ResearchPad - lymphatic-system https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Safety of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell recipients with severe primary immunodeficiency diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14693 Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) provide prolonged intravenous access for pediatric patients with severe primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical significance of TCVC-related morbidity in this particular patient group. We conducted the retrospective analysis of patients with severe PID who received percutaneous landmark-guided TCVC implantation prior to HSCT. We analyzed 92 consecutive TCVC implantations in 69 patients (median [interquartile range] age 3.0 [0–11] years) with severe combined immune deficiency (n = 39, 42.4%), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 17, 18.4%), and other rare PID syndromes (n = 36, 39.2%). The median length of TCVC observation was 144.1 (85.5–194.6) days with a total of 14,040 catheter days at risk (cdr). The overall rate of adverse events during catheter insertion was 17.4% (n = 16) and 25.0% during catheter dwell period (n = 23, catheter risk [CR] per 1000 cdr = 1.64). The most common complication was TCVC-related infection with an overall prevalence of 9.8% (n = 9, CR = 0.64), followed by late dislocation (n = 6, 6.5%, CR = 0.43), early dislocation (n = 4, 4.3%) and catheter dysfunction (n = 4, 4.3%, CR = 0.28). TCVCs are safe in children with severe PID undergoing HSCT with relatively low rates of TCVC-related infection.

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<![CDATA[Preoperative risk stratification in endometrial cancer (ENDORISK) by a Bayesian network model: A development and validation study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14690 Bayesian networks are graphical networks that are based on machine learning and can be used for prediction purposes without the need to have values for all predictor variables available for each patient.Approximately 10% of patients with endometrial cancer have lymph node metastasis.The risk of lymph node metastasis and poor outcome differs substantially between individuals.Preoperative identification of patients at risk for lymph node metastasis and poor outcome allows tailoring of individualized treatment.What did the researched do and find?A Bayesian network to predict the risk of lymph node metastasis and survival was constructed with data from a retrospective multicenter development cohort from 10 centers across Europe (n = 763).The predictive capability of the final network was tested in 2 external cohorts from the Netherlands (PIpelle Prospective ENDOmetrial carcinoma [PIPENDO], n = 384) and from Norway (Molecular Markers in Treatment in Endometrial Cancer [MoMaTEC], n = 446).What do these findings mean?The Bayesian network we propose allows refined risk stratification before surgery and is easily usable.Because of its graphical character, the interactions between the different variables included into the network are directly visualized.A prospective feasibility study will be needed prior to implementation in the clinic. ]]> <![CDATA[Characterization of limbal explant sites: Optimization of stem cell outgrowth in <i>in vitro</i> culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14624 Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) and cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) are proven techniques for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). However, the precise regions that are most suitable for preparing explants for transplantation have not been identified conclusively. Accordingly, this in vitro study aimed at determining ideal sites to be selected for tissue harvest for limbal stem cell culture and transplantation. We evaluated cell outgrowth potential and the expression of stem cell markers in cultures from 48 limbal explants from five cadaveric donors. The limbal explants were generated from the three specific sites: Lcor (located innermost and adjacent to the cornea), Lm (middle limbus), and Lconj (located outermost adjacent to the conjunctiva). We found that explants from the Lconj and Lm sites exhibited higher growth potential than those from the Lcor site. Transcript encoding the stem cell marker and p63 isoform, ΔNp63, was detected in cells from Lm and Lconj explants; expression levels were slightly, though significantly (p-value < 0.05), higher in Lm than in Lconj, although expression of ΔNp63α protein was similar in cells from all explants. Differential expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 2 (ABCG2) did not reach statistical significance. Immunohistochemistry by indirect immunofluorescence analysis of limbus tissue revealed that the basal layer in explant tissue from Lconj and Lm contained markedly more stem cells than found in Lcor explant tissue; these findings correlate with a higher capacity for growth. Collectively, our findings suggest that explants from the Lconj and Lm sites should be selected for limbal cell expansion for both CLET and SLET procedures. These new insights may guide surgeons toward specific limbal sites that are most suitable for stem cell culture and transplantation and may ultimately improve treatment outcomes in the patients with LSCD.

