ResearchPad - luminance https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Image-quality metric system for color filter array evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7704 A modern color filter array (CFA) output is rendered into the final output image using a demosaicing algorithm. During this process, the rendered image is affected by optical and carrier cross talk of the CFA pattern and demosaicing algorithm. Although many CFA patterns have been proposed thus far, an image-quality (IQ) evaluation system capable of comprehensively evaluating the IQ of each CFA pattern has yet to be developed, although IQ evaluation items using local characteristics or specific domain have been created. Hence, we present an IQ metric system to evaluate the IQ performance of CFA patterns. The proposed CFA evaluation system includes proposed metrics such as the moiré robustness using the experimentally determined moiré starting point (MSP) and achromatic reproduction (AR) error, as well as existing metrics such as color accuracy using CIELAB, a color reproduction error using spatial CIELAB, structural information using the structure similarity, the image contrast based on MTF50, structural and color distortion using the mean deviation similarity index (MDSI), and perceptual similarity using Haar wavelet-based perceptual similarity index (HaarPSI). Through our experiment, we confirmed that the proposed CFA evaluation system can assess the IQ for an existing CFA. Moreover, the proposed system can be used to design or evaluate new CFAs by automatically checking the individual performance for the metrics used.

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<![CDATA[Apparent speed of motion concomitant with action alters with delay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706764d5eed0c4847c6fb1

Multiple studies have shown action to affect perception of motion. The speed intended in the generation of a motion by action affects the apparent speed of the motion. However, it was unclear whether action with no intention of speed affects the apparent speed of a motion. In Experiment 1, we investigated the apparent speed of a motion following a key press action. We manipulated the delay from the action to the consequent motion for shifting the timing of efference copy and found the apparent speed decreasing with increases in the delay. This could be because it is known that speed irrelevant action caused expansion of perceived duration of the consequent stimulus and it might have influenced the result in Experiment 1, we investigated the apparent duration of the action consequent static (Ex. 2-1) and motion (Ex. 2-2) stimulus. We found that the apparent duration was not changed with delay. Moreover, the apparent speed and duration had different characteristics on delay. These results were discussed in terms of the sense of agency.

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<![CDATA[Coding of low-level position and orientation information in human naturalistic vision]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b266cd5eed0c484289a44

Orientation and position of small image segments are considered to be two fundamental low-level attributes in early visual processing, yet their encoding in complex natural stimuli is underexplored. By measuring the just-noticeable differences in noise perturbation, we investigated how orientation and position information of a large number of local elements (Gabors) were encoded separately or jointly. Importantly, the Gabors composed various classes of naturalistic stimuli that were equated by all low-level attributes and differed only in their higher-order configural complexity and familiarity. Although unable to consciously tell apart the type of perturbation, observers detected orientation and position noise significantly differently. Furthermore, when the Gabors were perturbed by both types of noise simultaneously, performance adhered to a reliability-based optimal probabilistic combination of individual attribute noises. Our results suggest that orientation and position are independently coded and probabilistically combined for naturalistic stimuli at the earliest stage of visual processing.

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<![CDATA[Spatial visual function in anomalous trichromats: Is less more?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217ddd5eed0c48479472c

Color deficiency is a common inherited disorder affecting 8% of Caucasian males with anomalous trichromacy (AT); it is the most common type of inherited color vision deficiency. Anomalous trichromacy is caused by alteration of one of the three cone-opsins’ spectral sensitivity; it is usually considered to impose marked limitations for daily life as well as for choice of occupation. Nevertheless, we show here that anomalous trichromat subjects have superior basic visual functions such as visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and stereo acuity, compared with participants with normal color vision. Both contrast sensitivity and stereo acuity performance were correlated with the severity of color deficiency. We further show that subjects with anomalous trichromacy exhibit a better ability to detect objects camouflaged in natural gray scale figures. The advantages of color-deficient subjects in spatial vision performance could explain the relatively high prevalence of color-vision polymorphism in humans.

