ResearchPad - ligases https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[<i>Ehrlichia chaffeensis</i> TRP120-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of tumor suppressor FBW7 increases oncoprotein stability and promotes infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13827 E. chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that replicates in mononuclear phagocytes by secreting effectors that manipulate host cell processes and exploit evolutionarily conserved pathways. This investigation reveals the complex and expanding role of the E. chaffeensis TRP120 moonlighting effector as a ubiquitin (Ub) ligase targeting host nuclear proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that E. chaffeensis TRP120 HECT Ub ligase targets the nuclear tumor suppressor Skp1-cullin-1-FBOX E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase complex substrate recognition subunit, F-BOX and WD domain repeating-containing 7 (FBW7) for degradation. FBW7 is a central regulator of broadly acting host cell oncoproteins involved in cell proliferation and survival. The reduction in FBW7 through TRP120-mediated ubiquitination increases cellular oncoprotein levels and promotes E. chaffeensis infection. This study illuminates novel bacterial effector-host interactions, the importance and interplay of both host and bacterial Ub ligases and the Ub-proteasome system for infection, and mechanisms whereby evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways are hijacked by obligately intracellular pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Toscana virus non-structural protein NSs acts as E3 ubiquitin ligase promoting RIG-I degradation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na0a913dc-a63b-43c4-adc6-448aab832714

It is known that the non-structural protein (NSs) of Toscana virus (TOSV), an emergent sandfly-borne virus causing meningitis or more severe central nervous system injuries in humans, exerts its function triggering RIG-I for degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, thus breaking off the IFN-β production. The non-structural protein of different members of Bunyavirales has recently appeared as a fundamental protagonist in immunity evasion through ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation targets. We showed that TOSV NSs has an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, mapping at the carboxy-terminal domain and also involving the amino-terminal of the protein. Indeed, neither the amino- (NSsΔN) nor the carboxy- (NSsΔC) terminal-deleted mutants of TOSV NSs were able to cause ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of RIG-I. Moreover, the addition of the C-terminus of TOSV NSs to the homologous protein of the Sandfly Fever Naples Virus, belonging to the same genus and unable to inhibit IFN-β activity, conferred new properties to this protein, favoring RIG-I ubiquitination and its degradation. NSs lost its antagonistic activity to IFN when one of the terminal residues was missing. Therefore, we showed that NSs could behave as an atypical RING between RING (RBR) E3 ubiquitin ligases. This is the first report which identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in a viral protein among negative strand RNA viruses.

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<![CDATA[Deregulation of LRSAM1 expression impairs the levels of TSG101, UBE2N, VPS28, MDM2 and EGFR]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d54d5eed0c484c825ab

CMT is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder of the peripheral nervous system with a prevalence of 1/2500 individuals and it is caused by mutations in more than 80 genes. LRSAM1, a RING finger ubiquitin ligase also known as TSG101-associated ligase (TAL), has been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2P (CMT2P) and to date eight causative mutations have been identified. Little is currently known on the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to the disease. We investigated the effect of LRSAM1 deregulation on possible LRSAM1 interacting molecules in cell based models. Possible LRSAM1 interacting molecules were identified using protein-protein interaction databases and literature data. Expression analysis of these molecules was performed in both CMT2P patient and control lymphoblastoid cell lines as well as in LRSAM1 and TSG101 downregulated SH-SY5Y cells.TSG101, UBE2N, VPS28, EGFR and MDM2 levels were significantly decreased in the CMT2P patient lymphoblastoid cell line as well as in LRSAM1 downregulated cells. TSG101 downregulation had a significant effect only on the expression of VPS28 and MDM2 and it did not affect the levels of LRSAM1. This study confirms that LRSAM1 is a regulator of TSG101 expression. Furthermore, deregulation of LRSAM1 significantly affects the levels of UBE2N, VPS28, EGFR and MDM2.

