ResearchPad - lipid-hormones https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Deletion of inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type-II B affects spermatogenesis in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14722 Inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) is a dual-specificity phosphatase that acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. INPP4B dephosphorylates phospholipids at the 4th position of the inositol ring and inhibits AKT and PKC signaling by hydrolyzing of PI(3,4)P2 and PI(4,5)P2, respectively. INPP4B protein phosphatase targets include phospho-tyrosines on Akt and phospho-serine and phospho-threonine on PTEN. INPP4B is highly expressed in testes, suggesting its role in testes development and physiology. The objective of this study was to determine whether Inpp4b deletion impacts testicular function in mice. In testis, Inpp4b expression was the highest in postmeiotic germ cells in both mice and men. The testes of Inpp4b knockout male mice were significantly smaller compared to the testes of wild-type (WT) males. Inpp4b-/- males produced fewer mature sperm cells compared to WT, and this difference increased with age and high fat diet (HFD). Reduction in early steroidogenic enzymes and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor gene expression was detected, although androgen receptor (AR) protein level was similar in WT and Inpp4b-/- testes. Germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the knockout mice, while expression of meiotic marker γH2A.X was decreased. Our data demonstrate that INPP4B plays a role in maintenance of male germ cell differentiation and protects testis functions against deleterious effects of aging and high fat diet.

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<![CDATA[A grape seed extract maternal dietary supplementation improves egg quality and reduces ovarian steroidogenesis without affecting fertility parameters in reproductive hens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14599 In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.

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<![CDATA[Corticosterone and testosterone treatment influence expression of gene pathways linked to meiotic segregation in preovulatory follicles of the domestic hen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14547 Decades of work indicate that female birds can control their offspring sex ratios in response to environmental and social cues. In laying hens, hormones administered immediately prior to sex chromosome segregation can exert sex ratio skews, indicating that these hormones may act directly on the germinal disc to influence which sex chromosome is retained in the oocyte and which is discarded into an unfertilizable polar body. We aimed to uncover the gene pathways involved in this process by testing whether treatments with testosterone or corticosterone that were previously shown to influence sex ratios elicit changes in the expression of genes and/or gene pathways involved in the process of meiotic segregation. We injected laying hens with testosterone, corticosterone, or control oil 5h prior to ovulation and collected germinal discs from the F1 preovulatory follicle in each hen 1.5h after injection. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) followed by DESeq2 and gene set enrichment analyses to identify genes and gene pathways that were differentially expressed between germinal discs of control and hormone-treated hens. Corticosterone treatment triggered downregulation of 13 individual genes, as well as enrichment of gene sets related to meiotic spindle organization and chromosome segregation, and additional gene sets that function in ion transport. Testosterone treatment triggered upregulation of one gene, and enrichment of one gene set that functions in nuclear chromosome segregation. This work indicates that corticosterone can be a potent regulator of meiotic processes and provides potential gene targets on which corticosterone and/or testosterone may act to influence offspring sex ratios in birds.

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<![CDATA[OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc164

An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1), which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05). The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05), whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05). The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese.

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<![CDATA[Changes in human health parameters associated with an immersive exhibit experience at a zoological institution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69289aa2-a5fc-4464-abf6-42bfa80ae1ee

Zoological institutions often use immersive, naturalistic exhibits to create an inclusive atmosphere that is inviting for visitors while providing for the welfare of animals in their collections. In this study, we investigated physiological changes in salivary cortisol and blood pressure, as well as psychological changes among visitors before and after a walk through the River’s Edge, an immersive, naturalistic exhibit at the Saint Louis Zoo. Study participants had a significant reduction in salivary cortisol and blood pressure after walking through the exhibit. Psychological assessments of mood found that most visitors felt happier, more energized, and less tense after the visit. Additionally, participants who spent more time in River’s Edge, had visited River’s Edge prior to the study, and had seen more exhibits at the Zoo prior to entering River’s Edge experienced greater psychological and/or physiological benefits. We conclude that immersive, naturalistic exhibits in zoos can elicit positive changes in physiological and psychological measures of health and well-being and argue for a greater scientific focus on the role of zoos and other green spaces in human health.

