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our study not only established a novel mouse model with spontaneous liposarcoma, but also revealed that IL-22 overexpression may collaborate with diet-induced obesity to impact on tumor development in mouse.

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<![CDATA[Association of Betel Nut with Carcinogenesis: Revisit with a Clinical Perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc4c4a

Abstract

Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and products derived from them are widely used as a socially endorsed masticatory product. The addictive nature of BN/BQ has resulted in its widespread usage making it the fourth most abused substance by humans. Progressively, several additives, including chewing tobacco, got added to simple BN preparations. This addictive practice has been shown to have strong etiological correlation with human susceptibility to cancer, particularly oral and oropharyngeal cancers.

The PUBMED database was searched to retrieve all relevant published studies in English on BN and BQ, and its association with oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Only complete studies directly dealing with BN/BQ induced carcinogenesis using statistically valid and acceptable sample size were analyzed. Additional relevant information available from other sources was also considered.

This systematic review attempts to put in perspective the consequences of this widespread habit of BN/BQ mastication, practiced by approximately 10% of the world population, on oral cancer with a clinical perspective. BN/BQ mastication seems to be significantly associated with susceptibility to oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Addition of tobacco to BN has been found to only marginally increase the cancer risk. Despite the widespread usage of BN/BQ and its strong association with human susceptibility to cancer, no serious strategy seems to exist to control this habit. The review, therefore, also looks at various preventive efforts being made by governments and highlights the multifaceted intervention strategies required to mitigate and/or control the habit of BN/BQ mastication.

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<![CDATA[CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer Susceptibility: Meta-Analyses Based on 24 Case-Control Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4eab0ee8fa60bdb648

Background

Previous reports implicate CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism as a possible risk factor for several cancers. Published studies on the relationship of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphisms with the susceptibility to gastric cancer are controversial. This study aimed to determine this relationship accurately.

Methods

Meta-analyses that assessed the association of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI variations with gastric cancer were conducted. Subgroup analyses on ethnicity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and source of controls were also performed. Eligible studies up to Mar 2012 were identified.

Results

After rigorous searching and screening, 24 case-control studies comprising 3022 cases and 4635 controls were selected for analysis. The overall data failed to indicate the significant associations of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphisms with the gastric cancer risk [c2 vs. c1: odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.88–1.28; c2c2 vs. c1c1: OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 0.78–1.92; c2c2+c1c2 vs. c1c1: OR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.79–1.10]. Similar results were observed in the subgroup analyses on ethnicity, drinking status, and source of controls. However, in the subgroup analysis on smoking status, a borderline increase in cancer risk was found among long-term smokers (c2c2+c1c2 vs. c1c1: OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.00–1.92).

Conclusion

CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphisms may modify the susceptibility to gastric cancer among individuals who have a smoking history. Large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

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<![CDATA[Prediagnostic Plasma Vitamin D Metabolites and Mortality among Patients with Prostate Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa2ab0ee8fa60ba6281

Background

Laboratory evidence suggests that vitamin D might influence prostate cancer prognosis.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We examined the associations between prediagnostic plasma levels of 25(OH)vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and mortality among 1822 participants of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study who were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of total mortality (n = 595) and lethal prostate cancer (death from prostate cancer or development of bone metastases; n = 202). In models adjusted for age at diagnosis, BMI, physical activity, and smoking, we observed a HR of 1.22 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.54) for total mortality, comparing men in the lowest to the highest quartile of 25(OH)D. There was no association between 1,25(OH)2D and total mortality. Men with the lowest 25(OH)D quartile were more likely to die of their cancer (HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.39) compared to those in the highest quartile (Ptrend = 0.006). This association was largely explained by the association between low 25(OH)D levels and advanced cancer stage and higher Gleason score, suggesting that these variables may mediate the influence of 25(OH)D on prognosis. The association also tended to be stronger among patients with samples collected within five years of cancer diagnosis. 1,25(OH)2D levels were not associated with lethal prostate cancer.

Conclusions/Significance

Although potential bias of less advanced disease due to more screening activity among men with high 25(OH)D levels cannot be ruled out, higher prediagnostic plasma 25(OH)D might be associated with improved prostate cancer prognosis.