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<![CDATA[Merkel cell polyomavirus Tumor antigens expressed in Merkel cell carcinoma function independently of the ubiquitin ligases Fbw7 and β-TrCP]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d627d5eed0c484031780

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) accounts for 80% of all Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cases through expression of two viral oncoproteins: the truncated large T antigen (LT-t) and small T antigen (ST). MCPyV ST is thought to be the main driver of cellular transformation and has also been shown to increase LT protein levels through the activity of its Large-T Stabilization Domain (LSD). The ST LSD was reported to bind and sequester several ubiquitin ligases, including Fbw7 and β-TrCP, and thereby stabilize LT-t and several other Fbw7 targets including c-Myc and cyclin E. Therefore, the ST LSD is thought to contribute to transformation by promoting the accumulation of these oncoproteins. Targets of Fbw7 and β-TrCP contain well-defined, conserved, phospho-degrons. However, as neither MCPyV LT, LT-t nor ST contain the canonical Fbw7 phospho-degron, we sought to further investigate the proposed model of ST stabilization of LT-t and transformation. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that fail to support a specific interaction between MCPyV T antigens and Fbw7 or β-TrCP by co-immunoprecipitation or functional consequence. Although MCPyV ST does indeed increase LT protein levels through its Large-T Stabilization domain (LSD), this is accomplished independently of Fbw7. Therefore, our study indicates a need for further investigation into the role and mechanism(s) of MCPyV T antigens in viral replication, latency, transformation, and tumorigenesis.

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<![CDATA[Proteasome-associated HECT-type ubiquitin ligase activity is required for plant immunity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb41ed5eed0c4845cecbb

Regulated degradation of proteins by the 26S proteasome plays important roles in maintenance and signalling in eukaryotic cells. Proteins are marked for degradation by the action of E3 ligases that site-specifically modify their substrates by adding chains of ubiquitin. Innate immune signalling in plants is deeply reliant on the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. While progress has been made in understanding substrate ubiquitination during plant immunity, how these substrates are processed upon arrival at the proteasome remains unclear. Here we show that specific members of the HECT domain-containing family of ubiquitin protein ligases (UPL) play important roles in proteasomal substrate processing during plant immunity. Mutations in UPL1, UPL3 and UPL5 significantly diminished immune responses activated by the immune hormone salicylic acid (SA). In depth analyses of upl3 mutants indicated that these plants were impaired in reprogramming of nearly the entire SA-induced transcriptome and failed to establish immunity against a hemi-biotrophic pathogen. UPL3 was found to physically interact with the regulatory particle of the proteasome and with other ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway components. In agreement, we demonstrate that UPL3 enabled proteasomes to form polyubiquitin chains, thereby regulating total cellular polyubiquitination levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that proteasome-associated ubiquitin ligase activity of UPL3 promotes proteasomal processivity and is indispensable for development of plant immunity.

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<![CDATA[Ubiquitination of alpha-synuclein filaments by Nedd4 ligases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b60175f463d7e3bf2e777da

Alpha-synuclein can form beta-sheet filaments, the accumulation of which plays a key role in the development of Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. It has previously been shown that alpha-synuclein is a substrate for the HECT domain-containing ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, and is subject to ubiquitin-mediated endosomal degradation. We show here that alpha-synuclein filaments are much better substrates for ubiquitination in vitro than monomeric alpha-synuclein, and that this increased susceptibility cannot be mimicked by the mere clustering of monomers. Recognition by Nedd4 family enzymes is not through the conventional binding of PPxY-containing sequences to WW domains of the ligase, but it also involves C2 and HECT domains. The disease-causing alpha-synuclein mutant A53T is a much less efficient substrate for Nedd4 ligases than the wild-type protein. We suggest that preferential recognition, ubiquitination and degradation of beta-sheet-containing filaments may help to limit toxicity, and that A53T alpha-synuclein may be more toxic, at least in part because it avoids this fate.

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<![CDATA[Controlling caspase activity in life and death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcee4 ]]> <![CDATA[The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db46ab0ee8fa60bd889b

The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens.

