ResearchPad - lipids https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A pilot study of ex-vivo MRI-PDFF of donor livers for assessment of steatosis and predicting early graft dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14544 The utility of ex vivo Magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) in donor liver fat quantification is unknown.PurposeTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and utility in predicting early allograft dysfunction (EAD) of ex vivo MRI-PDFF measurement of fat in deceased donor livers using histology as the gold standard.MethodsWe performed Ex vivo, 1.5 Tesla MRI-PDFF on 33 human deceased donor livers before implantation, enroute to the operating room. After the exclusion of 4 images (technical errors), 29 MRI images were evaluable. Histology was evaluable in 27 of 29 patients. EAD was defined as a peak value of aminotransferase >2000 IU/mL during the first week or an INR of ≥1.6 or bilirubin ≥10 mg/dL at day 7.ResultsMRI-PDFF values showed a strong positive correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient) when histology (macro-steatosis) was included (r = 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.57‐0.89, p<0.0001). The correlation appeared much stronger when macro plus micro-steatosis were included (r = 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.72‐0.94, p<0.0001). EAD was noted in 7(25%) subjects. AUC (Area Under the Curve) for macro steatosis (histology) predicted EAD in 73% (95% CI: 48–99), micro plus macro steatosis in 76% (95% CI: 49–100). AUC for PDFF values predicted EAD in 67(35–98). Comparison of the ROC curves in a multivariate model revealed, adding MRI PDFF values to macro steatosis increased the ability of the model in predicting EAD (AUC: 79%, 95% CI: 59–99), and addition of macro plus micro steatosis based on histology predicted EAD even better (AUC: 90%: 79–100, P = 0.054).ConclusionIn this pilot study, MRI-PDFF imaging showed potential utility in quantifying hepatic steatosis ex-vivo donor liver evaluation and the ability to predict EAD related to severe allograft steatosis in the recipient. ]]> <![CDATA[Ontogenetic changes in energetic reserves, digestive enzymes, amino acid and energy content of <i>Lithodes santolla</i> (Anomura: Lithodidae): Baseline for culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14500 The southern king crab (SKC) Lithodes santolla is an important commercial species in southern South America. Fishing pressure has caused the deterioration of its stocks. Currently, culture techniques are being developed for producing SKC juveniles to enhance the natural population and to recover the fishing stock. Therefore, it is necessary to know about physiology, energetic and nutritional requirements for SKC maintenance in hatchery. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the biochemical and physiological changes in the midgut gland, muscle and hemolymph of juveniles, pre-adults and adults of wild SKC. The energetic reserves, digestive enzymes activity, amino acid profile and energy were quantified in twelve juveniles, ten pre-adult, and ten adult crabs. Juveniles showed high glycogen and low lipids in the midgut gland, and low proteins and low lactate in muscle. In the hemolymph, juveniles had high lipids. Pre-adults had high glycogen and lipids in the midgut gland, and both high protein and lactate in muscle. In the hemolymph, pre-adults had high lipids. Adults had low glycogen and high lipids in midgut gland, and both high proteins and high lactate in muscle. In hemolymph, adults had high glucose and lactate. Juveniles and pre-adults had high proteinase activity, whereas adults had high lipase activity. Major essential amino acids of SKC were arginine, methionine, and tryptophan, and the non-essential amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. On another hand, SKC had similar energy in the midgut gland and muscle, regardless of the ontogenetic stage. Moreover, we demonstrated that the biochemical energy calculation underestimates the actual measured values by a calorimeter. Thus, our results help to understand the physiological changes, energetic and nutritional requirements of L. santolla, and this study is a baseline for research on diet formulation for maintaining this species under culture conditions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Added values of DXA-derived visceral adipose tissue to discriminate cardiometabolic risks in pre-pubertal children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14481 The new generation of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners provide visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimates by applying different algorithms to the conventional DXA-derived fat parameters such as total fat, trunk fat and android fat for the same image data.ObjectiveThis cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether VAT estimates from Hologic scanners are better predictors of VAT than conventional DXA parameters in pre-pubertal children, and to explore the discrimination ability of these VAT methods for cardiometabolic risks.MethodsHealthy pre-pubertal children aged 7–10 years were recruited for basic anthropometric, DXA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Laboratory tests included lipid profile, glycaemic tests and blood pressure.ResultsAll VAT methods had acceptable to excellent performance for the diagnosis of dyslipidaemia (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.753–0.837) and hypertensive risk (AUC = 0.710–0.821) in boys, but suboptimal performance for these risks in girls, except for VAT by MRI in the diagnosis of dyslipidaemia. In both sexes, all VAT methods had no or poor discrimination ability for diabetes risk.ConclusionsDXA-derived VAT estimates are very highly correlated with standard methods but has equivalent discrimination abilities compared to the existing DXA-derived fat estimates. ]]> <![CDATA[Newborn body composition after maternal bariatric surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13862 In pregnancy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is increased risk of low birthweight in the offspring. The present study examined how offspring body composition was affected by RYGB.Material and methodsMother-newborn dyads, where the mothers had undergone RYGB were included. Main outcome measure was neonatal body composition. Neonatal body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 hours after birth. In a statistical model offspring born after RYGB were compared with a reference material of offspring and analyses were made to estimate the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, gestational age at birth and newborn sex on newborn body composition. Analyses were made to estimate the impact of maternal weight loss before pregnancy and of other effects of bariatric surgery respectively. The study was performed at a university hospital between October 2012 and December 2013.ResultsWe included 25 mother-newborn dyads where the mothers had undergone RYGB and compared them to a reference material of 311 mother-newborn dyads with comparable pre-pregnancy BMI. Offspring born by mothers after RYGB had lower birthweight (335g, p<0.001), fat-free mass (268g, p<0.001) and fat% (2.8%, p<0.001) compared with reference material. Only 2% of the average reduction in newborn fat free mass could be attributed to maternal pre-pregnancy weight loss whereas other effects of RYGB accounted for 98%. Regarding reduction in fat mass 52% was attributed to weight loss and 47% to other effects of surgery.ConclusionOffspring born after maternal bariatric surgery, had lower birthweight, fat-free mass and fat percentage when compared with a reference material. RYGB itself and not the pre-pregnancy weight loss seems to have had the greatest impact on fetal growth. ]]> <![CDATA[Improvement of steatotic rat liver function with a defatting cocktail during <i>ex situ</i> normothermic machine perfusion is not directly related to liver fat content]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13803 There is a significant organ shortage in the field of liver transplantation, partly due to a high discard rate of steatotic livers from donors. These organs are known to function poorly if transplanted but make up a significant portion of the available pool of donated livers. This study demonstrates the ability to improve the function of steatotic rat livers using a combination of ex situ machine perfusion and a “defatting” drug cocktail. After 6 hours of perfusion, defatted livers demonstrated lower perfusate lactate levels and improved bile quality as demonstrated by higher bile bicarbonate and lower bile lactate. Furthermore, defatting was associated with decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Rehabilitation of marginal or discarded steatotic livers using machine perfusion and tailored drug therapy can significantly increase the supply of donor livers for transplantation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Instigation of indigenous thermophilic bacterial consortia for enhanced oil recovery from high temperature oil reservoirs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13812 The purpose of the study involves the development of an anaerobic, thermophilic microbial consortium TERIK from the high temperature reservoir of Gujarat for enhance oil recovery. To isolate indigenous microbial consortia, anaerobic baltch media were prepared and inoculated with the formation water; incubated at 65°C for 10 days. Further, the microbial metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography, FTIR and surface tension. The efficiency of isolated consortia towards enhancing oil recovery was analyzed through core flood assay. The novelty of studied consortia was that, it produces biomass (600 mg/l), bio-surfactant (325 mg/l), and volatile fatty acids (250 mg/l) at 65°C in the span of 10 days, that are adequate to alter the surface tension (70 to 34 mNm -1) and sweep efficiency of zones facilitating the displacement of oil. TERIK was identified as Clostridium sp. The FTIR spectra of biosurfactant indicate the presence of N-H stretch, amides and polysaccharide. A core flooding assay was designed to explore the potential of TERIK towards enhancing oil recovery. The results showed an effective reduction in permeability at residual oil saturation from 2.14 ± 0.1 to 1.39 ± 0.05 mD and 19% incremental oil recovery.

