ResearchPad - lung-and-intrathoracic-tumors https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Retrospective observational cohort study on innovation in oncology and progress in survival: How far have we gotten in the two decades of treating patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer as a single population?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13816 We assessed the impact of new antineoplastic agents on the overall survival (OS) of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients followed up until 2012. Multivariate regression models were run for OS (outcome) and four proxies for innovation (exposure): Index (InnovInd, for SEER-Research data 1973–2012) and three levels of aggregation of Mean Medication Vintage, i.e. Overall (MMVOverall), using data aggregated at the State Level (MMVState), and using patient-level data (MMVPatient) using data from the US captured in SEER-Medicare 1991–2012. We derived Hazard ratios (HR) from Royston-Parmar models and odds ratios (OR) from a logistic regression on 1-year OS. Including 164,704 patients (median age 72 years, 56.8% stage IV, 61.8% with no comorbidities, 37.8% with adenocarcinoma, 22.9% with squamous-cell, 6.1% were censored). One-year OS improved from 0.22 in 1973 to 0.39 in 2012, in correlation with InnovInd (r = 0.97). Ten new NSCLC drugs were approved and 28 more used off-label. Regression-models results indicate that therapeutic innovation only marginally reduced the risk of dying (HROverall = 0.98 [0.98–0.98], HRMMV-Patient = 0.98 [0.97–0.98], and HRMMV-State = 0.98 [0.98–0.98], and slightly improved 1-year survival (ORMMV-Overall = 1.05 95%CI [1.04–1.05]). These results were validated with data from the Swedish National Health Data registers. Until 2013, aNSCLC patients were treated undifferentiated and the introduction of innovative therapies had statistically significant, albeit modest, effects on survival. Most treatments used off-guidelines highlight the high unmet need; however new advancements in treatment may further improve survival.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevalence of PD-L1 expression in matched recurrent and/or metastatic sarcoma samples and in a range of selected sarcomas subtypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd4648af7-aaea-40d4-a97f-7213e9d16a5c

We assessed the frequency of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a cohort of 522 sarcomas from 457 patients, incuding a subset of 46 patients with 63 matched samples from local recurrence or metastases with primary tumours and/or metachronous metastases. We also investigated the correlation of PD-L1 with the presence and degree of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a subset of cases. IHC was performed using the PD-L1 SP263 companion kit (VENTANA) on tissue microarrays from an archival cohort. Evaluation of PD-L1 and TILs was performed on full sections for a subset of 23 cases. Fisher’s exact and Mann Whitney test were used to establish significance (P <0.05). PD-L1 positive expression (≥1%) was identified in 31% of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, 29% of angiosarcomas, 26% of rhabdomyosarcomas, 18% of myxofibrosarcomas, 11% of leiomyosarcomas and 10% of dedifferentiated liposarcomas. Negative expression was present in all atypical lipomatous tumous/well-differentiated lipoasarcomas, myxoid liposarcomas, synovial sarcomas, pleomorphic liposarcomas, and Ewing sarcomas. PD-L1 IHC was concordant in 81% (38 of 47) of matched/paired samples. PD-L1 IHC was discordant in 19% (9 of 47 matched/paired samples), displaying differences in the proportion of cells expressing PD-L1 amongst paired samples with the percentage of PD-L1-positive cells increasing in the metastatic/recurrent site compared to the primary in 6 of 9 cases (67%). Significant correlation between PD-L1 expression and the degree of TILs was exclusively identified in the general cohort of leiomyosarcomas, but not in other sarcoma subtypes or in metastatic/recurrent samples. We conclude that the prevalence of PD-L1 expression in selected sarcomas is variable and likely to be clone dependent. Importantly, we demonstrated that PD-L1 can objectively increase in a small proportion of metastases/recurrent sarcomas, offering the potential of treatment benefit to immune checkpoint inhibitors in this metastatic setting.

]]>
<![CDATA[Restoration of Mal overcomes the defects of apoptosis in lung cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4678b2b4-03e3-4a62-aa79-1954dd96fe53

Background and aims

Cancer is one of the life-threatening diseases of human beings; the pathogenesis of cancer remains to be further investigated. Toll like receptor (TLR) activities are involved in the apoptosis regulation. This study aims to elucidate the role of Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) molecule in the apoptosis regulation of lung cancer (LC) cells.