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<![CDATA[Preliminary study: Health and performance assessment in broiler chicks following application of six different hatching egg disinfection protocols]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14617 As part of a Germany-wide project that evaluates strategies for the reduction of multi-resistant bacteria along the poultry production chain, the impact of different hatching egg disinfectants on hatchability and health of the broiler chicks was evaluated. Animal trials were conducted with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL) producing Escherichia (E.) coli contaminated hatching eggs and six disinfection protocols that used formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, low-energy electron irradiation, peracetic acid and an essential oil preparation. Each protocol was tested on a group of 50 chicks. Equally sized positive and negative control groups were carried along for each trial. Hatchability, mortality and body weight were recorded as performance parameters. During necropsy of half of the animals in each group on day 7 and 14 respectively, macroscopic abnormalities, body weight, weights of liver and gut convolute were recorded and a range of tissue samples for histological examination were collected as part of the health assessment. A decrease in hatchability was recorded for spray application of essential oils. Body weight development was overall comparable, in several groups even superior, to the Ross308 performance objectives, but a reduced performance was seen in the hydrogen peroxide group. Histologically, lymphoid follicles were regularly seen in all sampled organs and no consistent differences were observed between contaminated and non-contaminated groups. Significances were infrequently and inconsistently seen. In conclusion, remarkable findings were a decrease in hatchability caused by the essential oils spray application and a reduced body weight development in the hydrogen peroxide group. Therefore, the essential oils preparation as spray application was deemed inappropriate in practice, while the application of hydrogen peroxide was considered in need of further research. The other trial results indicate that the tested hatching egg disinfectants present a possible alternative to formaldehyde.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 in stage II oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A comparative study using the propensity score matching method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N83ad1f15-cdbb-4f4c-8d9c-388a45a97cce

It has been reported that 20% of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients treated with surgery alone (SA) may exhibit postoperative relapse within 2–3 years and have poor prognoses. We aimed to determine the safety of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy and the potential differences in the disease-free survival (DFS) between patients with T2N0 (stage II) OSCC treated with S-1 adjuvant therapy (S-1) and those treated with SA. This single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted at Kumamoto University, between April 2004 and March 2012, and included 95 patients with stage II OSCC. The overall cohort (OC), and propensity score-matched cohort (PSMC) were analyzed. In the OC, 71 and 24 patients received SA and S-1, respectively. The time to relapse (TTR), DFS, and overall survival were better in the S-1 group, but the difference was not significant. In the PSMC, 20 patients each received SA and S-1. The TTR was significantly lower in the S-1 group than in the SA group, while the DFS was significantly improved in the former. S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy may be more effective than SA in early-stage OSCC.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of an intratracheal aerosol challenge model of Brucella melitensis in guinea pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823ccd5eed0c48463903c

B. melitensis is considered the most virulent of the Brucella species, and a need exists for an improved laboratory animal model of infection that mimics natural transmission and disease. Guinea pigs are highly susceptible to infection with Brucella spp. and develop a disease syndrome that mimics natural disease after aerosol inoculation. Intratracheal inoculation is a targeted means of generating aerosols that offer advantages over aerosol chamber delivery. To establish this delivery method, female, Hartley guinea pigs were infected via intratracheal inoculation with PBS or 16M B. melitensis at low dose (101 to 103) or high dose (106 to 108) and monitored for 30 days for signs of disease. Guinea pigs in the high dose groups developed fever between 12–17 days post-inoculation. Bacteria were recovered from the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, lung, and uterus at 30-days post-inoculation and demonstrated dose dependent mean increases in colonization and pathologic changes consistent with human brucellosis. To study the kinetics of extrapulmonary dissemination, guinea pigs were inoculated with 107 CFU and euthanized at 2-hours post inoculation and at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. 5.8x105 to 4.2x106 CFU were recovered from the lung 2 hours post-inoculation indicating intratracheal inoculation is an efficient means of infecting guinea pigs. Starting at 1-week post inoculation bacteria were recovered from the aforementioned organs with time dependent mean increases in colonization. This data demonstrates that guinea pigs develop a disease syndrome that models the human manifestation of brucellosis, which makes the guinea pig a valuable model for pathogenesis studies.