]]>
<![CDATA[National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: a pooled analysis of 458 population-based studies in Asian and Western countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10221 Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol have opposite associations with coronary heart disease, multi-country reports of lipid trends only use total cholesterol (TC). Our aim was to compare trends in total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in Asian and Western countries.MethodsWe pooled 458 population-based studies with 82.1 million participants in 23 Asian and Western countries. We estimated changes in mean total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio by country, sex and age group.ResultsSince ∼1980, mean TC increased in Asian countries. In Japan and South Korea, the TC rise was due to rising HDL cholesterol, which increased by up to 0.17 mmol/L per decade in Japanese women; in China, it was due to rising non-HDL cholesterol. TC declined in Western countries, except in Polish men. The decline was largest in Finland and Norway, at ∼0.4 mmol/L per decade. The decline in TC in most Western countries was the net effect of an increase in HDL cholesterol and a decline in non-HDL cholesterol, with the HDL cholesterol increase largest in New Zealand and Switzerland. Mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio declined in Japan, South Korea and most Western countries, by as much as ∼0.7 per decade in Swiss men (equivalent to ∼26% decline in coronary heart disease risk per decade). The ratio increased in China.ConclusionsHDL cholesterol has risen and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio has declined in many Western countries, Japan and South Korea, with only a weak correlation with changes in TC or non-HDL cholesterol. ]]> <![CDATA[SAT-657 The Gut Microbiome Regulates Host Glucose Homeostasis via Peripheral Serotonin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8701 The gut microbiome is an established regulator of aspects of host metabolism, such as glucose handling. Despite the known impacts of the gut microbiota on host glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The gut microbiome is also a potent mediator of gut-derived serotonin synthesis, and this peripheral source of serotonin is itself a regulator of glucose homeostasis. Here, we determined whether the gut microbiome influences glucose homeostasis through effects on gut-derived serotonin. Using both pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of gut-derived serotonin synthesis, we find [1] that the improvements in host glucose handling caused by antibiotic-induced changes in microbiota composition are dependent on the synthesis of peripheral serotonin.