Methods

The LC tissues were collected from LC patients. LC cells and normal control (NC) cells were isolated from the tissues and analyzed by pertinent biochemical and immunological approaches.

Results

We found that fewer apoptotic LC cells were induced by cisplatin in the culture as compared to NC cells. The expression of Fas ligand (FasL) was lower in LC cells than that in NC cells. FasL mRNA levels declined spontaneously in LC cells. A complex of FasL/TDP-43 was detected in LC cells. LC cells expressed less Mal than NC cells. Activation of Mal by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased TDP-43 expression in LC cells. TDP-43 formed a complex with FasL mRNA to prevent FasL mRNA from decay. Reconstitution of Mal or TDP-43 restored the sensitiveness of LC cells to apoptotic inducers.

Conclusions

LC cells express low Mal levels that contributes to FasL mRNA decay through impairing TDP-43 expression. Reconstitution of Mal restores sensitiveness of LC cells to apoptosis inducers that may be a novel therapeutic approach for LC treatment.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of intensivist involvement on clinical outcomes in patients with advanced lung cancer admitted to the intensive care unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9fbd5eed0c48452a658

Purpose

Intensive care unit (ICU)-related mortality for lung cancer is ranked highest among the solid tumors and little information exists on the role of intensivists on clinical outcomes. This study aimed to elucidate the intensivist’s contribution toward clinical outcomes.

Materials and methods

Data of advanced lung cancer patients, including stage IIIB or IV non-small cell lung cancer and extensive-stage small cell lung cancer, admitted to the ICU from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine variables associated with ICU and in-hospital mortality. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) for time-series was used to assess the intensivist’s impact.

Results

Of 264 patients, 85 (32.2%) were admitted to the ICU before and 179 (67.8%) after organized intensive care introduction in 2011. Before and after 2011, the changes observed were as follows: ICU mortality rate, 43.5% to 40.2%, respectively (p = 0.610); hospital mortality rate, 82.4% to 65. 9% (p = 0.006). The duration of ICU and hospital stay decreased after 2011 (14.5±16.5 vs. 8.3 ± 8.6, p < 0.001; 36.6 ± 37.2 vs. 22.0 ± 19.6, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, admission after 2011 was independently associated with decreased hospital mortality (Odds ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.21–0.77, p = 0.006). In ARIMA models, intensivist involvement was associated with significantly reduced hospital mortality. (Estimate -17.95, standard error 5.31, p = 0.001)

Conclusion

In patients with advanced lung cancer, organized intensive care could contribute to improved clinical outcomes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Molecular predictors of brain metastasis-related microRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df358d5eed0c484581189

Brain metastasis (BM) is a major complication of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). An investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of BM, as well as the identification of appropriate molecular markers, is necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) in LAD with BM, and to investigate the biological role of these miRNAs during tumorigenesis. miRNA array profiles were used to identify BM-associated miRNAs. These miRNAs were independently validated in 155 LAD patients. Several in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to verify the effects of miRNAs on BM. We identified six miRNAs differentially expressed in patients with BM as compared to patients with BM. Of these, miR-4270 and miR-423-3p were further investigated. miR-4270 and miR-423-3p directly targeted MMP19 and P21, respectively, to influence cell viability, migration, and colony formation in vitro. miR-4270 downregulation and miR-423-3p upregulation was associated with an increased risk of BM in LAD patients. Thus, our results suggested that miR-4270 and miR-423-3p might play an important role in BM pathogenesis in LAD patients, and that these miRNAs might be useful prognostic and clinical treatment targets.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cardio-Respiratory synchronized bSSFP MRI for high throughput in vivo lung tumour quantification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c757ed5eed0c4843cfe16