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<![CDATA[Regeneration of esophagus using a scaffold-free biomimetic structure created with bio-three-dimensional printing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1978d5eed0c484b4d71e

Various strategies have been attempted to replace esophageal defects with natural or artificial substitutes using tissue engineering. However, these methods have not yet reached clinical application because of the high risks related to their immunogenicity or insufficient biocompatibility. In this study, we developed a scaffold-free structure with a mixture of cell types using bio-three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and assessed its characteristics in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rats. Normal human dermal fibroblasts, human esophageal smooth muscle cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were purchased and used as a cell source. After the preparation of multicellular spheroids, esophageal-like tube structures were prepared by bio-3D printing. The structures were matured in a bioreactor and transplanted into 10-12-week-old F344 male rats as esophageal grafts under general anesthesia. Mechanical and histochemical assessment of the structures were performed. Among 4 types of structures evaluated, those with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells tended to show greater strength and expansion on mechanical testing and highly expressed α-smooth muscle actin and vascular endothelial growth factor on immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the structure with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells was selected for transplantation. The scaffold-free structures had sufficient strength for transplantation between the esophagus and stomach using silicon stents. The structures were maintained in vivo for 30 days after transplantation. Smooth muscle cells were maintained, and flat epithelium extended and covered the inner surface of the lumen. Food had also passed through the structure. These results suggested that the esophagus-like scaffold-free tubular structures created using bio-3D printing could hold promise as a substitute for the repair of esophageal defects.

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<![CDATA[Hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis: Are there still candidates for transarterial chemoembolization as an initial treatment?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99029ed5eed0c484b98241

Background and aim

Currently, sorafenib is indicated for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastasis (EHM), and many other systemic agents are becoming available. However, a few HCC patients with EHM still undergo transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for intrahepatic tumor control. We aimed to investigate whether TACE is appropriate for patients with EHM, and if so, which subgroup may benefit from TACE.

Methods

A total of 186 consecutive HCC patients (median: 55 years, male: 86.0%, hepatitis B virus: 81.7%, Child-Pugh Class A: 83.3%) with EHM (nodal metastasis: 60.8%, distant metastasis: 39.2%) between 2010 and 2014 were analyzed. Initial treatment included sorafenib in 69 patients, and TACE in 117 patients.

Results

During a median follow-up of 6.6 months (range: 0.2–94.6 months), mortality was observed in 90.3% (168/186). The median survival was better for patients who received TACE than those treated with sorafenib (8.2 months vs. 4.6 months, p < 0.001). However, baseline characteristics varied between patients initially treated with TACE and sorafenib, and the treatment modality was not an independent factor associated with overall survival (hazard ratio: 1.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.81–1.75, p = 0.36). In sub-group analysis, TACE was associated with better survival only among younger patients and those with segmental/lobar portal vein invasion.

Conclusion

In HCC patients with EHM, TACE was not an independent favorable prognostic factor compared to sorafenib. The concept of intrahepatic control in HCC patients with EHM may need to be reevaluated in the era of promising systemic therapies, although there can be specific subgroups who still benefit from TACE.

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<![CDATA[The responses of lungs and adjacent lymph nodes in responding to Yersinia pestis infection: A transcriptomic study using a non-human primate model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c78500ed5eed0c484007bfd

Initiation of treatment during the pre-symptomatic phase of Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) infection is particularly critical. The rapid proliferation of Y. pestis typically couples with the manifestation of common flu-like early symptoms that often misguides the medical intervention. Our study used African green monkeys (AGM) that did not exhibit clear clinical symptoms for nearly two days after intranasal challenge with Y. pestis and succumbed within a day after showing the first signs of clinical symptoms. The lung, and mediastinal and submandibular lymph nodes (LN) accumulated significant Y. pestis colonization immediately after the intranasal challenge. Hence, organ-specific molecular investigations are deemed to be the key to elucidating mechanisms of the initial host response. Our previous study focused on the whole blood of AGM, and we found early perturbations in the ubiquitin-microtubule-mediated host defense. Altered expression of the genes present in ubiquitin and microtubule networks indicated an early suppression of these networks in the submandibular lymph nodes. In concert, the upstream toll-like receptor signaling and downstream NFκB signaling were inhibited at the multi-omics level. The inflammatory response was suppressed in the lungs, submandibular lymph nodes and mediastinal lymph nodes. We posited a causal chain of molecular mechanisms that indicated Y. pestis was probably able to impair host-mediated proteolysis activities and evade autophagosome capture by dysregulating both ubiquitin and microtubule networks in submandibular lymph nodes. Targeting these networks in a submandibular LN-specific and time-resolved fashion could be essential for development of the next generation therapeutics for pneumonic plague.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiological and clinical features of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 12F in adults, Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c78501ad5eed0c484007c91