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<![CDATA[Fixed or flexible? Orientation preference in identity and gaze processing in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64495ed5eed0c484c2faf2

Vision begins with the encoding of contrast at specific orientations. Several works showed that humans identify their conspecifics best based on the horizontally-oriented information contained in the face image; this range conveys the main morphological features of the face. In contrast, the vertical structure of the eye region seems to deliver optimal cues to gaze direction. The present work investigates whether the human face processing system flexibly tunes to vertical information contained in the eye region when processing gaze direction. Alternatively, face processing may invariantly rely on the horizontal range, supporting the domain specificity of orientation tuning for faces and the gateway role of horizontal content to access any type of facial information. Participants judged the gaze direction of faces staring at a range of lateral positions. They additionally performed an identification task with upright and inverted face stimuli. Across tasks, stimuli were filtered to selectively reveal horizontal (H), vertical (V), or combined (HV) information. Most participants identified faces better based on horizontal than vertical information confirming the horizontal tuning of face identification. In contrast, they showed a vertically-tuned sensitivity to gaze direction. The logistic functions fitting the “left” and “right” response proportion as a function of gaze direction were indeed steeper when based on vertical than on horizontal information. The finding of a vertically-tuned processing of gaze direction favours the hypothesis that visual encoding of face information flexibly switches to the orientation channel carrying the cues most relevant to the task at hand. It suggests that horizontal structure, though predominant in the face stimulus, is not a mandatory gateway for efficient face processing. The present evidence may help better understand how visual signals travel the visual system to enable rich and complex representations of naturalistic stimuli such as faces.

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<![CDATA[Environmental factors in school classrooms: How they influence visual task demand on children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7e2d5eed0c484386b6b

Background

The key visual factors in a classroom environment include the legibility, angle subtended at the eye, illumination, contrast, and colour of the visual task. The study evaluated the visual environmental factors in the school classrooms.

Materials and methods

The distance Visual Acuity (VA) demand was evaluated based on the size of visual task i.e. the smallest size of chalkboard writing and its viewing distance. The environmental factors which can have an effect on the visibility in classrooms such as illuminance on the chalkboard and at student’s desk, chalkboard contrast, light sources and the student’s perception of their classroom visual environment were measured. To quantify the distance VA demand and to compare with a standard high contrast VA chart measure, a validation of the measurements was performed by chalkboard simulation experiment. The “acuity reserve” to be included to the measured distance VA demand was evaluated.

Results

We included twenty-nine classrooms of eight schools. The median distance VA threshold demand was 0.28 logMAR(0.25,0.45). The median illuminance on front desk position and chalkboard contrast was 130 lux(92,208) and 40(36,50) respectively with 62% classrooms having low illumination (<150lux). The acuity reserve evaluated to be included to the distance VA demand was 0.13logMAR and 0.29 logMAR in classrooms with optimal and low chalkboard illumination respectively which was based on the results of the simulation experiment. The median distance VA demand including the acuity reserve was 0.09 logMAR(-0.03,0.23) [Snellen Equivalent: 20/25(20/19,20/34)].

Conclusion

The study findings highlight the increased visual task demand in school classrooms and the need for appropriate seating arrangements in classrooms based on the visual acuity of children. The study emphasises regular audit of the classroom environment along with the school eye screening.

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<![CDATA[The empirical characteristics of human pattern vision defy theoretically-driven expectations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c102883d5eed0c4842475f9

Contrast is the most fundamental property of images. Consequently, any comprehensive model of biological vision must incorporate this attribute and provide a veritable description of its impact on visual perception. Current theoretical and computational models predict that vision should modify its characteristics at low contrast: for example, it should become broader (more lowpass) to protect from noise, as often demonstrated by individual neurons. We find that the opposite is true for human discrimination of elementary image elements: vision becomes sharper, not broader, as contrast approaches threshold levels. Furthermore, it suffers from increased internal variability at low contrast and it transitions from a surprisingly linear regime at high contrast to a markedly nonlinear processing mode in the low-contrast range. These characteristics are hard-wired in that they happen on a single trial without memory or expectation. Overall, the empirical results urge caution when attempting to interpret human vision from the standpoint of optimality and related theoretical constructs. Direct measurements of this phenomenon indicate that the actual constraints derive from intrinsic architectural features, such as the co-existence of complex-cell-like and simple-cell-like components. Small circuits built around these elements can indeed account for the empirical results, but do not appear to operate in a manner that conforms to optimality even approximately. More generally, our results provide a compelling demonstration of how far we still are from securing an adequate computational account of the most basic operations carried out by human vision.

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<![CDATA[Derivatives and inverse of cascaded linear+nonlinear neural models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bce3d5540307c69b197f50e