The identification and measurement of tumours is a key requirement in the study of tumour development in mouse models of human cancer. Disease burden in autochthonous tumours, such as those arising in the lung, can be seen with non-invasive imaging, but cannot be accurately measured using standard tools such as callipers. Lung imaging is further complicated in the mouse due to instabilities arising from the rapid but cyclic cardio-respiratory motions, and the desire to use free-breathing animals. Female A/JOlaHsd mice were either injected (i.p.) with PBS 0.1ml/10g body weight (n = 6), or 10% urethane/PBS 0.1ml/10g body weight (n = 12) to induce autochthonous lung tumours. Cardio-respiratory synchronised bSSFP MRI, at 200 μm isotropic resolution was performed at 8, 13 and 18 weeks post induction. Images from the same mouse at different time points were aligned using threshold-based segmented masks of the lungs (ITK-SNAP and MATLAB) and tumour volumes were determined via threshold-based segmentation (ITK-SNAP).Scan times were routinely below 10 minutes and tumours were readily identifiable. Image registration allowed serial measurement of tumour volumes as small as 0.056 mm3. Repetitive imaging did not lead to mouse welfare issues. We have developed a motion desensitised scan that enables high sensitivity MRI to be performed with high throughput capability of greater than 4 mice/hour. Image segmentation and registration allows serial measurement of individual, small tumours. This allows fast and highly efficient volumetric lung tumour monitoring in cohorts of 30 mice per imaging time point. As a result, adaptive trial study designs can be achieved, optimizing experimental and welfare outcomes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Using topic modeling via non-negative matrix factorization to identify relationships between genetic variants and disease phenotypes: A case study of Lipoprotein(a) (LPA)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9d5d5eed0c48452a2b4

Genome-wide and phenome-wide association studies are commonly used to identify important relationships between genetic variants and phenotypes. Most studies have treated diseases as independent variables and suffered from the burden of multiple adjustment due to the large number of genetic variants and disease phenotypes. In this study, we used topic modeling via non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for identifying associations between disease phenotypes and genetic variants. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning approach that can be used to learn patterns from electronic health record data. We chose the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10455872 in LPA as the predictor since it has been shown to be associated with increased risk of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using data of 12,759 individuals with electronic health records (EHR) and linked DNA samples at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, we trained a topic model using NMF from 1,853 distinct phenotypes and identified six topics. We tested their associations with rs10455872 in LPA. Topics enriched for CVD and hyperlipidemia had positive correlations with rs10455872 (P < 0.001), replicating a previous finding. We also identified a negative correlation between LPA and a topic enriched for lung cancer (P < 0.001) which was not previously identified via phenome-wide scanning. We were able to replicate the top finding in a separate dataset. Our results demonstrate the applicability of topic modeling in exploring the relationship between genetic variants and clinical diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ectopic Otoconin 90 expression in triple negative breast cancer cell lines is associated with metastasis functions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1491d5eed0c48467a304

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive tumor with propensity to metastasize and poor treatment options. Improving treatment options would be impactful; thus, finding a tumor-specific cell surface protein with metastasis promoting functions that could be knocked out was the goal of this study. The Otoconin 90 gene (OC90), frequently amplified in tumors on chromosome 8q24.22, was identified as a potential therapeutic candidate. Normally OC90 is expressed in the cochlea with no known function in other normal tissues. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) multi-tumor RNAseq cohorts revealed that OC90 is expressed in many tumor types at high prevalence and genomic amplification is associated with the elevated mRNA expression. In vitro assays in TNBC cell lines revealed OC90 expression with control over cell viability, apoptosis and invasion. RNA-seq analysis of OC90-siRNA knockdown and OC90-overexpression in BT20, BT549, HCC38 cell lines identified co-expressed transcripts, HMGA2, POLE2 and TRIB3. Altered expression of HMGA2, POLE2 and TRIB3 was predictive of survival among members of the Metabric breast cancer cohort. Thus, OC90 represents a potential therapeutic target whose knockdown could improve the treatment of TNBC.

]]>
<![CDATA[Synthesis of hapten, generation of specific polyclonal antibody and development of ELISA with high sensitivity for therapeutic monitoring of crizotinib]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26abd5eed0c484289e48

Crizotinib (CZT) is a potent drug used for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its circulating concentration variability has been associated with acquired resistance and toxicity, restricting the success of cancer treatment. As such, the development of an assay that monitors CZT plasma concentrations in patients is a valuable tool in cancer treatment. In this study, a hapten of CZT was synthesized by introducing the acetohydrazide moiety as a spacer into the chemical structure of CZT. The chemical structure of the CZT acetohydrazide (hapten) was confirmed by mass, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectrometric techniques. The hapten was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. CZT-KLH conjugate was used for immunization and generation of a polyclonal antibody recognizing CZT with high affinity (IC50 = 0.5 ng/mL). The polyclonal antibody was used in the development of an ELISA for determination of CZT. The ELISA involved a competitive binding reaction between CZT, in its samples, and immobilized CZT-BSA conjugate for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-CZT antibody. The assay limit of detection was 0.03 ng/mL and the working range was 0.05 − 24 ng/mL. Analytical recovery of CZT from spiked plasma was 101.98 ± 2.99%. The precisions of the assay were satisfactory; RSD was 3.2 − 6.5% and 4.8 − 8.2%, for the intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. The assay is superior to all the existing chromatographic methods for CZT in terms of its procedure simplicity, convenience, and does not require treatment of plasma samples prior to the analysis. The proposed ELISA is anticipated to effectively contribute to the therapeutic monitoring of CZT in clinical settings.