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<![CDATA[The Mechanism of Mycobacterium smegmatis PafA Self-Pupylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da97ab0ee8fa60ba23b0

PafA, the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) ligase, catalyzes the Pup modification of bacterial proteins and targets the substrates for proteasomal degradation. It has been reported that that M. smegmatis PafA can be poly-pupylated. In this study, the mechanism of PafA self-pupylation is explored. We found that K320 is the major target residue for the pupylation of PafA. During the self-pupylation of PafA, the attachment of the first Pup to PafA is catalyzed by the other PafA molecule through an intermolecular reaction, while the formation of the polymeric Pup chain is carried out in an intramolecular manner through the internal ligase activity of the already pupylated PafA. Among the three lysine residues, K7, K31 and K61, in M. smegmatis Pup, K7 and K31 are involved in the formation of the poly-Pup chain in PafA poly-pupylation. Poly-pupylation of PafA can be reversibly regulated by depupylase Dop. The polymeric Pup chain formed through K7/K31 linkage is much more sensitive to Dop than the mono-Pup directly attached to PafA. Moreover, self-pupylation of PafA is involved in the regulation of its stability in vivo in a proteasome-dependent manner, suggesting that PafA self-pupylation functions as a mechanism in the auto-regulation of the Pup-proteasome system.

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<![CDATA[The E3 Ligase APIP10 Connects the Effector AvrPiz-t to the NLR Receptor Piz-t in Rice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da45ab0ee8fa60b8b806

Although nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are the major immune receptors in plants, the mechanism that controls their activation and immune signaling remains elusive. Here, we report that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from Magnaporthe oryzae targets the rice E3 ligase APIP10 for degradation, but that APIP10, in return, ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t and thereby causes its degradation. Silencing of APIP10 in the non-Piz-t background compromises the basal defense against M. oryzae. Conversely, silencing of APIP10 in the Piz-t background causes cell death, significant accumulation of Piz-t, and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, suggesting that APIP10 is a negative regulator of Piz-t. We show that APIP10 promotes degradation of Piz-t via the 26S proteasome system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AvrPiz-t stabilizes Piz-t during M. oryzae infection. Together, our results show that APIP10 is a novel E3 ligase that functionally connects the fungal effector AvrPiz-t to its NLR receptor Piz-t in rice.

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<![CDATA[A Role for the Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4 in Membrane Sorting of LAPTM4 Proteins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da22ab0ee8fa60b7f574

Background

The Lysosome associated protein transmembrane (LAPTM) family is comprised of three members: LAPTM5, LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b, with the latter previously shown to be overexpressed in numerous cancers. While we had demonstrated earlier the requirement of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 for LAPTM5 sorting to lysosomes, the regulation of sorting of LAPTM4 proteins is less clear.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Here we show that LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b are localized to the lysosome, but unique to LAPTM4b, a fraction of it is present at the plasma membrane and its overexpression induces the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions. We demonstrate that LAPTM4s, like LAPTM5, are able to co-immunoprecipitate with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, an interaction that is dependent on LAPTM4 PY motifs and plays a role in membrane sorting. Accordingly, in Nedd4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b show reduced lysosomal localization. Moreover, lack of PY motifs leads to enhanced missorting of LAPTM4b to the plasma membrane instead of the lysosome.

Conclusions/Significance

These results suggest that while some requisites of LAPTM5 lysosomal sorting are conserved among LAPTM4 proteins, LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b have also developed distinct sorting requirements.

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<![CDATA[GpDSR7, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene in Grimmia pilifera Is Involved in Tolerance to Drought Stress in Arabidopsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1eab0ee8fa60b7de25

The growth and development of plants under drought stress depends mainly on the expression levels of various genes and modification of proteins. To clarify the molecular mechanism of drought-tolerance of plants, suppression subtractive hybridisation cDNA libraries were screened to identify drought-stress-responsive unigenes in Grimmia pilifera, and a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, GpDSR7, was identified among the 240 responsive unigenes. GpDSR7 expression was induced by various abiotic stresses, particularly by drought. GpDSR7 displayed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and was exclusively localised on the ER membrane in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. GpDSR7-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a high water content and survival ratio under drought stress. Moreover, the expression levels of some marker genes involved in drought stress were higher in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that GpDSR7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in tolerance to drought stress at the protein modification level.