In vision science, cascades of Linear+Nonlinear transforms are very successful in modeling a number of perceptual experiences. However, the conventional literature is usually too focused on only describing the forward input-output transform. Instead, in this work we present the mathematics of such cascades beyond the forward transform, namely the Jacobian matrices and the inverse. The fundamental reason for this analytical treatment is that it offers useful analytical insight into the psychophysics, the physiology, and the function of the visual system. For instance, we show how the trends of the sensitivity (volume of the discrimination regions) and the adaptation of the receptive fields can be identified in the expression of the Jacobian w.r.t. the stimulus. This matrix also tells us which regions of the stimulus space are encoded more efficiently in multi-information terms. The Jacobian w.r.t. the parameters shows which aspects of the model have bigger impact in the response, and hence their relative relevance. The analytic inverse implies conditions for the response and model parameters to ensure appropriate decoding. From the experimental and applied perspective, (a) the Jacobian w.r.t. the stimulus is necessary in new experimental methods based on the synthesis of visual stimuli with interesting geometrical properties, (b) the Jacobian matrices w.r.t. the parameters are convenient to learn the model from classical experiments or alternative goal optimization, and (c) the inverse is a promising model-based alternative to blind machine-learning methods for neural decoding that do not include meaningful biological information. The theory is checked by building and testing a vision model that actually follows a modular Linear+Nonlinear program. Our illustrative derivable and invertible model consists of a cascade of modules that account for brightness, contrast, energy masking, and wavelet masking. To stress the generality of this modular setting we show examples where some of the canonical Divisive Normalization modules are substituted by equivalent modules such as the Wilson-Cowan interaction model (at the V1 cortex) or a tone-mapping model (at the retina).

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<![CDATA[An optimized digital watermarking algorithm in wavelet domain based on differential evolution for color image]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b0e53b7463d7e030321d298

In this paper, a new color watermarking algorithm based on differential evolution is proposed. A color host image is first converted from RGB space to YIQ space, which is more suitable for the human visual system. Then, apply three-level discrete wavelet transformation to luminance component Y and generate four different frequency sub-bands. After that, perform singular value decomposition on these sub-bands. In the watermark embedding process, apply discrete wavelet transformation to a watermark image after the scrambling encryption processing. Our new algorithm uses differential evolution algorithm with adaptive optimization to choose the right scaling factors. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a better performance in terms of invisibility and robustness.

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<![CDATA[Material and shape perception based on two types of intensity gradient information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af0b55c463d7e1d4f6521e4

Visual estimation of the material and shape of an object from a single image includes a hard ill-posed computational problem. However, in our daily life we feel we can estimate both reasonably well. The neural computation underlying this ability remains poorly understood. Here we propose that the human visual system uses different aspects of object images to separately estimate the contributions of the material and shape. Specifically, material perception relies mainly on the intensity gradient magnitude information, while shape perception relies mainly on the intensity gradient order information. A clue to this hypothesis was provided by the observation that luminance-histogram manipulation, which changes luminance gradient magnitudes but not the luminance-order map, effectively alters the material appearance but not the shape of an object. In agreement with this observation, we found that the simulated physical material changes do not significantly affect the intensity order information. A series of psychophysical experiments further indicate that human surface shape perception is robust against intensity manipulations provided they do not disturb the intensity order information. In addition, we show that the two types of gradient information can be utilized for the discrimination of albedo changes from highlights. These findings suggest that the visual system relies on these diagnostic image features to estimate physical properties in a distal world.

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<![CDATA[Individual Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity in Near Vision]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb94a

Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment. Subjective and objective fixation disparity represent the different physiological mechanisms of motor and sensory fusion, but the precise relation between these two is still unclear. This study measures both types of fixation disparity at viewing distances of 40, 30, and 24 cm while observers fixated a central stationary fusion target. 20 young adult subjects with normal binocular vision were tested repeatedly to investigate individual differences. For heterophoria and subjective fixation disparity, this study replicated that the binocular system does not properly adjust to near targets: outward (exo) deviations typically increase as the viewing distance is shortened. This exo proximity effect—however—was not found for objective fixation disparity, which–on the average–was zero. But individuals can have reliable outward (exo) or inward (eso) vergence errors. Cases with eso objective fixation disparity tend to have less exo states of subjective fixation disparity and heterophoria. In summary, the two types of fixation disparity seem to respond in a different way when the viewing distance is shortened. Motor and sensory fusion–as reflected by objective and subjective fixation disparity–exhibit complex interactions that may differ between individuals (eso versus exo) and vary with viewing distance (far versus near vision).