]]>
<![CDATA[Role of tumor-associated neutrophils in regulation of tumor growth in lung cancer development: A mathematical model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d634d5eed0c4840318a9

Neutrophils display rapid and potent innate immune responses in various diseases. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) however either induce or overcome immunosuppressive functions of the tumor microenvironment through complex tumor-stroma crosstalk. We developed a mathematical model to address the question of how phenotypic alterations between tumor suppressive N1 TANS, and tumor promoting N2 TANs affect nonlinear tumor growth in a complex tumor microenvironment. The model provides a visual display of the complex behavior of populations of TANs and tumors in response to various TGF-β and IFN-β stimuli. In addition, the effect of anti-tumor drug administration is incorporated in the model in an effort to achieve optimal anti-tumor efficacy. The simulation results from the mathematical model were in good agreement with experimental data. We found that the N2-to-N1 ratio (N21R) index is positively correlated with aggressive tumor growth, suggesting that this may be a good prognostic factor. We also found that the antitumor efficacy increases when the relative ratio (Dap) of delayed apoptotic cell death of N1 and N2 TANs is either very small or relatively large, providing a basis for therapeutically targeting prometastatic N2 TANs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Correlation between maximal tumor diameter of fresh pathology specimens and computed tomography images in lung adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79aff5d5eed0c4841e3b32

The authors compared maximal tumor diameters between fresh lung tissue and axial and multiplanar reformatted chest computed-tomography (CT) images in lung adenocarcinoma and investigated the factors affecting tumor-size discrepancies. This study included 135 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. An experienced pulmonary pathologist aimed to cut the largest tumor section and measured pathological tumor size (PTS) in fresh specimens. Radiological maximal tumor sizes (RTS) were retrospectively measured on axial (RTSax) and multiplanar reformatted (RTSre) chest CT images. Mean PTS, RTSax, and RTSre were 19.13 mm, 18.63 mm, and 20.80 mm, respectively. RTSre was significantly larger than PTS (mean difference, 1.68 mm; p<0.001). RTSax was also greater than PTS for 6−10-mm and 11−20-mm tumors. PTS and RTS were strongly positively correlated (RTSax, r2 = 0.719, p<0.001; RTSre, r2 = 0.833, p<0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.915 between PTS and RTSax and 0.954 between PTS and RTSre. Postoperative down-staging occurred in 11.0% and 27.4% of tumors on performing radiological staging using RTSax and RTSre, respectively. Postoperative up-staging occurred in 12.3% and 1.4% of tumors on performing radiological staging using RTSax and RTSre, respectively. Multiple linear regression revealed that pleural dimpling (p = 0.024) was an independent factor affecting differences between PTS and RTSax. Specimen type (p = 0.012) and tumor location (p = 0.020) were independent factors affecting differences between PTS and RTSre. In conclusion, RTSre was significantly larger than PTS and caused postoperative down-staging in 27.4% of the tumors. Reliability analysis revealed that RTSre was more strongly correlated with PTS than RTSax. Specimen type and anatomical tumor location influenced the measured size differences between PTS and RTSre.

]]>
<![CDATA[Quadruplex-forming oligonucleotide targeted to the VEGF promoter inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e675d5eed0c484ef32bf

Background

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types including lung cancer. As a key regulator of angiogenesis, it promotes tumor survival, growth, and metastasis through the activation of the downstream protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) activation. The VEGF promoter contains a 36 bp guanine-rich sequence (VEGFq) which is capable of forming quadruplex (four-stranded) DNA. This sequence has been implicated in the down-regulation of both basal and inducible VEGF expression and represents an ideal target for inhibition of VEGF expression.