Enhanced surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults was conducted during April 2013–March 2018 in 10 of 47 prefectures in Japan, and a total of 1277 IPD patients were enrolled. An emergence of IPD caused by serotype 12F was identified during May 2015–March 2018 through this surveillance. 12F isolates were composed of four related sequence types. In total, 120 patients with 12F IPD were reported during this period. To characterize the clinical features of 12F IPD, the disease characteristics of these patients were compared with those of 1157 patients with non-12F IPD. Compared with the non-12F IPD patients, a significantly lower proportion of 12F IPD patients was aged 65 years or older (55% vs. 70%), vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (4% vs. 14%), had comorbid illness (65% vs. 77%), or were immunocompromised (19% vs. 30%; all P < 0.05). No significant difference in the proportion of case fatalities was found between the two groups. The proportions of those aged 65 years or older (53% vs. 69%) and with bacteremic pneumonia (35% vs. 69%) were significantly lower in 17 patients who died from 12F IPD than in 205 patients who died from non-12F IPD (all P < 0.05). Differences in clinical features were similarly found between 12F IPD patients and patients in low- or intermediate-level invasive potential serogroups. Our data demonstrated that serotype 12F was associated with IPD in younger adults and a lower proportion of comorbid illness, including immunocompromised conditions, in adult IPD, suggesting the high invasive potential of the serotype 12F. In addition, patients who died from 12F IPD were younger and had proportionately more bacteremia without focus. These findings may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of IPD in adults caused by 12F serotype with a high invasive potential.

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<![CDATA[Liver metastasis and Heng risk are prognostic factors in patients with non-nephrectomized synchronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with systemic therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe33d5eed0c484e5b6ea

Objective

This study aimed to determine the prognostic factors of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in non-nephrectomized patients with synchronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) receiving first-line vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy or immunotherapy.

Methods

Of 70 patients, 57 (81.4%) were treated with targeted therapy, including 5 (7.1%) with previous immunotherapy and 13 (18.6%) with immunotherapy only. The medical records of patients were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed to determine factors of PFS and OS using the Cox proportional hazards model with a statistical significance p-value <0.05.

Results

The median treatment and follow-up periods were 3.9 and 30.9 months, respectively. Disease progression was reported in 90.0% of patients, with an objective response rate and clinical benefit rate of 26.1% and 76.8%, respectively. The lung (77.1%) was the most common site of metastasis. Multivariable analysis showed that poor Heng risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.37) and liver metastasis (HR: 2.34) were significant prognostic factors for PFS, and female sex (HR: 2.13), poor Heng risk (HR: 3.14), and liver metastasis (HR: 2.78) were significant prognostic factors for OS (p < 0.05). A subset analysis of risk factors among patients without previous history of immunotherapy also showed poor Heng risk (HR 2.92 and HR 4.24 for PFS) and liver metastasis (HR 2.87 and HR 4.81 for OS) as significant factors for both PFS and OS (p<0.05).

Conclusion

Poor Heng risk, sex, and liver metastasis were associated with survival outcomes after first-line systemic therapy in patients with non-nephrectomized synchronous mRCC.

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<![CDATA[Serological and molecular detection of Bartonella henselae in specimens from patients with suspected cat scratch disease in Italy: A comparative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673073d5eed0c484f37b74