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<![CDATA[DNA damage induces expression of WWP1 to target ΔNp63α to degradation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc5ab

ΔNp63αplays key roles in cell survival and proliferation. So its expression is always tightly controlled in cells. We previously reported that DNA damage down-regulates transcription of ΔNp63αin FaDu and HaCat cells, which contributes to cell apoptosis. In the present study, we found that DNA damage induces down-regulation of ΔNp63αvia facilitating its proteasomal degradation in cell lines such as MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A. Further investigation revealed that transcription of WWP1 is stimulated by DNA damage in these cells. Knock-down of WWP1 abrogates DNA damage-induced down-regulation of ΔNp63αand partially rescues cell apoptosis. Interestingly, DNA damage may stimulate WWP1 through different mechanisms in different cell types: it up-regulates transcription of WWP1 in a p53-dependent manner in MCF10A and HEK293 cells, while miR-452 may be involved in DNA damage-induced up-regulation of WWP1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our study demonstrates a novel pathway which regulates ΔNp63αupon cellular response to chemotherapeutic agents.

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<![CDATA[Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db23ab0ee8fa60bcfd2e

Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23–26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of ATG4B Stability by RNF5 Limits Basal Levels of Autophagy and Influences Susceptibility to Bacterial Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3eab0ee8fa60bd5f82

Autophagy is the mechanism by which cytoplasmic components and organelles are degraded by the lysosomal machinery in response to diverse stimuli including nutrient deprivation, intracellular pathogens, and multiple forms of cellular stress. Here, we show that the membrane-associated E3 ligase RNF5 regulates basal levels of autophagy by controlling the stability of a select pool of the cysteine protease ATG4B. RNF5 controls the membranal fraction of ATG4B and limits LC3 (ATG8) processing, which is required for phagophore and autophagosome formation. The association of ATG4B with—and regulation of its ubiquitination and stability by—RNF5 is seen primarily under normal growth conditions. Processing of LC3 forms, appearance of LC3-positive puncta, and p62 expression are higher in RNF5−/− MEF. RNF5 mutant, which retains its E3 ligase activity but does not associate with ATG4B, no longer affects LC3 puncta. Further, increased puncta seen in RNF5−/− using WT but not LC3 mutant, which bypasses ATG4B processing, substantiates the role of RNF5 in early phases of LC3 processing and autophagy. Similarly, RNF-5 inactivation in Caenorhabditis elegans increases the level of LGG-1/LC3::GFP puncta. RNF5−/− mice are more resistant to group A Streptococcus infection, associated with increased autophagosomes and more efficient bacterial clearance by RNF5−/− macrophages. Collectively, the RNF5-mediated control of membranalATG4B reveals a novel layer in the regulation of LC3 processing and autophagy.

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<![CDATA[NFATc1 phosphorylation by DYRK1A increases its protein stability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe1e

NFATs are transcription factors involved in immune activation and tumor progression. Previous reports showed that DYRK1A suppressed NFATc2 transcriptional activity through phosphorylation. Nonetheless, our results showed that DYRK1A increased NFATc1/αA protein level and subsequent transcriptional activity. DYRK1A phosphorylation of NFATc1/αA at S261, S278, S403 and S409 interfered with NFATc1 ubiquitination and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Our results imply that DYRK1A is a positive kinase in regulation of NFATc1.

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<![CDATA[The Inhibitory Effect of Non-Substrate and Substrate DNA on the Ligation and Self-Adenylylation Reactions Catalyzed by T4 DNA Ligase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabcab0ee8fa60baf11e