Results

Our experiments demonstrate sequence-specific interaction between a G-rich quadruplex-forming oligonucleotide encoding a portion of the VEGFq sequence and its double stranded target sequence, suggesting that this G-rich oligonucleotide binds specifically to its complementary C-rich sequence in the genomic VEGF promoter by strand invasion. We show that treatment of A549 non-small lung cancer cells (NSCLC) with this oligonucleotide results in decreased VEGF expression and growth inhibition. The VEGFq oligonucleotide inhibits proliferation and invasion by decreasing VEGF mRNA/protein expression and subsequent ERK 1/2 and AKT activation. Furthermore, the VEGFq oligonucleotide is abundantly taken into cells, localized in the cytoplasm/nucleus, inherently stable in serum and intracellularly, and has no effect on non-transformed cells. Suppression of VEGF expression induces cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and increased expression of LC3B, suggesting that VEGFq may induce autophagic cell death.

Conclusion

Our data strongly suggest that the G-rich VEGFq oligonucleotide binds specifically to the C-rich strand of the genomic VEGF promoter, via strand invasion, stabilizing the quadruplex structure formed by the genomic G-rich sequence, resulting in transcriptional inhibition. Strand invading oligonucleotides represent a new approach to specifically inhibit VEGF expression that avoids many of the problems which have plagued the therapeutic use of oligonucleotides. This is a novel approach to specific inhibition of gene expression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Secondhand smoke knowledge, sources of information, and associated factors among hospital staff]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c474d5eed0c4845e87bc

Purpose

To evaluate knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) risks, sources of information, and associated factors and behaviors among hospital staff.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a 40-item self-administered questionnaire among 328 employees at a university hospital. The questions on representative diseases related to SHS were used to measure the degree of knowledge of SHS. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between SHS knowledge scores and variables.

Results

Females had better SHS knowledge scores than males, regardless of smoking status (p<0.05). SHS knowledge was positively correlated with cessation education in males, non-smokers, and the total sample (β = 3.950, 2.356, and 2.684, respectively, p<0.05). It was correlated with the experience of any SHS exposure-related symptoms in males, non-smokers, and the total sample (β = 3.950, 2.356, and 2.684, respectively, p<0.05) and discomfort when exposed to SHS in non-smokers and the total sample (β = 0.670 and 0.821, respectively, p<0.05).

Conclusion

SHS knowledge is high among females, when hospital staff are educated about SHS risks, and when they have experienced any SHS exposure-related symptoms or felt uncomfortable when exposed to SHS. SHS risk education is an effective tool to increase SHS knowledge in hospital staff.

]]>
<![CDATA[Computational prediction of diagnosis and feature selection on mesothelioma patient health records]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7e0d5eed0c484386b51

Background

Mesothelioma is a lung cancer that kills thousands of people worldwide annually, especially those with exposure to asbestos. Diagnosis of mesothelioma in patients often requires time-consuming imaging techniques and biopsies. Machine learning can provide for a more effective, cheaper, and faster patient diagnosis and feature selection from clinical data in patient records.

Methods and findings

We analyzed a dataset of health records of 324 patients having mesothelioma symptoms from Turkey. The patients had prior asbestos exposure and displayed symptoms consistent with mesothelioma. We compared probabilistic neural network, perceptron-based neural network, random forest, one rule, and decision tree classifiers to predict diagnosis of the patient records. We measured classifiers’ performance through standard confusion matrix scores such as Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). Random forest outperformed all models tried, obtaining MCC = +0.37 on the complete imbalanced dataset and MCC = +0.64 on the under-sampled balanced dataset. We then employed random forest feature selection to identify the two most relevant dataset traits associated with mesothelioma: lung side and platelet count. These two risk factors resulted so predictive, that decision tree focusing on them achieved the second top accuracy on the complete dataset diagnosis prediction (MCC = +0.28), outperforming all other methods and even decision tree itself applied to all features.

Conclusions

Our results show that machine learning can predict diagnoses of patients having mesothelioma symptoms with high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, in few minutes. Additionally, random forest can efficiently select the most important features of this clinical dataset (lung side and platelet count) in few seconds. The importance of pleural plaques in lung sides and blood platelets in mesothelioma diagnosis indicates that physicians should focus on these two features when reading records of patients with mesothelioma symptoms. Moreover, doctors can exploit our machinery to predict patient diagnosis when only lung side and platelet data are available.

