ResearchPad - literature-review Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Neurological Impact of Coronavirus Disease of 2019: Practical Considerations for the Neuroscience Community]]> The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently been designated a pandemic by the World Health Organization, affecting 2.7 million individuals globally as of April 25, 2020, with more than 187,000 deaths. An increasing body of evidence has supported central nervous system involvement.MethodsWe conducted a review of the reported data for studies concerning COVID-19 pathophysiology, neurological manifestations, and neuroscience provider recommendations and guidelines.ResultsCentral nervous system manifestations range from vague nonfocal complaints to severe neurological impairment associated with encephalitis. It is unclear whether the neurological dysfunction results from direct viral injury or systemic disease. The virus could affect brainstem pathways that lead to indirect respiratory dysfunction, in addition to direct pulmonary injury. Necessary adaptations in patient management, triage, and diagnosis are evolving in light of the ongoing scientific and clinical findings.ConclusionsThe present review has consolidated the current body of data regarding the neurological impact of coronaviruses, discussed the reported neurological manifestations of COVID-19, and highlighted the recommendations for patient management. Specific recommendations pertaining to clinical practice for neurologists and neurosurgeons have also been provided. ]]> <![CDATA[Horizontal Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Allogeneic Bone Block Graft Compared with Autogenous Bone Block Graft: a Systematic Review]]> The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after horizontal ridge augmentation with allogeneic bone block compared with autogenous bone block.Material and MethodsA MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane Library search in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted including human studies published in English through March 13, 2019. Comparative and non-comparative studies evaluating horizontal ridge augmentation with allogeneic bone block were included. Cochrane risk of bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to evaluate risk of bias.ResultsOne comparative study with high quality and 12 non-comparative studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Considerable heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis from being performed. The comparative retrospective short-term study demonstrated no significant difference in implant treatment outcome between the two treatment modalities. Non-comparative long-term studies revealed high implant survival, gain in alveolar ridge width and bone regeneration with allogeneic bone block. However, non-comparative studies disclosed high incidence of complications including dehiscence, exposure of allogeneic bone block and partial or total loss of the grafts.ConclusionsThere seemed to be no difference in implant treatment outcome after horizontal ridge augmentation with allogeneic bone block compared with autogenous bone block. However, increased risk of complications was frequently reported with allogeneic bone block. ]]> <![CDATA[Maxillary Alveolar Ridge Expansion with Split-Crest Technique Compared with Lateral Ridge Augmentation with Autogenous Bone Block Graft: a Systematic Review]]>



The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after maxillary alveolar ridge expansion with split-crest technique compared with lateral ridge augmentation with autogenous bone block graft.

Material and Methods

A MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane Library search in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. Human studies published in English until 8th of February, 2018 were included.


One comparative and four noncomparative studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Both treatment modalities disclosed high survival rate of implants with few complications. High survival rate of prosthesis, implant stability values, limited peri-implant marginal bone loss and gain in maxillary alveolar ridge width were reported with the split-crest technique. Patient-reported outcome measure and length of patient treatment time was not assessed in any of the included studies.


The split-crest technique seems to be useful for horizontal augmentation of maxillary alveolar deficiencies with high survival rate of prosthesis and implants. However, further long-term randomized controlled trials with larger patient sample as well as assessment of patient-reported outcome measures and patient treatment time are needed before well-defined conclusions can be provided about the two treatment modalities.

<![CDATA[Compressive Pressure Versus Time in Cauda Equina Syndrome]]>

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text

The relationship of predictive factors and outcomes after cauda equina syndrome (CES) is complex. This meta-analysis of animal studies of cauda equina compression and subsequent decompression models relationships between compression parameters and electrophysiological function. We found that compressive pressure is an important aspect of CES pathophysiology.

<![CDATA[A Systematic Review of Neurosurgical Care in Low-Income Countries]]>


More than 5 billion individuals lack access to essential surgical care. Neurosurgical care is especially limited in low-income countries (LICs). Studies describing neurosurgical care in LICs are critical for understanding global disparities in access to neurosurgical procedures. To better understand these disparities, we conducted a systematic review of the literature identifying neurosurgical patients in LICs.


MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (, and Cochrane Library (Wiley) databases were systematically searched to retrieve studies describing neurosurgical care in LICs as defined by the World Bank Country and Lending Groups income classification. All databases were searched from their inception; no date or language limits were applied. All the articles were blindly reviewed by 2 individuals. Data from eligible studies were extracted and summarized.


Of the 4377 citations screened, 154 studies met inclusion criteria. The number of publications substantially increased over the study period, with 49% (n = 76) of studies published in the last 5 years. Twenty-six percent (n = 40) of studies had a first author, and 30% (n = 46) had a senior author, affiliated with a country different from the LIC of study. The most common neurosurgical diagnosis was traumatic brain injury (24%, n = 37), followed by hydrocephalus (26%, n = 40), and neoplastic intracranial mass (10%, n = 16). Of LICs, 43% (n = 15/35) had no published neurosurgical literature.


There is a significant deficit in the literature on neurosurgical care in LICs. Efforts must focus on supporting research initiatives in LICs to improve publication bias and understand disparities in access to neurosurgical care in the lowest-resource countries.

<![CDATA[Adherence to Exercise Programs in Older Adults: Informative Report]]>

This informative report focuses on filling information gaps regarding adherence to physical activity and exercise in the health care spectrum of older adults (OA) and an overview of the benefits of physical activity for OA. Healthy People 2000, 2010, and 2020 are public health programs from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that set national goals and objectives for promoting health and preventing disease. The programs include 10 leading health indicators that reflect major health problems, which concern OA. Exercise and physical activity are among the most important factors affecting health and longevity, but exercise adherence is a significant hindrance in achieving health goals in the OA. Exercise adherence in OA is a multifactorial problem encompassing many biopsychosocial factors. Factors affecting adherence in the OA include socioeconomic status, education level, living arrangements, health status, pacemakers, physical fitness, and depression. Improving adherence could have a significant impact on longevity, quality of life, and health care costs.

<![CDATA[A Toddler With Prolonged Fever and Intermittent Cough]]>

Fever of unknown origin is an important diagnostic challenge in pediatrics that requires a thoughtful approach. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes infectious, autoimmune, oncologic, neurologic, genetic, and iatrogenic causes. Infection remains the most common etiology, and uncommon presentations of infections are still more likely than classic presentations of rare conditions. We report a case of a retropharyngeal abscess in a toddler whose presentation is marked by a prolonged fever (>3 weeks). This case highlights the importance of close follow-up with serially repeated history and physical examinations to guide the evaluation of a patient with fever of unknown origin.

<![CDATA[Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescent Sexual Minority Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]>

Although adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM) are at increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States (US), studies that estimate sexual risk behaviors that contribute to HIV risk in ASMM are limited. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compile available data and estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors in this population. We searched four databases for key terms related to ASMM, defined as males aged 14 through 19 who identified as gay or bisexual, reported sex with a male in their lifetime, and/or were considered sexual minority by the study. Articles eligible for inclusion were in English, from US studies, and reported quantitative data on sexual risk behaviors among ASMM. We extracted data from eligible articles and meta-analyzed outcomes reported in three or more articles using random effects. Of 3864 articles identified, 21 were eligible for data extraction. We meta-analyzed nine outcomes. Sixty-two percent of adolescent males self-identifying as gay or bisexual ever had sex with a male, and 67% of participants from ASMM studies recently had sex. Among ASMM who had sex in the last 6 months or were described as sexually active, 44% had condomless anal intercourse in the past 6 months, 50% did not use a condom at last sex, and 32% used alcohol or drugs at their last sexual experience. Available data indicate that sexual risk behaviors are prevalent among ASMM. We need more data to obtain estimates with better precision and generalizability. Understanding HIV risk in ASMM will assist in intervention development and evaluation, and inform behavioral mathematical models.