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<![CDATA[Stool Phospholipid Signature is Altered by Diet and Tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf4ab0ee8fa60bc2778

Intake of saturated fat is a risk factor for ulcerative colitis (UC) and colon cancer. Changes in the microbiota have been implicated in the development of UC and colon cancer. The host and the microbiota generate metabolites that may contribute to or reflect disease pathogenesis. We used lipid class specific quantitative mass spectrometry to assess the phospholipid (PL) profile (phosphatidylcholine [PC], phosphatidylethanolamine [PE], phosphatidylinositol [PI], phosphatidylserine [PS]) of stool from mice fed a high fat (HFD) or control diet with or without induction of colitis-associated tumors using azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The microbiota was assessed using qPCR for several bacterial groups. Colitis-associated tumors were associated with reduced bulk PI and PE levels in control diet fed mice compared to untreated mice. Significant decreases in the relative quantities of several PC species were found in colitis-associated tumor bearing mice fed either diet. Statistical analysis of the PL profile revealed distinct clustering by treatment group. Partial least squares regression analysis found that the relative quantities of the PS class profile best predicted bacterial abundance of Clostridium leptum and Prevotella groups. Abundance of selected PL species correlated with bacterial group quantities. Thus, we have described that a HFD and colitis-associated tumors are associated with changes in phospholipids and may reflect host-microbial interactions and disease states.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Variability of the mTOR Pathway and Prostate Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db36ab0ee8fa60bd318b

The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We chose the SNPs (n = 11) with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01) and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer (ORallele = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.94, p = 1.3×10−3 for rs546950 and ORallele = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.93, p = 5.6×10−4 for rs4955720). We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. In conclusion, we found an association with prostate cancer risk for two SNPs belonging to PRKCI, a gene which is frequently overexpressed in various neoplasms, including prostate cancer.

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<![CDATA[Do Stress Responses Promote Leukemia Progression? An Animal Study Suggesting a Role for Epinephrine and Prostaglandin-E2 through Reduced NK Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da00ab0ee8fa60b73d4b

In leukemia patients, stress and anxiety were suggested to predict poorer prognosis. Oncological patients experience ample physiological and psychological stress, potentially leading to increased secretion of stress factors, including epinephrine, corticosteroids, and prostaglandins. Here we tested whether environmental stress and these stress factors impact survival of leukemia-challenged rats, and studied mediating mechanisms. F344 rats were administered with a miniscule dose of 60 CRNK-16 leukemia cells, and were subjected to intermittent forced swim stress or to administration of physiologically relevant doses of epinephrine, prostaglandin-E2 or corticosterone. Stress and each stress factor, and/or their combinations, doubled mortality rates when acutely applied simultaneously with, or two or six days after tumor challenge. Acute administration of the β-adrenergic blocker nadolol diminished the effects of environmental stress, without affecting baseline survival rates. Prolonged β-adrenergic blockade or COX inhibition (using etodolac) also increased baseline survival rates, possibly by blocking tumor-related or normal levels of catecholamines and prostaglandins. Searching for mediating mechanisms, we found that each of the stress factors transiently suppressed NK activity against CRNK-16 and YAC-1 lines on a per NK basis. In contrast, the direct effects of stress factors on CRNK-16 proliferation, vitality, and VEGF secretion could not explain or even contradicted the in vivo survival findings. Overall, it seems that environmental stress, epinephrine, and prostaglandins promote leukemia progression in rats, potentially through suppressing cell mediated immunity. Thus, patients with hematological malignancies, which often exhibit diminished NK activity, may benefit from extended β-blockade and COX inhibition.