]]>
<![CDATA[Palliative cerebrospinal fluid shunting for leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus in patients with lung adenocarcinoma: A single-center retrospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f791d5eed0c4843863d7

Purpose

Management of leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus (LM-H) is particularly challenging regarding the control of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting due to intracranial hypertension. To investigate the improvements of performance status and outcome with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt surgery for LM-H in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Methods

Data on patients with leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus from lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed by MR imaging and/or cytological examination were retrospectively analyzed. Between August 2008 and July 2017, the authors reviewed 31 patients requiring CSF shunt, who underwent ventriculo-peritoneal or lumbo-peritoneal shunt.

Results

The patients consisted of 11 men and 20 women with a median age of 59 years. Twenty-six patients received EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). CSF shunt surgery yielded rapid improvement in the performance status of 90.3% of patients. Median overall survival from the diagnosis of LM in patients with ECOG performance status less than 2 was 7.7 months, and this was significantly longer than those in patients with PS 3 or 4 (4.4 or 1.5 months; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis by Cox regression revealed survival differences according to PS at diagnosis of LM [PS 1–3 vs. PS4, hazard ratio (HR) 0.201, p = 0.034], controlled extracranial disease (HR 0.248, p = 0.005), and post-shunt EGFR-TKI for LM treatment (HR 0.193, p = 0.008). Postoperative symptomatic peritoneal carcinomatosis was observed in one patient (3.2%).

Conclusion

CSF shunting may be a safe and effective strategy in patients with LM-H from lung adenocarcinoma. A prospective study is needed to establish the effectiveness and safety of palliative CSF shunt for LM-H.

]]>
<![CDATA[Iron levels, genes involved in iron metabolism and antioxidative processes and lung cancer incidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466574d5eed0c48451942c

Background

Lung cancer is the most common adult malignancy accounting for the largest proportion of cancer related deaths. Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element and is a component of several major metabolic pathways playing an important role in many physiological processes. In this study we evaluated the association between Fe concentration in serum, iron metabolism parameters and genetic variaton in 7 genes involved in iron metabolism and anti-oxidative processes with the incidence of lung cancer in Poland.

Materials and methods

The study included 200 lung cancer patients and 200 matched healthy control subjects. We analyzed serum iron concentration and iron metabolism parameters (TIBC, UIBC, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation), and genotyped seven variants in seven genes: HFE, TFR1, HAMP, TF, SOD2, CAT and GPX1.

Results

Lung cancer patients compared to their matched controls had significantly higher mean serum iron level (p = 0.01), ferritin level (p = 0.007) and TIBC (p = 0.006). Analysis revealed that higher concentration of iron and ferritin (IVth quartile) compared to the lower concentration (Ist quartile) was associated with over 2-fold increased lung cancer incidence. We also found that higher transferrin saturation (p = 0.01) and lower TIBC (p<0.01) are associated with better survival of lung cancer patients. The analysis of polymorphisms in iron related genes did not reveal a significant difference between lung cancer patients and controls. However, rs10421768 in HAMP showed a borderline statistically significant correlation with lung cancer risk (OR = 2.83, p = 0.05).

Conclusions

The results of this case control study indicate that higher body iron represented by higher Fe and ferritin levels may be associated with lung cancer incidence. Rs10421768 in HAMP may be associated with about 3-times higher lung cancer risk. Higher Fe body content may be associated with better survival of lung cancer patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Estimation of lung cancer risk using homology-based emphysema quantification in patients with lung nodules]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c491d5eed0c4845e893e

The purpose of this study was to assess whether homology-based emphysema quantification (HEQ) is significantly associated with lung cancer risk. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. We included 576 patients with lung nodules (317 men and 259 women; age, 66.8 ± 12.3 years), who were selected from a database previously generated for computer-aided diagnosis. Of these, 283 were diagnosed with lung cancer, whereas the remaining 293 showed benign lung nodules. HEQ was performed and percentage of low-attenuation lung area (LAA%) was calculated on the basis of computed tomography scans. Statistical models were constructed to estimate lung cancer risk using logistic regression; sex, age, smoking history (Brinkman index), LAA%, and HEQ were considered independent variables. The following three models were evaluated: the base model (sex, age, and smoking history); the LAA% model (the base model + LAA%); and the HEQ model (the base model + HEQ). Model performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis and the associated area under the curve (AUC). Differences in AUCs among the models were evaluated using Delong’s test. AUCs of the base, LAA%, and HEQ models were 0.585, 0.593, and 0.622, respectively. HEQ coefficient was statistically significant in the HEQ model (P = 0.00487), but LAA% coefficient was not significant in the LAA% model (P = 0.199). Delong’s test revealed significant difference in AUCs between the LAA% and HEQ models (P = 0.0455). In conclusion, after adjusting for age, sex, and smoking history (Brinkman index), HEQ was significantly associated with lung cancer risk.