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<![CDATA[Hyperkalemia and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitor therapy in chronic kidney disease: A general practice-based, observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc87d5eed0c48498f966

Data on hyperkalemia frequency among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients receiving renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASis) and its impact on subsequent RAASi treatment are limited. This population-based cohort study sought to assess the incidence of clinically significant hyperkalemia among adult CKD patients who were prescribed a RAASi and the proportion of patients with RAASi medication change after experiencing incident hyperkalemia. We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study (1 January 2013–30 June 2017) using Australian national general practice data from the NPS MedicineWise’s MedicineInsight program. The study included adults aged ≥18 years who received ≥1 RAASi prescription during the study period and had CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 ml/min/1.73m2). Study outcomes included incident clinically significant hyperkalemia (serum potassium >6 mmol/L or a record of hyperkalemia diagnosis) and among patients who experienced incident hyperkalemia, the proportion who had RAASi medication changes (cessation or dose reduction during the 210-day period after the incident hyperkalemia event). Among 20,184 CKD patients with a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 1,992 (9.9%) patients experienced an episode of hyperkalemia. The overall incidence rate was 3.1 (95% CI: 2.9–3.2) per 100 person-years. Rates progressively increased with worsening eGFR (e.g. 3.5-fold increase in patients with eGFR <15 vs. 45–59 ml/min/1.73m2). Among patients who experienced incident hyperkalemia, 46.6% had changes made to their RAASi treatment regimen following the first occurrence of hyperkalemia (discontinuation: 36.6% and dose reduction: 10.0%). In this analysis of adult RAASi users with CKD, hyperkalemia and subsequent RAASi treatment changes were common. Further assessment of strategies for hyperkalemia management and optimal RAASi use among people with CKD are warranted.

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<![CDATA[Heterochrony of puberty in the European badger (Meles meles) can be explained by growth rate and group-size: Evidence for two endocrinological phenotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897769d5eed0c4847d2c1b

Puberty is a key stage in mammalian ontogeny, involving endocrinological, physiological and behavioural changes, moderated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Thus, not all individuals within one population achieve sexual maturity simultaneously. Here, using the European badger (Meles meles) as a model, we describe male testosterone and female oestrone profiles (using Enzyme-immunoassays) from first capture (3 months, post-weaning) until 28 months (attaining sexual maturity and final body size), along with metrics of somatic growth, scent gland development and maturation of external reproductive organs as well as intra-specific competition. In both sexes, endocrinological puberty commenced at ca. 11 months. Thereafter, cub hormone levels followed adult seasonal hormone patterns but at lower levels, with the majority of cubs reaching sexual maturity during their second mating season (22–28 months). Interestingly, there was evidence for two endocrinological phenotypes among male cubs (less evident in females), with early developers reaching sexual maturity at 11 months (first mating season) and late developers reaching sexual maturity at 22–26 months (second mating season). Early developers also attained a greater proportion of their ultimate adult size by 11 months, exhibiting faster growth rates than late developers (despite having similar adult size). Male cubs born into larger social groups tended to follow the late developer phenotype. Our results support the hypothesis that a minimum body size is required to reach sexual maturity, which may be achieved at different ages, even within a single population, where early maturity can confer individual fitness advantages and enhance population growth rate.

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<![CDATA[Association between hair cortisol concentration and dietary intake among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1946d5eed0c484b4d32e

Background

The association between chronically elevated cortisol, as measured by hair cortisol concentration (HCC), and dietary intake among children has generally not been explored. Moreover, it is unknown whether there is an association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children.

Objective

To examine associations between HCC and dietary intake among children, and to explore the association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 296 children predisposed to overweight and obesity who participated in the Healthy Start study. Multiple Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between HCC and total energy intake, macronutrients, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and a diet quality index (DQI).