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae, usually characterized by self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy and fever. Given the low clinical diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of conventional anti-B. henselae indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of B. henselae is now being proposed as a more sensitive tool to diagnose CSD. Thus, here we have assessed the efficacy of real-time PCR in detecting B. henselae in different specimens from patients with suspected CSD and compared it to that of IFA. From March 2011 to May 2016, at the Microbiology and Virology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy, 115 clinical specimens (56 aspirated pus, 39 fresh lymph node biopsies, and 20 whole blood samples) and 99 sera from 115 patients with suspected CSD (62 females and 53 males between the ages of 3 months and 68 years) were analyzed by both real-time PCR, used in a qualitative way, and IFA (IgM and IgG) for the presence of B. henselae. For 16 patients, serological results were not available due to a clinical decision not to request the test. B. henselae DNA positivity was detected by real-time PCR in 37.39% of patients, while 62.61% of them were negative. Thus, patients were divided into two groups: real-time PCR+ (n = 43) and real-time PCR- (n = 72). Real-time PCR screening of whole blood, biopsies, and aspirated pus revealed B. henselae positivity in 40%, 38.46%, and 35.71% of patients, respectively. When we analyzed samples by IFA, we found the presence of B. henselae in 28 out of 99 (28.28%) patients, of which 11 (11.11%) belonged to the real-time PCR+ group and 17 (17.17%) to the real-time PCR- group. Among the 71 seronegative subjects, 16 (16.16%) were found positive for B. henselae by real-time PCR. Thus, by combining the results of both assays, we were able to increase the percentage of B. henselae positive specimens from 27.27% (real-time PCR) or 28.28% (IFA) to 44.44% (real-time PCR+IFA). Altogether, these findings indicate that the early detection of B. henselae in patients with suspicious CSD through combined real-time PCR and serological analyses can lead to a more accurate diagnosis of CSD, thereby allowing prompt and appropriate disease management.

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<![CDATA[Clinical outcomes and dosimetric study of hypofractionated Helical TomoTherapy in breast cancer patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2a6d5eed0c48441e7f4

We present a single center’s experience of treatment outcomes and dosimetric parameters for breast cancer patients treated with hypofractionated Helical TomoTherapy (HT). This is a retrospective study of one hundred and thirty-six patients with invasive breast cancer treated between March 2012 and October 2016. Dosimetric parameters and 3-year loco-regional failure free survival (LRFFS) were analyzed. Dose to ipsilateral lung, heart and contralateral breast as well as acute and late toxicities were recorded. The median follow-up time is 45 months (range: 5–83). Two patients had loco-regional failure. The 3-year LRFFS was 99%. Acute grade 1 and 2 skin toxicities occurred in 95% and 1%, respectively. Coverage of the target volumes was achieved with the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of homogeneity and conformity index being 0.1 ± 0.04, and 0.8 ± 0.07, respectively. Dose to ipsilateral lung, contralateral breast, and heart was also within the limited constraints regardless of the complexity of target volumes. Only two percent of patients experienced late grade 2 skin toxicity. No late grade 2 subcutaneous tissue toxicity was found. Nine percent of patients developed late grade 1 lung toxicity. Hypofractionated radiotherapy using Helical TomoTherapy in breast irradiation provides excellent 3-year LRFFS and minimal acute and late toxicities. A careful, longer follow-up of healthy tissue effects to lung, heart, and contralateral breast is warranted.

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<![CDATA[The Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) is a useful biomarker in predicting metastatic colon cancer using the ADC-value of the primary tumor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633946d5eed0c484ae63d7

Purpose

To investigate the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as a potential imaging biomarker to predict metastasis (lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis) in colon cancer based on the ADC-value of the primary tumor.

Methods

Thirty patients (21M, 9F) were included retrospectively. All patients received a 1.5T MRI of the colon including T2 and DWI sequences. ADC maps were calculated for each patient. An expert reader manually delineated all colon tumors to measure mean ADC and histogram metrics (mean, min, max, median, standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis, 5th-95th percentiles) were calculated. Advanced colon cancer was defined as lymph node mestastasis (N+) or distant metastasis (M+). The student Mann Whitney U-test was used to assess the differences between the ADC means of early and advanced colon cancer. To compare the accuracy of lymph node metastasis (N+) prediction based on morpholigical criteria versus ADC-value of the primary tumor, two blinded readers, determined the lymph node metastasis (N0 vs N+) based on morphological criteria. The sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis was calculated for both readers and for the ADC-value of the primary tumor, with histopathology results as the gold standard.

Results

There was a significant difference between the mean ADC-value of advanced versus early tumors (p = 0.002). The optimal cut off value was 1179 * 10−3 mm2/s with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 and a sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 86% respectively to predict advanced tumors. Histogram analyses did not add any significant additional value.

The sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of lymph node metastasis based on morphological criteria were 40% and 63% for reader 1 and 30% and 88% for reader 2 respectively. The primary tumor ADC-value using 1.179 * 10−3 mm2/s as threshold had a 100% sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis.