[1] The gut microbiome regulates host glucose homeostasis via peripheral serotonin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Oct 1;116(40):19802-19804. Martin AM, Yabut JM, Choo JM, Page AJ, Sun EW, Jessup CF, Wesselingh SL, Khan WI, Rogers GB, Steinberg GR, Keating DJ.

]]>
<![CDATA[SAT-658 Associations of Serum and CSF Kisspeptin Levels with Metabolic and Reproductive Parameters in Men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8589 Action of kisspeptin in the central nervous system (CNS) is well known on reproductive regulation; however, its peripheral action is not well understood. Recent studies have shown that peripheral kisspeptin might be related to obesity and/or metabolic parameters in humans [1]; however, these associations are still inconclusive. This study aimed to 1) compare serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kisspeptin levels between different body mass index (BMI) groups 2) compare levels of kisspeptin between serum and CSF, and 3) determine correlations between serum or CSF kisspeptin levels with clinical, metabolic, and reproductive parameters. There were 40 male subjects who underwent an operation with lumbar puncture anesthesia. Subgroup analysis was performed to compare between the lean-normal group (n=13) which included lean and normal weight subjects, the overweight group (n=10), and the obese group (n=17) according to BMI. Blood samples were collected after at least 8-hour fasting before intravenous cannulation prior to the operation while CSF samples were obtained by lumbar puncture before administration of the spinal anesthesia. Serum kisspeptin and leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese group when compared to the lean-normal and overweight groups even after adjusted to age while CSF kisspeptin levels were comparable between different BMI groups (p<0.05 all). Serum kisspeptin levels were significantly higher than CSF kisspeptin levels (p<0.001). Serum kisspeptin was significantly positively correlated with body weight (R= 0.351), BMI (R=0.549), plasma insulin (R=0.393), and serum leptin (R=0.45) (p<0.05 all), and tended to have a positive correlation with the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (R=0.29, p=0.77) but was significantly negatively correlated with plasma LH (R=-0.37) (p<0.05). CSF kisspeptin was significantly positively correlated with plasma LH (R=0.452, p<0.05). These results suggest that serum kisspeptin levels were related to increased obesity, leptin, insulin, and insulin resistance while CSF kisspeptin levels were related to reproductive parameters. In summary, central kisspeptin might have a role on reproductive regulation while peripheral kisspeptin might have a role on metabolic regulation. Reference: (1) Izzi-Engbeaya, C., et al., The effects of kisspeptin on beta-cell function, serum metabolites and appetite in humans. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2018. 20(12): p. 2800–2810.