Results

Among the children, we found that higher HCC was associated with a lower consumption of dietary fat (β: -0.7 g/day [95% CI: -1.3, -0.0] per 100 pg/mg HCC). We found no statistically significant association between HCC and intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, SSB or DQI. We found no association between parental HCC and intake of total energy, added sugar, selected food groups or DQI among their children. However, stratified analyses showed that paternal HCC was associated with a borderline significant lower total energy intake and significantly lower protein intake, but only among daughters (adjusted β: -42 kcal/day [95% CI: -85, 0] and -2.6 g/day [95% CI: -4.4, -0.8] per 100 pg/mg HCC, respectively).

Conclusion

Among children, chronic stress as measured by HCC may be associated with a lower fat consumption, and paternal HCC may be associated with a lower intake of energy and protein among their daughters. However, the associations observed were weak, and any clinical relevance of these findings remains questionable.

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<![CDATA[Molecular and genetic characterization of partial masculinization in embryonic ovaries grafted into male nude mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977afd5eed0c4847d330e

In most of mammalian embryos, gonadal sex differentiation occurs inside the maternal uterus before birth. In several fetal ovarian grafting experiments using male host mice, an experimental switch from the maternal intrauterine to male-host environment gradually induces partial masculinization of the grafted ovaries even under the wild-type genotype. However, either host-derived factors causing or molecular basis underlying this masculinization of the fetal ovaries are not clear. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic appearance of SOX9-positive Sertoli cell-like cells in grafted ovaries was mediated by the testosterone derived from the male host. Neither Sox8 nor Amh activity in the ovarian tissues is essential for such ectopic appearance of SOX9-positive cells. The transcriptome analyses of the grafted ovaries during this masculinization process showed early downregulation of pro-ovarian genes such as Irx3, Nr0b1/Dax1, Emx2, and Fez1/Lzts1 by days 7–10 post-transplantation, and subsequent upregulation of several pro-testis genes, such as Bhlhe40, Egr1/2, Nr4a2, and Zc3h12c by day 20, leading to a partial sex reversal with altered expression profiles in one-third of the total numbers of the sex-dimorphic pre-granulosa and Sertoli cell-specific genes at 12.5 dpc. Our data imply that the paternal testosterone exposure is partially responsible for the sex-reversal expression profiles of certain pro-ovarian and pro-testis genes in the fetal ovaries in a temporally dependent manner.

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<![CDATA[The efficacy of stress reappraisal interventions on stress responsivity: A meta-analysis and systematic review of existing evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c54d5eed0c484ad86da

Background

The beliefs we hold about stress play an important role in coping with stressors. Various theoretical frameworks of stress point to the efficacy of reframing stress-related information through brief reappraisal interventions in order to promote adaptive coping.

Purpose

The goal of the current meta-analysis and systematic review is to substantiate the efficacy of reappraisal interventions on stress responsivity compared to control conditions. Differences in experimental methodologies (e.g., type of stressor used, timing of reappraisal intervention, and content of intervention instructions) will be examined to further delineate their effects on intervention outcomes.

Methods

The literature searches were conducted on May 16, 2018 using PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and PILOTS databases with no date restriction. The search terms included stress, reframing, reappraisal, mindset and reconceptualising. A total of 14 articles with 36 independent samples were included in the meta-analysis, while 22 articles with 46 independent samples were included in the systematic review. Random-effects model was used to test the null hypothesis using two-tailed significance testing. Fisher’s Z value was reported for each corresponding test. Heterogeneity tests are reported via Cochran’s Q-statistics.

Results

Findings from both the meta-analysis and systematic review revealed that overall, reappraisal interventions are effective in attenuating subjective responsivity to stress. Standard differences in means across groups are 0.429 (SE = 0.185, 95% CI = 0.067 to 0.791; z = 2.320, p = .020). However, reappraisal intervention groups did not outperform control groups on measures of physiological stress, with standard differences of -0.084 (SE = 0.135, 95% CI = -0.349 to 0.180; z = -0.627, p = .531). Moderator analysis revealed heterogeneous effects suggesting large variability in findings.