]]>
<![CDATA[The pro-tumor effect of CD200 expression is not mimicked by agonistic CD200R antibodies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a9bd5eed0c4847cd2e3

Tumor-infiltrating immune cells can impact tumor growth and progression. The inhibitory CD200 receptor (CD200R) suppresses the activation of myeloid cells and lack of this pathway results in a reduction of tumor growth, conversely a tumorigenic effect of CD200R triggering was also described. Here we investigated the role of CD200R activation in syngeneic mouse tumor models. We showed that agonistic CD200R antibody reached tumors, but had no significant impact on tumor growth and minor effect on infiltration of immune myeloid cells. These effects were reproduced using two different anti-CD200R clones. In contrast, we showed that CD200-deficiency did decrease melanoma tumor burden. The presence of either endogenous or tumor-expressed CD200 restored the growth of metastatic melanoma foci. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that blockade of the endogenous ligand CD200 prevented the tumorigenic effect of CD200R-expressing myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment, whereas agonistic anti-CD200R has no effect on tumor development.

]]>
<![CDATA[Real-world management of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non–small-cell lung cancer in the USA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bfcd5eed0c48491f430

Background

Randomized phase III trials have established the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line treatment for EGFR mutation-positive advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (EGFR Mut+ NSCLC). This retrospective cohort study examined the management patterns and outcomes of patients with EGFR Mut+ NSCLC in a real-world setting.

Materials and methods

Data were extracted from the US Flatiron Electronic Health Record-derived database. Adult patients with stage IIIB/IV EGFR Mut+ NSCLC (exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutation) who had received first-line systemic therapy between 2011 and 2016 were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Outcomes evaluated were time to next treatment (a surrogate for progression-free survival) and overall survival.

Results

Of the 22,258 patients with advanced NSCLC in the database, 961 met the inclusion criteria. Median age was 69.0 years (range: 61–78) and the majority were female (68.0%), with stage IV (93.9%), non-squamous cell carcinoma (97.4%). EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors were the most widely prescribed first-line therapy (72.8%). The likelihood of receiving an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor or chemotherapy was unaffected by the type of medical insurance patients had. Patients treated with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor had significantly longer time to next treatment than those given other first-line systemic therapies (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in overall survival according to treatment type.

Conclusion

Results from this large US cohort study reflect those obtained in randomized trials of patients with advanced EGFR Mut+ NSCLC and demonstrate their transferability into a real-world setting.

]]>
<![CDATA[Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for preoperative staging of non-small–cell lung cancer: Results of a French prospective multicenter trial (EVIEPEB)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0157d5eed0c48403a6dd

This two-step study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for presurgery staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in France (EVIEPEB; ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT00960271).

Step 1 consisted of a high-benchmark EBUS-TBNA–training program in participating hospital centers. Step 2 was a prospective, national, multicenter study on patients with confirmed or suspected NSCLC and an indication for mediastinal staging with at least one lymph node > 1 cm in diameter. Patients with negative or uninformative EBUS-TBNA and positron-emission tomography-positive or -negative nodes, respectively, underwent either mediastinoscopy or surgery. Direct costs related to final diagnosis of node status were prospectively recorded.

Sixteen of 22 participating centers were certified by the EBUS-TBNA–training program and enrolled 163 patients in Step 2. EBUS-TBNA was informative for 149 (91%) patients (75 malignant, 74 non-malignant) and uninformative for 14 (9%). Mediastinoscopy was avoided for 80% of the patients. With a 52% malignant-node rate, EBUS-TBNA positive- and negative-predictive values, respectively, were 100% and 90%. EBUS-TBNA was cost-effective, with expected savings of €1,450 per patient, and would have remained cost-effective even if all EBUS-TBNAs had been performed under general anesthesia or the cost of the procedure had been 30% higher (expected cost-saving of €994 and €1,427 per patient, respectively).

After EBUS-TBNA training and certification of participating centers, the results of this prospective multicenter study confirmed EBUS-TBNA cost-effectiveness for NSCLC staging.

]]>