]]>
<![CDATA[Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of purple sweet corn juice before and after boiling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7720 Sweet corn juice is becoming increasingly popular in China. In order to provide valuable health-related information to consumers, the nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of raw and boiled purple sweet corn juices were herein investigated. Sugars, antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed by conventional chemical methods. The viscosity and stability of juices were determined by Ubbelohde viscosity meter and centrifugation, respectively. Boiling process could elevate viscosity, stability and sugar content, and reduce antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity in corn juice. In addition, short time boiling efficiently reduced the degradation of anthocyanins during subsequent refrigeration. The content of amino acids, vitamin B1/B2 and E were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of fatty acids and aroma compounds. Several aroma compounds not previously reported in corn were identified, including 1-heptanol, 2-methyl-2-butenal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. Interestingly, the boiling process had no apparent effect on the amino acids profile, but it caused a 45.8% loss of fatty acids in the juice by promoting the retention of fatty acids in the corn residue. These results provide detailed information that could be used for increasing consumers’ knowledge of sweet corn juice, further development of sweet corn juice by food producers, and maize breeding programs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7688 Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known. We examined the association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction in patients included in the Swedish heart disease registry, SWEDEHEART.MethodsIn this retrospective registry-based cohort study, we included 19 136 patients post myocardial infarction (75% men, 62.8±8.7 years) who were registered in SWEDEHEART between 2011 and 2013. The association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (43% participation rate) and changes in cardiovascular risk profile between baseline and one-year follow-up was assessed using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities and medication.ResultsAttenders more often reported to have stopped smoking (men 64% vs 50%; women 64% vs 53%, p<0.001 for both, only smokers at baseline considered), be more physically active (men 3.9±2.5 vs 3.4±2.7 days/week; women 3.8±2.6 vs 3.0±2.8 days/week, p<0.001 for both) and achieved a slightly larger reduction in triglycerides (men -0.2±0.8 vs -0.1±0.9 mmol/L, p = 0.001; women -0.1±0.6 vs 0.0±0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.01) at one-year compared to non-attenders. Male attenders gained less weight (+0.0±5.7 vs +0.3±5.7 kg, p = 0.01) while female attenders achieved better lipid control (total cholesterol -1.2±1.4 vs -0.9±1.4 mmol/L, p<0.001; low-density lipoprotein -1.2±1.2 vs -0.9 ±1.2 mmol/L, p<0.001) compared to non-attenders.ConclusionsIn an unselected registry cohort of patients post myocardial infarction, compared to non-attenders those attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation achieved significantly larger improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year after the acute event. ]]> <![CDATA[Microbeam X-ray diffraction study of lipid structure in stratum corneum of human skin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7631 Human skin, not previously frozen, was studied by small-angle X-ray diffraction. The samples were folded so that a 6μm X-ray beam passed through the top layer of skin, stratum corneum. Diffraction patterns recorded with this method consisted of peaks at about q = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.4 nm-1 in the direction perpendicular to the skin surface more clearly than in previous studies. These peaks are interpreted to arise from lipids between corneocytes. A simple unit of a linear electron density profile with three minima was used to account for the observed intensity profiles. Combinations of calculated diffraction from models with one, two and three units accounted for the major part of the observed diffraction pattern, showing the diversity in the structure of the intercellular lipids.