Conclusions

On one hand, findings may suggest a promising avenue for the effective management of self-reported stress and optimization of stress responses. However, more research is needed to better elucidate the effects, if any, of reappraisal interventions on stress physiology. Implications for the use of reappraisal interventions on stress optimization are discussed in the context of theoretical frameworks and considerations for future studies.

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<![CDATA[Molecular features of steroid-binding antidins and their use for assaying serum progesterone]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe5fd5eed0c484e5b998

Chicken avidin (Avd) and streptavidin from Streptomyces avidinii are extensively used in bionanotechnology due to their extremely tight binding to biotin (Kd ~ 10−15 M for chicken Avd). We previously reported engineered Avds known as antidins, which have micro- to nanomolar affinities for steroids, non-natural ligands of Avd. Here, we report the 2.8 Å X-ray structure of the sbAvd-2 (I117Y) antidin co-crystallized with progesterone. We describe the creation of new synthetic phage display libraries and report the experimental as well as computational binding analysis of progesterone-binding antidins. We introduce a next-generation antidin with 5 nM binding affinity for progesterone, and demonstrate the use of antidins for measuring progesterone in serum samples. Our data give insights on how to engineer and alter the binding preferences of Avds and to develop better molecular tools for modern bionanotechnological applications.

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<![CDATA[Clinical indicators of adrenal insufficiency following discontinuation of oral glucocorticoid therapy: A Danish population-based self-controlled case series analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abded5eed0c484d07dd2

Background

Biochemical adrenal insufficiency induced by glucocorticoid treatment is prevalent, but data on the clinical implications are sparse. We investigated clinical consequences of glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency after oral glucocorticoid cessation.

Methods

We conducted a Danish population-based self-controlled case series utilizing medical registries. In this design each individual serves as their own control allowing event rates to be compared as a function of time and treatment. Clinical indicators of adrenal insufficiency were defined as diagnoses of gastrointestinal symptoms, hypotension, cardiovascular collapse, syncope, hyponatremia, and hypoglycaemia. We included 286,680 persons who discontinued long-term (≥ 3 months) oral glucocorticoid treatment. We defined five risk periods and a reference period (before treatment): period 0 (on treatment), withdrawal period (1 month before and after cessation), followed by three consecutive 2 month-risk periods after withdrawal (periods 2–4).

Results

Median age at cessation was 69 years and 57% were female. Median treatment duration was 297 days and median cumulative dose was 3000 mg prednisolone equivalents. The incidence rates of hypotension, gastrointestinal symptoms, hypoglycemia and hyponatremia were increased in the withdrawal period compared to before treatment started (reference period). Incidence rate ratios comparing the withdrawal period with the reference period were 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4–4.3] for hypotension, 1.7 (95% CI: 1.6–1.9) for gastrointestinal symptoms, 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7–7.3) for hypoglycemia, and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1–2.0) for hyponatremia. During 7 months of follow up, the rates of hypotension and gastrointestinal symptoms remained elevated compared to the reference period. Risk factors included use of antibiotics, increasing average daily dose of glucocorticoids, cumulative dose, and age.

Conclusion

Oral glucocorticoid withdrawal was associated with adverse outcomes attributable to adrenal insufficiency. Our study underscores the need for future research to establish evidence-based clinical guidance on management of patients who discontinue oral glucocorticoids.

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<![CDATA[Does aerobic exercise associated with tryptophan supplementation attenuates hyperalgesia and inflammation in female rats with experimental fibromyalgia?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fddfd5eed0c484e5afa2