DNA ligases are essential both to in vivo replication, repair and recombination processes, and in vitro molecular biology protocols. Prior characterization of DNA ligases through gel shift assays has shown the presence of a nick site to be essential for tight binding between the enzyme and its dsDNA substrate, with no interaction evident on dsDNA lacking a nick. In the current study, we observed a significant substrate inhibition effect, as well as the inhibition of both the self-adenylylation and nick-sealing steps of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked, non-substrate dsDNA. Inhibition by non-substrate DNA was dependent only on the total DNA concentration rather than the structure; with 1 μg/mL of 40-mers, 75-mers, or circular plasmid DNA all inhibiting ligation equally. A >15-fold reduction in T4 DNA ligase self-adenylylation rate when in the presence of high non-nicked dsDNA concentrations was observed. Finally, EMSAs were utilized to demonstrate that non-substrate dsDNA can compete with nicked dsDNA substrates for enzyme binding. Based upon these data, we hypothesize the inhibition of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked dsDNA is direct evidence for a two-step nick-binding mechanism, with an initial, nick-independent, transient dsDNA-binding event preceding a transition to a stable binding complex in the presence of a nick site.

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<![CDATA[CRL4WDR1 Controls Polo-like Kinase Protein Abundance to Promote Bilobe Duplication, Basal Body Segregation and Flagellum Attachment in Trypanosoma brucei]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcefd

The Polo-like kinase homolog in Trypanosoma brucei, TbPLK, plays essential roles in basal body segregation, flagellum attachment and cytokinesis. The level of TbPLK protein is tightly controlled, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report a Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase composed of Cullin4, the DNA damage-binding protein 1 homolog TbDDB1 and a WD40-repeat protein WDR1 that controls TbPLK abundance in the basal body and the bilobe. WDR1, through its C-terminal domain, interacts with the PEST motif in TbPLK and, through its N-terminal WD40 motif, binds to TbDDB1. Depletion of WDR1 inhibits bilobe duplication and basal body segregation, disrupts the assembly of the new flagellum attachment zone filament and detaches the new flagellum. Consistent with its role in TbPLK degradation, depletion of WDR1 causes excessive accumulation of TbPLK in the basal body and the bilobe, leading to continuous phosphorylation of TbCentrin2 in the bilobe at late cell cycle stages. Together, these results identify a novel WD40-repeat protein as a TbPLK receptor in the Cullin4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex for degrading TbPLK in the basal body and the bilobe after the G1/S cell cycle transition, thereby promoting bilobe duplication, basal body separation and flagellum-cell body adhesion.

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<![CDATA[Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α stabilizes the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease suppressor, Myb-related protein 2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdccb1

Ubiquitin ligase von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) negatively regulates protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α). Loss of pVHL causes HIF-α accumulation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. In contrast, v-Myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog–like 2 (MYBL2; B-Myb), a transcription factor, prevents VHL pathogenesis by regulating gene expression of HIF-independent pathways. Both HIF-α and B-Myb are targets of pVHL-mediated polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we show that knockdown of HIF-2α induces downregulation of B-Myb in 786-O cells, which are deficient in pVHL, and this downregulation is prevented by proteasome inhibition. In the presence of pVHL and under hypoxia-like conditions, B-Myb and HIF-2α are both upregulated, and the upregulation of B-Myb requires expression of HIF-2α. We also show that HIF-2α and B-Myb interact in the nucleus, and this interaction is mediated by the central region of HIF-2α and the C-terminal region of B-Myb. These data indicate that oncogenic HIF-2α stabilizes B-Myb to suppress VHL pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of NUB1 Activity through Non-Proteolytic Mdm2-Mediated Ubiquitination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fbab0ee8fa60b71e37

NUB1 (Nedd8 ultimate buster 1) is an adaptor protein which negatively regulates the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 as well as neddylated proteins levels through proteasomal degradation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this function are not completely understood. Here, we report that the oncogenic E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 is a new NUB1 interacting protein which induces its ubiquitination. Interestingly, we found that Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination of NUB1 is not a proteolytic signal. Instead of promoting the conjugation of polyubiquitin chains and the subsequent proteasomal degradation of NUB1, Mdm2 rather induces its di-ubiquitination on lysine 159. Importantly, mutation of lysine 159 into arginine inhibits NUB1 activity by impairing its negative regulation of Nedd8 and of neddylated proteins. We conclude that Mdm2 acts as a positive regulator of NUB1 function, by modulating NUB1 ubiquitination on lysine 159.

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