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<![CDATA[The Role of Parieto-Occipital Junction in the Interaction between Dorsal and Ventral Streams in Disparity-Defined Near and Far Space Processing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f9ab0ee8fa60b7178a

Neuropsychological and functional MRI data suggest that two functionally and anatomically dissociable streams of visual processing exist: a ventral perception-related stream and a dorsal action-related stream. However, relatively little is known about how the two streams interact in the intact brain during the production of adaptive behavior. Using functional MRI and a virtual three-dimensional paradigm, we aimed at examining whether the parieto-occipital junction (POJ) acts as an interface for the integration and processing of information between the dorsal and ventral streams in the near and far space processing. Virtual reality three-dimensional near and far space was defined by manipulating binocular disparity, with -68.76 arcmin crossed disparity for near space and +68.76 arcmin uncrossed disparity for near space. Our results showed that the POJ and bilateral superior occipital gyrus (SOG) showed relative increased activity when responded to targets presented in the near space than in the far space, which was independent of the retinotopic and perceived sizes of target. Furthermore, the POJ showed the enhanced functional connectivity with both the dorsal and ventral streams during the far space processing irrespective of target sizes, supporting that the POJ acts as an interface between the dorsal and ventral streams in disparity-defined near and far space processing. In contrast, the bilateral SOG showed the enhanced functional connectivity only with the ventral stream if retinotopic sizes of targets in the near and far spaces were matched, which suggested there was a functional dissociation between the POJ and bilateral SOG.

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<![CDATA[Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da72ab0ee8fa60b95305

Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic) vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision.

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<![CDATA[A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da20ab0ee8fa60b7eba5

Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity).

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<![CDATA[What Do Contrast Threshold Equivalent Noise Studies Actually Measure? Noise vs. Nonlinearity in Different Masking Paradigms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da92ab0ee8fa60ba074f

The internal noise present in a linear system can be quantified by the equivalent noise method. By measuring the effect that applying external noise to the system’s input has on its output one can estimate the variance of this internal noise. By applying this simple “linear amplifier” model to the human visual system, one can entirely explain an observer’s detection performance by a combination of the internal noise variance and their efficiency relative to an ideal observer. Studies using this method rely on two crucial factors: firstly that the external noise in their stimuli behaves like the visual system’s internal noise in the dimension of interest, and secondly that the assumptions underlying their model are correct (e.g. linearity). Here we explore the effects of these two factors while applying the equivalent noise method to investigate the contrast sensitivity function (CSF). We compare the results at 0.5 and 6 c/deg from the equivalent noise method against those we would expect based on pedestal masking data collected from the same observers. We find that the loss of sensitivity with increasing spatial frequency results from changes in the saturation constant of the gain control nonlinearity, and that this only masquerades as a change in internal noise under the equivalent noise method. Part of the effect we find can be attributed to the optical transfer function of the eye. The remainder can be explained by either changes in effective input gain, divisive suppression, or a combination of the two. Given these effects the efficiency of our observers approaches the ideal level. We show the importance of considering these factors in equivalent noise studies.

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<![CDATA[Limited Top-Down Influence from Recognition to Same-Different Matching of Chinese Characters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3eab0ee8fa60bd5cf3

We investigated the extent to which recognition of Chinese characters influenced same-different matching performance that did not require recognition. In each experimental trial, two partially occluded characters were shown sequentially, and participants decided whether or not they were the same. The two characters were either both upright or both inverted and mirror-reflected. The participants’ Chinese reading fluency spanned the full range, from not knowing any characters to native speakers. The participants who could recognize some characters (defined as readers) were subsequently tested with character recognition in a naming task. Interestingly, although the readers’ recognition accuracies well correlated with their years of Chinese language schooling, they were uncorrelated with the matching accuracies in the same-different task with upright characters. The only indication of top-down influence was the readers’ higher accuracy in matching upright than inverted and reflected characters. However, the magnitude of this effect was small, to the extent that the average same-different accuracies were comparable for readers and non-readers alike. This small effect was further confirmed with native speakers in China, who should give rise to the largest possible effect. We conclude that top-down influence from character recognition was present but very limited, at least with the task and stimuli used.

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<![CDATA[Retinal Lateral Inhibition Provides the Biological Basis of Long-Range Spatial Induction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d6ab0ee8fa60b65d8c

Retinal lateral inhibition is one of the conventional efficient coding mechanisms in the visual system that is produced by interneurons that pool signals over a neighborhood of presynaptic feedforward cells and send inhibitory signals back to them. Thus, the receptive-field (RF) of a retinal ganglion cell has a center-surround receptive-field (RF) profile that is classically represented as a difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) adequate for efficient spatial contrast coding. The DOG RF profile has been attributed to produce the psychophysical phenomena of brightness induction, in which the perceived brightness of an object is affected by that of its vicinity, either shifting away from it (brightness contrast) or becoming more similar to it (brightness assimilation) depending on the size of the surfaces surrounding the object. While brightness contrast can be modeled using a DOG with a narrow surround, brightness assimilation requires a wide suppressive surround. Early retinal studies determined that the suppressive surround of a retinal ganglion cell is narrow (< 100–300 μm; ‘classic RF’), which led researchers to postulate that brightness assimilation must originate at some post-retinal, possibly cortical, stage where long-range interactions are feasible. However, more recent studies have reported that the retinal interneurons also exhibit a spatially wide component (> 500–1000 μm). In the current study, we examine the effect of this wide interneuron RF component in two biophysical retinal models and show that for both of the retinal models it explains the long-range effect evidenced in simultaneous brightness induction phenomena and that the spatial extent of this long-range effect of the retinal model responses matches that of perceptual data. These results suggest that the retinal lateral inhibition mechanism alone can regulate local as well as long-range spatial induction through the narrow and wide RF components of retinal interneurons, arguing against the existing view that spatial induction is operated by two separate local vs. long-range mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[On the feature specificity of value-driven attention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf666