The objective of this study was to verify the effects of aerobic exercise associated with tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on hyperalgesia, as well as on cortisol, IL-6 and TNF concentrations in female rats with experimental fibromyalgia (FM). Female Wistar rats (initial body weight: ~ 350 g; age: 12 months) were randomly divided into 5 groups: CON (Control); F (Fibromyalgia induced); FE (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise); FES (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise and TRP supplementation) and FS (Fibromyalgia induced plus TRP supplementation). Fibromyalgia was induced with two injections (20 μL) of acidic saline (pH 4.0) into the right gastrocnemius muscle with a 3-day interval. Control animals received the same doses of neutral saline (pH 7.4). The exercised animals underwent progressive low-intensity aerobic exercise (LIAE) on a treadmill (10–12 m/min, 30–45 min/day, 5 days/week) for three weeks. During this period, the supplemented animals received a TRP supplemented diet (210 g/week), while the others received a control diet. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated weekly and serum cortisol and muscle IL-6 and TNF concentrations were assessed after three weeks of interventions. Experimental FM caused bilateral hind paw hyperalgesia and augmented serum cortisol and muscle IL-6 concentrations. After 3 weeks of interventions, LIAE alone reduced hyperalgesia (151%) and reduced serum cortisol concentrations (72%). Tryptophan supplementation itself diminished hyperalgesia (57%) and reduced serum cortisol concentrations (67%). Adding TRP supplementation to LIAE did not further reduce hyperalgesia significantly (11%), which was followed by an important decrease in muscle IL-6 concentrations (68%), though reduction in serum cortisol pulled back to 45%. Muscle TNF concentrations were not affected. In conclusion, the association of TRP supplementation to LIAE does not potentiate significantly the reduction of bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia promoted by LIAE in female rats with experimental FM, however an important decrease in IL-6 is evident.

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<![CDATA[The effect of endurance training and testosterone supplementation on the expression of blood spinal cord barrier proteins in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2694d5eed0c484289cf8

The present study aimed to estimate the effect of endurance training, two doses of testosterone, and the combination of these stimuli on the level of the endothelial proteins claudin, occludin, JAM-1, VE-cadherin, ZO-1, ZO-2, and P-glycoprotein in rat spinal cords. Adult male Wistar rats were trained using a motor-driven treadmill for 6 weeks (40–60 min, 5 times per week) and/or were treated for 6 weeks with two doses of testosterone (i.m.; 8 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg body weight). Spinal cords were collected 48 hours after the last training cycle and stored at -80°C. The levels of selected proteins in whole tissue lysates of the spinal cord were measured by western blot. Testosterone-treated trained rats had significantly lower claudin levels than vehicle-treated trained rats. High doses of testosterone resulted in a significant decrease in claudin-5 in untrained rats compared to the control group. Both doses of testosterone significantly reduced occludin levels compared to those in vehicle-treated untrained rats. The JAM-1 level in the spinal cords of both trained and untrained animals receiving testosterone was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The JAM-1 level in the trained group treated with high doses of testosterone was significantly higher than that in the untrained rats treated with 80 mg/kg of testosterone. VE-cadherin levels were decreased in all groups receiving testosterone regardless of endurance training and were also diminished in the vehicle-treated group compared to the control group. Testosterone treatment did not exert a significant effect on ZO-1 protein levels. Testosterone and/or training had no significant effects on ZO-2 protein levels in the rat spinal cords. Endurance training increased P-glycoprotein levels in the rat spinal cords. The results suggest that an excessive supply of testosterone may adversely impact the expression of endothelial proteins in the central nervous system, which, in turn, may affect the blood-brain barrier function.

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<![CDATA[The organization of leukotriene biosynthesis on the nuclear envelope revealed by single molecule localization microscopy and computational analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673071d5eed0c484f37b3f

The initial steps in the synthesis of leukotrienes are the translocation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) to the nuclear envelope and its subsequent association with its scaffold protein 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). A major gap in our understanding of this process is the knowledge of how the organization of 5-LO and FLAP on the nuclear envelope regulates leukotriene synthesis. We combined single molecule localization microscopy with Clus-DoC cluster analysis, and also a novel unbiased cluster analysis to analyze changes in the relationships between 5-LO and FLAP in response to activation of RBL-2H3 cells to generate leukotriene C4. We identified the time-dependent reorganization of both 5-LO and FLAP into higher-order assemblies or clusters in response to cell activation via the IgE receptor. Clus-DoC analysis identified a subset of these clusters with a high degree of interaction between 5-LO and FLAP that specifically correlates with the time course of LTC4 synthesis, strongly suggesting their role in the initiation of leukotriene biosynthesis.