]]>
<![CDATA[SAT-652 Increased Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protein Expression via in Vivo Delivery of a Liver-Specific Expression Plasmid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6855 Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important liver-secreted hormone that activates thermogenesis in white and brown fat deposits. In various models of obesity, FGF21 administration consistently facilitates weight loss and improved metabolic function. Several FGF21 variants, which have been engineered to improve protein stability and solubility in solutions containing preservatives, are currently in human clinical trials. In addition, in vivo FGF21 gene therapy using viral vector is being explored as an alternative therapeutic approach. In this study, we present a simpler method of in vivo FGF21 gene therapy, in which liver-specific delivery of an unpackaged plasmid construct expressing an HA-tagged FGF21 protein increases de novo hepatic FGF21 production and secretion in mice. Our data show that FGF21 protein expression can be successfully restored into the livers of FGF21 conditional knockout mice for at least two weeks after a single tail vein injection with the expression plasmid, and that the HA-tagged protein is secreted and readily detectable in serum. In wild-type C57BL6/J mice, in vivo plasmid delivery significantly increased hepatic FGF21 protein 2.3-fold after two weeks, and was associated with reduced body mass and a 14% reduction in fasting serum glucose. In addition, elevated hepatic FGF21 levels correlated with a 27% decrease in the ratio of fat to body mass, visibly smaller subcutaneous and visceral white fat adipocytes, and a 3.3-fold increase in uncoupling protein 1-dependent mitochondrial respiration in the white fat. Together, these data suggest that in vivo plasmid delivery may potentially be an effective strategy for promoting hepatic FGF21 expression in models of obesity. We are currently testing this hypothesis with experiments in high-fat diet-challenged mice.

]]>
<![CDATA[OR08-05 Sex and Ethnic Differences in Advanced Lipoprotein Profiles in South Asians, African-Americans, and Caucasians]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6138 Background: African-Americans (AA) and South Asians (SA) are known to have higher risk for T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to Caucasians (CA). Advanced analysis of lipoprotein particles with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can offer insights into CVD risk and lipid metabolism beyond a standard lipid panel. Insulin resistance (IR) is known to be associated with atherogenic lipoprotein profile.

Objective: To characterize the lipoprotein profile in AA, CA, and SA men and women.

Design: A cross-sectional study of 182 healthy, non-diabetic SA, AA and CA patients was conducted at NIH. Subjects underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test from which insulin sensitivity (Si) was derived using the Minimal Model. Lipoprotein profiles were measured by NMR with the LP4 deconvolution algorithm, which reports triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles (TRLPs), high-density lipoprotein particles (HDLPs), and low-density lipoprotein particles (LDLPs). For group comparisons, Si was adjusted for age and fat free mass. Lipoprotein parameters were adjusted for age and body fat %.

Results: Fifty-nine non-diabetic SA (33 males, 26 females), 49 AA (26 males, 23 females), and 74 CA (29 males, 45 females) were included in the study. Ethnic differences in Si were observed in men (p=0.002) but not in women (p=0.43). SA men had a significantly lower Si than both AA and CA men (p=0.02). TG concentrations and TRL particle number were significantly higher in CA men and women when compared with AA. TRLP size was not different between the ethnic groups in either sex. LDL particle number and ApoB concentration was significantly higher in SA men and women compared to AA and CA. There were no ethnic or sex differences in LDL size. HDL concentration, HDL particle number, and ApoA-I levels were not different between the groups in both sexes. However, in SA, large HDL particle number and HDL particle size was significantly lower than CA. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was significantly higher in SA men, but not women, when compared with AA and CA. Ethnic differences in LDLP and L-HDLP number remained even after adjusting for Si.

Conclusions: In SA men and women, the lipoprotein phenotype (higher LDLP and lower L-HDLP) is independent of insulin sensitivity. Increased CETP activity may contribute to the lower large HDL particle number in this group. In AA, TG and TRLP number were lower as previously reported. Further investigation is needed to determine the factors mediating the atherogenic profile in SA.

]]>
<![CDATA[Opposing effects of HNP1 (α-defensin-1) on plasma cholesterol and atherogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf7081dd-c312-4392-aa9c-ddf6cf67dfa0