When an otherwise inconspicuous stimulus is learned to predict a reward, this stimulus will automatically capture visual attention. This learned attentional bias is not specific to the precise object previously associated with reward, but can be observed for different stimuli that share a defining feature with the reward cue. Under certain circumstances, value-driven attentional biases can even transfer to new contexts in which the reward cues were not previously experienced, and can also be evident for different exemplars of a stimulus category, suggesting some degree of tolerance in the scope of the underlying bias. Whether a match to a reward-predictive feature is necessary to support value-driven attention, or whether similar-looking features also receive some degree of elevated priority following associative reward learning, remains an open question. Here, I examine the impact of learned associations between reward and red- and green-colored stimuli on the processing of other colors. The findings show that even though other colors experienced during training were non-predictive with respect to reward, the speed with which targets possessing these colors were identified in a subsequent test phase was affected by their similarity to the high-value color. Thus, value-driven attentional biases for stimulus features are imprecise, as would be predicted by a sensory gain model of value-driven attention.

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<![CDATA[Motion-Dependent Filling-In of Spatiotemporal Information at the Blind Spot]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4cab0ee8fa60b8cecb

We usually do not notice the blind spot, a receptor-free region on the retina. Stimuli extending through the blind spot appear filled in. However, if an object does not reach through but ends in the blind spot, it is perceived as “cut off” at the boundary. Here we show that even when there is no corresponding stimulation at opposing edges of the blind spot, well known motion-induced position shifts also extend into the blind spot and elicit a dynamic filling-in process that allows spatial structure to be extrapolated into the blind spot. We presented observers with sinusoidal gratings that drifted into or out of the blind spot, or flickered in counterphase. Gratings moving into the blind spot were perceived to be longer than those moving out of the blind spot or flickering, revealing motion-dependent filling-in. Further, observers could perceive more of a grating’s spatial structure inside the blind spot than would be predicted from simple filling-in of luminance information from the blind spot edge. This is evidence for a dynamic filling-in process that uses spatiotemporal information from the motion system to extrapolate visual percepts into the scotoma of the blind spot. Our findings also provide further support for the notion that an explicit spatial shift of topographic representations contributes to motion-induced position illusions.

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<![CDATA[Psychophysical Evaluation of Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency: Discrimination between Protans and Deutans Using Mollon-Reffin’s Ellipses and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba369a

We have used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue (FM 100) test and Mollon-Reffin (MR) test to evaluate the colour vision of 93 subjects, 30.4 ± 9.7 years old, who had red-green congenital colour vision deficiencies. All subjects lived in Belém (State of Pará, Brazil) and were selected by the State of Pará Traffic Department. Selection criteria comprised the absence of visual dysfunctions other than Daltonism and no history of systemic diseases that could impair the visual system performance. Results from colour vision deficient were compared with those from 127 normal trichromats, 29.3 ± 10.3 years old. For the MR test, measurements were taken around five points of the CIE 1976 colour space, along 20 directions irradiating from each point, in order to determine with high-resolution the corresponding colour discrimination ellipses (MacAdam ellipses). Three parameters were used to compare results obtained from different subjects: diameter of circle with same ellipse area, ratio between ellipse’s long and short axes, and ellipse long axis angle. For the FM 100 test, the parameters were: logarithm of the total number of mistakes and positions of mistakes in the FM diagram. Data were also simultaneously analysed in two or three dimensions as well as by using multidimensional cluster analysis. For the MR test, Mollon-Reffin Ellipse #3 (u’ = 0.225, v’ = 0.415) discriminated more efficiently than the other four ellipses between protans and deutans once it provided larger angular difference in the colour space between protan and deutan confusion lines. The MR test was more sensitive than the FM 100 test. It separated individuals by dysfunctional groups with greater precision, provided a more sophisticated quantitative analysis, and its use is appropriate for a more refined evaluation of different phenotypes of red-green colour vision deficiencies.

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