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<![CDATA[The influence of a hot environment on physiological stress responses in exercise until exhaustion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d4dd5eed0c484c824d1

Exhaustive exercise in a hot environment can impair performance. Higher epinephrine plasma levels occur during exercise in heat, indicating greater sympathetic activity. This study examined the influence of exercise in the heat on stress levels. Nine young healthy men performed a maximal progressive test on a cycle ergometer at two different environmental conditions: hot (40°C) and normal (22°C), both between 40% and 50% relative humidity. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected pre-test and post-test. Before exercise there were no significant changes in salivary biomarkers (salivary IgA: p = 0.12; α-amylase: p = 0.66; cortisol: p = 0.95; nitric oxide: p = 0.13; total proteins: p = 0.07) or blood lactate (p = 0.14) between the two thermal environments. Following exercise, there were significant increases in all variables (salivary IgA 22°C: p = 0.04, 40°C: p = 0.0002; α-amylase 22°C: p = 0.0002, 40°C: p = 0.0002; cortisol 22°C: p = 0.02, 40°C: p = 0.0002; nitric oxide 22°C: p = 0.0005, 40°C: p = 0.0003, total proteins 22°C: p<0.0001, 40°C: p<0.0001 and; blood lactate 22°C: p<0.0001, 40°C: p<0.0001) both at 22°C and 40°C. There was no significant adjustment regarding IgA levels between the two thermal environments (p = 0.74), however the levels of α-amylase (p = 0.02), cortisol (p<0.0001), nitric oxide (p = 0.02) and total proteins (p = 0.01) in saliva were higher in the hotter conditions. Blood lactate was lower under the hot environment (p = 0.01). In conclusion, enduring hot temperature intensified stressful responses elicited by exercise. This study advocates that hot temperature deteriorates exercise performance under exhaustive stress and effort conditions.

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<![CDATA[Chronic stress influences attentional and judgement bias and the activity of the HPA axis in sheep]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5295d5eed0c4842bcc05

Introduction

Environmental challenges are part of everyday life for most domestic animals. However, very little is known about how animals cope emotionally and physiologically with cumulative challenges. This experiment aimed to determine the impact of long-term exposure to environmental challenges on the affective state and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a subsequent additional acute shearing challenge.

Methods

Sheep were exposed to either a long-term environmental challenge (rest disruption and individual housing) in order to induce chronic stress (chronic stress group) or control conditions (group housing in a field with low stress handling and daily feed rewards, control group). Judgement and attention bias were assessed as measures of the emotional state following several days of the challenge or control treatment (pre-shearing tests). In addition, the responsiveness of the HPA-axis was evaluated using a combined Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Arginine Vasopressin (CRH/AVP) challenge. Finally, all animals were exposed to an acute shearing challenge, then judgement bias (post-shearing test), HPA-axis and internal body temperature responses were determined.

Results

In the pre-shearing judgement bias test, the chronic stress group slightly increased optimism compared to the control treatment. In the attention bias test, the chronic stress group showed reduced vigilance behaviour towards a predator threat and a quicker approach to the food compared to the control treatment. The chronic stress group also had lower plasma ACTH concentrations in response to the CRH/AVP challenge compared to the control group, no differences in cortisol concentrations were found. In the post-shearing judgement bias test, differences in optimism were no longer evident between the chronic stress and control groups. Plasma ACTH concentrations and body temperatures showed a greater increase in response to shearing in the chronic stress group compared to the control group.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that long-term exposure to challenges biased cognitive measures of the affective state towards an increased expectation of a reward and reduced attention towards a threat. The exaggerated ACTH responses in the chronic stress group may be indicative of HPA-axis dysregulation. Despite a period of challenge exposure in the chronic stress group, judgement bias responses to the shearing challenge were similar in the chronic stress and control groups; the reasons for this need further investigation. The altered affective state together with signs of HPA-axis dysregulation may indicate an increased risk of compromised welfare in animals exposed to long-term environmental challenges.