Conclusion

The ADC-value of the primary tumor has the potential to predict advanced colon cancer, defined as lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis, with lower ADC values significantly associated with advanced tumors. Furthermore the ADC-value of the primary tumor increases the prediction accuracy of lymph node metastasis compared with morphological criteria.

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<![CDATA[Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer with seminal vesicle involvement (T3b): A multicentric retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79b004d5eed0c4841e3c37

Objectives

No study has reported clinical results of external-beam radiotherapy specifically for T3b prostate cancer. The possibility of escalating the dose to the involved seminal vesicles (ISV) while respecting the dose constraints in the organs at risk is thus so far not clearly demonstrated. The objective of the study was to analyze the dose distribution and the clinical outcome in a large series of patients who received IMRT for T3b prostate cancer.

Materials and methods

This retrospective analysis included all patients who received IMRT and androgen deprivation therapy for T3b prostate cancer, between 2008 and 2017, in six French institutions, with available MRI images and dosimetric data.

Results

A total of 276 T3b patients were included. The median follow-up was 26 months. The median (range) prescribed doses (Gy) to the prostate and to the ISV were 77 (70–80) and 76 (46–80), respectively. The dose constraint recommendations were exceeded in less than 12% of patients for the rectum and the bladder. The 5-year risks of biochemical and clinical recurrences and cancer-specific death were 24.8%, 21.7%, and 10.3%, respectively. The 5-year risks of local, pelvic lymph node, and metastatic recurrences were 6.4%, 11.3%, and 15%, respectively. The number of involved lymph nodes (≤ 2 or ≥ 3) on MRI was the only significant prognostic factor in clinical recurrence (HR 9.86) and death (HR 2.78). Grade ≥ 2 acute and 5-year late toxicity rates were 13.2% and 12% for digestive toxicity, and 34% and 31.5% for urinary toxicity, respectively. The dose to the pelvic lymph node and the age were predictive of late digestive toxicity.

Conclusion

IMRT for T3b prostate cancer allows delivery of a curative dose in the ISV, with a moderate digestive toxicity but a higher urinary toxicity. Lymph node involvement increases the risk of recurrence and death.

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<![CDATA[Prediction of local recurrence risk after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer: Clinical utility of the MD Anderson Prognostic Index]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2e2d5eed0c48441ec55

Background

Locoregional recurrence after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis. It is essential to identify patients at high risk of locoregional recurrence who may benefit from extended local therapy. Here, we examined the prediction accuracy and clinical applicability of the MD Anderson Prognostic Index (MDAPI).

Methods

Prospective clinical data from 456 patients treated between 2003 and 2011 was analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to examine the probabilities of locoregional recurrence, local recurrence and distant metastases according to individual prognosis score, stratified by type of surgery (breast conserving therapy or mastectomy). The possible confounding of the relationship between recurrence risk and MDAPI by established risk factors was accounted for in multiple survival regression models. To define the clinical utility of the MDAPI we analyzed its performance to predict locoregional recurrence censoring patients with prior or simultaneous distant metastases.

Results

Mastectomized patients (42% of the patients) presented with more advanced tumor stage, lower tumor grade, hormone-receptor positive disease and consequently lower pathological complete response rates. Only a few patients presented with high-risk scores (2,7% MDAPI≥3). All patients with high-risk MDAPI score (MDAPI ≥3) who developed locoregional recurrence were simultaneously affected by distant metastases.

Conclusion

Our data do not support a clinical utility of the MDAPI to guide local therapy.

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<![CDATA[A secreted schistosome cathepsin B1 cysteine protease and acute schistosome infection induce a transient T helper 17 response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4a305fd5eed0c4844bfeae

The natural history of schistosome infection in the mammalian host is determined by CD4+ T helper responses mounted against different parasite life cycle stages. A T helper 2 (TH2) response to schistosome eggs is required for host survival and establishment of chronic infection. However, a TH2 cell-derived cytokine also contributes to an immune milieu that is conducive to schistosome growth and development. Thus, the same responses that allow for host survival have been co-opted by schistosomes to facilitate parasite development and transmission, underscoring the significance of CD4+ T cell responses to both worms and eggs in the natural history of schistosome infection. Here we show that a cathepsin B1 cysteine protease secreted by schistosome worms not only induces TH2 responses, but also TH1 and TH17 responses, by a mechanism that is dependent on the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. Further investigation revealed that, in addition to the expected TH1 and TH2 responses, acute schistosome infection also induces a transient TH17 response that is rapidly down-regulated at the onset of oviposition. TH17 responses are implicated in the development of severe egg-induced pathology. The regulation of worm-induced TH17 responses during acute infection could therefore influence the expression of high and low pathology states as infection progresses.