Atherosclerosis, the predominant cause of death in well-resourced countries, may develop in the presence of plasma lipid levels within the normal range. Inflammation may contribute to lesion development in these individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Transgenic mice expressing α-def-1 released from activated neutrophils develop larger lipid and macrophage-rich lesions in the proximal aortae notwithstanding hypocholesterolemia caused by accelerated clearance of α-def-1/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) complexes from the plasma. The phenotype does not develop when the release of α-def-1 is prevented with colchicine. However, ApoE-/- mice crossed with α-def-1 mice or given exogenous α-def-1 develop smaller aortic lesions associated with reduced plasma cholesterol, suggesting a protective effect of accelerated LDL clearance. Experiments were performed to address this seeming paradox and to determine if α-def-1 might provide a means to lower cholesterol and thereby attenuate atherogenesis. We confirmed that exposing ApoE-/- mice to α-def-1 lowers total plasma cholesterol and decreases lesion size. However, lesion size was larger than in mice with total plasma cholesterol lowered to the same extent by inhibiting its adsorption or by ingesting a low-fat diet. Furthermore, α-def-1 levels correlated independently with lesion size in ApoE-/- mice. These studies show that α-def-1 has competing effects on atherogenesis. Although α-def-1 accelerates LDL clearance from plasma, it also stimulates deposition and retention of LDL in the vasculature, which may contribute to development of atherosclerosis in individuals with normal or even low plasma levels of cholesterol. Inhibiting α-def-1 may attenuate the impact of chronic inflammation on atherosclerotic vascular disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cobalt ion interaction with TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel: Inhibition and potentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba3bff3f-41a4-460d-bc9b-3a7adada8996

TMEM16A, a Ca2+-sensitive Cl- channel, plays key roles in many physiological functions related to Cl- transport across lipid membranes. Activation of this channel is mediated via binding intracellular Ca2+ to the channel with a relatively high apparent affinity, roughly in the sub-μM to low μM concentration range. Recently available high-resolution structures of TMEM16 molecules reveal that the high-affinity Ca2+ activation sites are formed by several acidic amino acids, using their negatively charged sidechain carboxylates to coordinate the bound Ca2+. In this study, we examine the interaction of TMEM16A with a divalent cation, Co2+, which by itself cannot activate current in TMEM16A. This divalent cation, however, has two effects when applied intracellularly. It inhibits the Ca2+-induced TMEM16A current by competing with Ca2+ for the aforementioned high-affinity activation sites. In addition, Co2+ also potentiates the Ca2+-induced current with a low affinity. This potentiation effect requires high concentration (mM) of Co2+, similar to our previous findings that high concentrations (mM) of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) can induce more TMEM16A current after the Ca2+-activation sites are saturated by tens of μM [Ca2+]i. The degrees of potentiation by Co2+ and Ca2+ also roughly correlate with each other. Interestingly, mutating a pore residue of TMEM16A, Y589, alters the degree of potentiation in that the smaller the sidechain of the replaced residue, the larger the potentiation induced by divalent cations. We suggest that the Co2+ potentiation and the Ca2+ potentiation share a similar mechanism by increasing Cl- flux through the channel pore, perhaps due to an increase of positive pore potential after the binding of divalent cations to phospholipids in the pore. A smaller sidechain of a pore residue may allow the pore to accommodate more phospholipids, thus enhancing the current potentiation caused by high concentrations of divalent cations.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reporting quality and spin in abstracts of randomized clinical trials of periodontal therapy and cardiovascular disease outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5a52c97b-59d0-4564-8bd9-d8b1530b3570

Objective

Poor reporting in randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts reduces quality and misinforms readers. Spin, a biased presentation of findings, could frequently mislead clinicians to accept a clinical intervention despite non-significant primary outcome. Therefore, good reporting practices and absence of spin enhances research quality. We aim to assess the reporting quality and spin in abstracts of RCTs evaluating the effect of periodontal therapy on cardiovascular (CVD) outcomes.

Methods

PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and 17 trial registration platforms were searched. Cohort, non-randomized, non-English studies, and pediatric studies were excluded. RCT abstracts were reviewed by 2 authors using the CONSORT for abstracts and spin checklists for data extraction. Cohen’s Kappa statistic was used to assess inter-rater agreement. Data on the selected RCT publication metrics were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed with non-parametric methods. Correlation analysis between quality, spin and bibliometric parameters was conducted.