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<![CDATA[Imbalance of the redox system and quality of tilapia fillets subjected to pre-slaughter stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c72d5eed0c484bd2600

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on the instrumental and sensory quality of Nile tilapia fillets. The experiment was conducted in a 2x2 factorial arrangement, evaluating densities (60 and 300 kg m-3) and depuration times (1 and 24 hours) in a total of four treatments. The serum levels of cortisol and gene expression levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) as well as the pH, color, tenderness, water-holding capacity and sensory analysis of the fillets were evaluated. High density (300 kg m-3) resulted in higher mean cortisol levels, lower expression of CAT and GPx enzymes as well as higher expression of HSP70. Fish under this treatment also exhibited fillets with greater tenderness, higher lightness, lower redness and lower sensory acceptance. The longer depuration time (24 hours) resulted in lower expression of the CAT and GPx enzymes and fillets with higher lightness. The water-holding capacity was not affected by the different treatments. Therefore, low density and longer depuration times are recommended for decreased stress and improved quality of fillets.

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<![CDATA[Biological evaluation of isoflavonoids from Genista halacsyi using estrogen-target cells: Activities of glucosides compared to aglycones]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4fb8d5eed0c484d7862d

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of estrogen target cells to a series of isoflavone glucosides and aglycones from Genista halacsyi Heldr. The methanolic extract of aerial parts of this plant was processed using fast centrifugal partition chromatography, resulting in isolation of four archetypal isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, isoprunetin, 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein) and ten derivatives thereof. 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein and 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein were among the most abundant constituents of the isolate. All fourteen, except genistein, displayed low binding affinity for estrogen receptors (ER). Models of binding to ERα could account for the low binding affinity of monoglucosides. Genistein and its glucosides displayed full efficacy in inducing alkaline phosphatase (AlkP) in Ishikawa cells, proliferation of MCF-7 cells and ER-dependent gene expression in reporter cells at low concentrations (around 0.3 μM). ICI182,780 fully antagonized these effects. The AlkP-inducing efficacy of the fourteen isoflavonoids was more strongly correlated with their transcriptional efficacy through ERα. O-monoglucosides displayed higher area under the dose-response curve (AUC) of AlkP response relative to the AUC of ERα-transcriptional response compared to the respective aglycones. In addition, 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein and 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein displayed estradiol-like efficacy in promoting differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells to osteoblasts, while genistein was not convincingly effective in this respect. Moreover, 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells, while 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein was not convincingly effective and genistein was ineffective. However, genistein and its O-glucosides were ineffective in inhibiting differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells to osteoclasts and in protecting glutamate-challenged HT22 hippocampal neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death. These findings suggest that 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein and 7,4΄-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-genistein display higher estrogen-like and/or anti-inflammatory activity compared to the aglycone. The possibility of using preparations rich in O-β-D-glucopyranosides of genistein to substitute for low-dose estrogen in formulations for menopausal symptoms is discussed.

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<![CDATA[Basic knowledge of social hierarchies and physiological profile of reared sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5d2d5eed0c484ca8fd2

The effects of social hierarchies (dominant/subordinate individuals), such as aggressiveness, feeding order, and territoriality, are some of the characteristics used for describing fish behaviour. Social hierarchy patterns are still poorly understood in European-reared sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In this work, we examine the social interactions among captive fish integrating behavioural and physiological profiles. Groups of three fish with EMG (electromyogram) radio transmitters were monitored for two weeks via video recording. Plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, lactate and lysozyme as well as haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, haematocrit and RBCC (red blood cell count) were measured at the beginning and end of the experiments. Behaviour and muscle activity were monitored daily. The results highlighted that the social hierarchic order was established after one to two days, and it was maintained throughout the experimental period. Dominant and subordinate fish (ß and γ) showed significant differences in muscle activity, hormonal profile (cortisol), aspecific immunity (lysozyme), carbohydrate metabolism (lactate) and behavioural patterns (food order and aggressiveness). This holistic approach helps to provide insights into the physiological status of the subordinate (ß and γ) and dominant individuals. These data have wide implications for aquaculture practice.

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