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<![CDATA[Patterns and Possible Roles of LINE-1 Methylation Changes in Smoke-Exposed Epithelia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae9ab0ee8fa60bbe7f4

Tobacco smoking and reduced methylation of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) are crucial in oral carcinogenesis. 5′UTR of human LINE-1 sequence contains several CpG dinucleotides which are methylated in various proportions (0–100%). Methylation levels of many LINE-1s in cancer were reduced, hypomethylated. The hypomethylation of each LINE-1 locus can promote instability of genome and repress expression of a gene located on that same chromosome. This study investigated if cigarette smoking influences LINE-1 methylation of oral mucosal cells. The methylation of human LINE-1 in clinically normal oral mucosa of current smokers was compared to non-smokers. By using the combined bisulphite restriction analysis, each LINE-1 sequence was categorised into 4 patterns depending on the methylation status and location of the two 18-bp successive CpG from 5′ to 3′ including mCmC, uCuC, mCuC and uCmC. Of these, mC and uC represent methylated and unmethylated CpG, respectively. The DNA bisulphite sequence demonstrated that most CpGs of mCmC and uCuC were methylated and unmethylated, respectively. Nevertheless, some CpGs of each mCuC or uCmC allele were methylated. Imaging of the digestion products was used to generate %methylation value. No significant difference in the overall LINE-1 methylation level but the differences in percentages of some methylation patterns were discovered. The %mCmC and %uCuC increased, while the %mCuC decreased in current smokers (p = 0.002, 0.015, and <0.0001, respectively). Additionally, the lower %mCuC still persisted in persons who had stopped smoking for over 1 year (p = 0.001). The %mCuC also decreased in the higher pack-year smokers (p = 0.028). Smoking possibly altered mCuC to mCmC and uCuC forms, and changes uCmC to uCuC forms. In conclusion, smoking changes methylation levels of partial methylated LINE-1s and increased the number of hypo- and hypermethylated loci. These hypomethylated LINE-1s may possess carcinogenesis potential. Moreover, LINE-1 methylation patterns may be useful for monitoring oral carcinogenesis in smokers.

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<![CDATA[The PNPLA3 rs738409 148M/M Genotype Is a Risk Factor for Liver Cancer in Alcoholic Cirrhosis but Shows No or Weak Association in Hepatitis C Cirrhosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db02ab0ee8fa60bc710c

Background

An isoleucine>methionine mutation at position 148 in the PNPLA3 gene (p.I148M, rs738409) has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for liver damage in steatohepatitis. Here, we studied whether the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism also affects predisposition to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods

We compared distributions of PNPLA3 genotypes in 80 and 81 Caucasian patients with alcoholic and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated HCC to 80 and 81 age- and sex-matched patients with alcohol-related and HCV-related cirrhosis without HCC, respectively. PNPLA3 genotypes in 190 healthy individuals from the same population served as reference. Potential confounders obesity, diabetes, HCV genotype and HBV co-infection were controlled by univariate and multivariate logistic regression with forward variable selection.

Results

PNPLA3 genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all study groups. The frequency of the 148M allele was significantly (p<0.001) increased in alcoholic cirrhosis with (53.7%) and without HCC (36.2%) but was not different between healthy controls (22.9%) and patients with cirrhosis (25.3%; p = 0.545) and HCC (30.2%; p = 0.071) due to hepatitis C. HCC risk was highest in 148M/M homozygous patients with alcoholic liver disease (odds ratio (OR) 16.8 versus healthy controls; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.68–42.43, p<0.001). Finally, multivariate regression confirmed 148M/M homozygosity (OR 2.8; 95%-CI: 1.24–6.42; p = 0.013) as HCC risk factor in alcoholic cirrhosis. In HCV-related cirrhosis only HCV genotype 1 was confirmed as a HCC risk factor (OR 4.2; 95%-CI: 1.50–11.52; p = 0.006).

Conclusion

The PNPLA3 148M variant is a prominent risk factor for HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while its effects are negligible in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV. This polymorphism provides an useful tool to identify individuals with particularly high HCC risk in patients with alcoholic liver disease that should be taken into account in future HCC prevention studies.

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<![CDATA[Are Risk Factors Associated with Outcomes in Pancreatic Cancer?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba35c2

Background

The development of pancreatic cancer is a process in which genes interact with environmental factors. We performed this study to determine the effects of the ABO blood group, obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome (MetS), smoking, alcohol consumption and hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection on patient survival.

Methods

A total of 488 patients with pancreatic cancer were evaluated.