Results

24 RCTs were selected for CONSORT analysis and 14 fulfilled the criteria for spin analysis. Several important RCT elements per CONSORT were neglected in the abstract including description of the study population (100%), explicitly stated primary outcome (87%), methods of randomization and blinding (100%), trial registration (87%). No RCT examined true outcomes (CVD events). A significant fraction of the abstracts appeared with at least one form of spin in the results and conclusions (86%) and claimed some treatment benefit in spite of non-significant primary outcome (64%). High-quality reporting had a significant positive correlation with reporting of trial registration (p = 0.04) and funding (p = 0.009). Spinning showed marginal negative correlation with reporting quality (p = 0.059).

Conclusion

Poor adherence to the CONSORT guidelines and high levels of data spin were found in abstracts of RCTs exploring the effects of periodontal therapy on CVD outcomes. Our findings indicate that journal editors and reviewers should consider strict adherence to proper reporting guidelines to improve reporting quality and reduce waste.

]]>
<![CDATA[The southern Gulf of Mexico: A baseline radiocarbon isoscape of surface sediments and isotopic excursions at depth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8afb4d0-568f-42aa-84a3-644a9625edfc

The southern Gulf of Mexico (sGoM) is home to an extensive oil recovery and development infrastructure. In addition, the basin harbors sites of submarine hydrocarbon seepage and receives terrestrial inputs from bordering rivers. We used stable carbon, nitrogen, and radiocarbon analyses of bulk sediment organic matter to define the current baseline isoscapes of surface sediments in the sGoM and determined which factors might influence them. These baseline surface isoscapes will be useful for accessing future environmental impacts. We also examined the region for influence of hydrocarbon deposition in the sedimentary record that might be associated with hydrocarbon recovery, spillage and seepage, as was found in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in 2010. In 1979, the sGoM experienced a major oil spill, Ixtoc 1. Surface sediment δ13C values ranged from -22.4‰ to -19.9‰, while Δ14C values ranged from -337.1‰ to -69.2‰. Sediment δ15N values ranged from 2.8‰ to 7.2‰, while the %C on a carbonate-free basis ranged in value of 0.65% to 3.89% and %N ranged in value of 0.09% to 0.49%. Spatial trends for δ13C and Δ14C were driven by water depth and distance from the coastline, while spatial trends for δ15N were driven by location (latitude and longitude). Location and distance from the coastline were significantly correlated with %C and %N. At depth in two of twenty (10%) core profiles, we found negative δ13C and Δ14C excursions from baseline values in bulk sedimentary organic material, consistent with either oil-residue deposition or terrestrial inputs, but likely the latter. We then used 210Pb dating on those two profiles to determine the time in which the excursion-containing horizons were deposited. Despite the large spill in 1979, no evidence of hydrocarbon residue remained in the sediments from this specific time period.

]]>
<![CDATA[A transient amphipathic helix in the prodomain of PCSK9 facilitates binding to low-density lipoprotein particles]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfed7ae25-323c-4c6e-8cd0-d6b2ac8df564

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) is a ligand of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) that promotes LDLR degradation in late endosomes/lysosomes. In human plasma, 30–40% of PCSK9 is bound to LDL particles; however, the physiological significance of this interaction remains unknown. LDL binding in vitro requires a disordered N-terminal region in PCSK9's prodomain. Here, we report that peptides corresponding to a predicted amphipathic α-helix in the prodomain N terminus adopt helical structure in a membrane-mimetic environment. This effect was greatly enhanced by an R46L substitution representing an atheroprotective PCSK9 loss-of-function mutation. A helix-disrupting proline substitution within the putative α-helical motif in full-length PCSK9 lowered LDL binding affinity >5-fold. Modeling studies suggested that the transient α-helix aligns multiple polar residues to interact with positively charged residues in the C-terminal domain. Gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations associated with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and clustered at the predicted interdomain interface (R469W, R496W, and F515L) inhibited LDL binding, which was completely abolished in the case of the R496W variant. These findings shed light on allosteric conformational changes in PCSK9 required for high-affinity binding to LDL particles. Moreover, the initial identification of FH-associated mutations that diminish PCSK9's ability to bind LDL reported here supports the notion that PCSK9-LDL association in the circulation inhibits PCSK9 activity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Retraction: DJ-1 Modulates α-Synuclein Aggregation State in a Cellular Model of Oxidative Stress: Relevance for Parkinson's Disease and Involvement of HSP70]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N05d3b52b-2e52-4bb2-9470-b0dedbc652af ]]>