Result

Patients who presented as chronic carriers of HBV infection were younger at disease onset (p = 0.001) and more predominantly male (p = 0.020) than those never exposed to HBV. Patients with MetS had later disease staging (p = 0.000) and a lower degree of pathological differentiation (p = 0.008) than those without MetS. In a univariate analysis, the ABO blood group, smoking and alcohol consumption were not associated with overall survival. HBsAg–positivity and elevated fasting plasma glucose were significantly associated with unfavorable survival though not in the multivariate analysis. The presence of MetS (HR: 1.541, 95% CI: 1.095–2.169, p = 0.013), age ≥65, an elevated CA19–9 baseline level, TNM staging, the type of surgery, the degree of differentiation and chemotherapy were independently associated with overall survival.

Conclusion

We report, for the first time, that patients with chronic HBV infection may represent a special subtype of pancreatic cancer, who have a younger age of disease onset and male dominancy. Patients with MetS had later disease staging and a poorer histological grade. Patients with MetS demonstrated significantly poorer survival.

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<![CDATA[Ambient Oxygen Promotes Tumorigenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da44ab0ee8fa60b8b30b

Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53−/− mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53−/− mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

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<![CDATA[The Combined Effect of Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status on Cancer Survival Rates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da26ab0ee8fa60b808f8

Background

This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan.

Methods

A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors.

Results

After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence), tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy), and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level), colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

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<![CDATA[Visceral Fat Accumulation Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer in Postmenopausal Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad1ab0ee8fa60bb6674

Background

Obesity is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and emerging data suggest that this association is mediated by visceral fat rather than total body fat. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the association between visceral fat area and the prevalence of CRC.

Methods

To investigate the relationship between visceral adiposity and prevalence of CRC, data of 497 women diagnosed with CRC and 318 apparently healthy women were analysed and data of well-balanced 191 pairs of women with CRC and healthy women matched based on propensity scores were additionally analysed. Diagnosis of CRC was confirmed by colonoscopy and histology. Metabolic parameters were assessed, along with body composition, using computed tomography.

Results

The median visceral fat area was significantly higher in the CRC group compared with the control group before and after matching. The prevalence of CRC increased significantly with increasing visceral fat tertiles after matching (p for trend <0.01). A multivariate analysis showed that mean visceral fat area of individuals in the 67th percentile or greater group was associated with an increased prevalence of CRC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.12–2.91 before matching and adjusted odds ratio: 2.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.38–6.33) compared with that of individuals in the 33th percentile or lower group.

Conclusion

Thus, we conclude that visceral fat area is positively associated with the prevalence of CRC. Although we could not determine the causality, visceral adiposity may be associated with the risk of CRC. Further prospective studies are required to determine the benefits of controlling visceral obesity for reducing CRC risk.

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<![CDATA[The Cumulative Effects of Polymorphisms in the DNA Mismatch Repair Genes and Tobacco Smoking in Oesophageal Cancer Risk]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da91ab0ee8fa60ba018d

The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) enzymes repair errors in DNA that occur during normal DNA metabolism or are induced by certain cancer-contributing exposures. We assessed the association between 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 MMR genes and oesophageal cancer risk in South Africans. Prior to genotyping, SNPs were selected from the HapMap database, based on their significantly different genotypic distributions between European ancestry populations and four HapMap populations of African origin. In the Mixed Ancestry group, the MSH3 rs26279 G/G versus A/A or A/G genotype was positively associated with cancer (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.34–5.50). Similar associations were observed for PMS1 rs5742938 (GG versus AA or AG: OR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.07–2.79) and MLH3 rs28756991 (AA or GA versus GG: OR = 2.07; 95% IC: 1.04–4.12). In Black individuals, however, no association between MMR polymorhisms and cancer risk was observed in individual SNP analysis. The interactions between MMR genes were evaluated using the model-based multifactor-dimensionality reduction approach, which showed a significant genetic interaction between SNPs in MSH2, MSH3 and PMS1 genes in Black and Mixed Ancestry subjects, respectively. The data also implies that pathogenesis of common polymorphisms in MMR genes is influenced by exposure to tobacco smoke. In conclusion, our findings suggest that common polymorphisms in MMR genes and/or their combined effects might be involved in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer.

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