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<![CDATA[Anatomical location-based nodal staging system is superior to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system among patients with surgically resected, histologically low-grade gastric cancer: A single institutional experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63395fd5eed0c484ae6576

Background

A hybrid topographic and numeric lymph node (LN) staging system for gastric cancer, which was recently proposed by Japanese experts as a simple method with a prognostic predictive power comparable to the N staging of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor-node-metastasis classification, has not yet been validated in other Asian countries. This study aimed to examine the prognostic predictability of the hybrid staging system with the current AJCC staging system in gastric cancer.

Methods

Overall, 400 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery at Changhua Christian Hospital from January 2007 to December 2017 were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for gastric cancer-related death. Homogeneity and discrimination abilities of the two staging systems were compared using likelihood ratio chi-square test, linear trend chi-square test, Harrell’s c-index, and bootstrap analysis.

Results

One-third of the LN-positive patients were reclassified into the new N and Stage system. The concordance rates of the two staging systems and the N staging between the two staging systems were 0.810 and 0.729, respectively. Harrell’s c-indices for the stage and N staging were higher in the 7th AJCC staging system than the hybrid staging system (c-index for stage, 0.771 vs 0.764; c-index for nodal stage, 0.713 vs 0.705). Stratification of the patients according to the histological grade revealed that Harrell’s c-indices for the stage and N stage of the hybrid staging system were comparable with those of the 7th AJCC staging system (c-index for AJCC stage vs hybrid stage, 0.800 vs 0.791; c-index for AJCC N stage vs hybrid N stage, 0.746 vs 0.734) among patients with histologically lower grade gastric cancer. The performance of the new nodal staging system was better than that of the 7th AJCC staging system by likelihood ratio and linear trend tests and bootstrap analysis in the low-grade group.

Conclusions

The hybrid anatomical location-based classification may have better prognostic predictive ability than the 7th AJCC staging system for LN metastasis of low-grade gastric cancer. Further studies involving different ethnic populations are necessary for the validation of the new staging system.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic value of uPAR expression and angiogenesis in primary and metastatic melanoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466554d5eed0c484518a14

Angiogenesis is important for the progression of cutaneous melanoma. Here, we analyzed the prognostic impact of the angiogenic factor urokinase plasminogen activator resecptor (uPAR), vascular proliferation index (VPI) and tumor necrosis as a measure of hypoxia in a patient series of nodular melanomas (n = 255) and matched loco-regional metastases (n = 78). Expression of uPAR was determined by immunohistochemistry and VPI was assessed by dual immunohistochemistry using Factor-VIII/Ki67 staining. Necrosis was recorded based on HE-slides. As novel findings, high uPAR expression and high VPI were associated with each other, and with increased tumor thickness, presence of tumor necrosis, tumor ulceration, increased mitotic count and reduced cancer specific survival in primary melanoma. In matched cases, VPI was decreased in metastases, whereas the frequency of necrosis was increased. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the impact on melanoma specific survival of uPAR expression and VPI in primary tumors, and of increased necrosis as an indicator of tumor hypoxia in loco-regional metastases. These findings support the importance of tumor angiogenesis in melanoma aggressiveness, and suggest uPAR as an indicator of vascular proliferation and a potential biomarker in melanoma.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of the binding of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) antagonist 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG in breast cancer samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c7dd5eed0c484bd29e8

The Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) is over-expressed in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast tumors and related metastatic lymph nodes offering the opportunity of imaging and therapy of luminal tumors. 68Ga-RM2 binding and 18F-FDG binding in tumoral zones were measured and compared using tissue micro-imaging with a beta imager on 14 breast cancer samples (10 primaries and 4 associated metastatic lymph nodes). Results were then assessed against ER expression, progesterone receptor (PR) expression, HER2 over-expression or not and Ki-67 expression. GRPR immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed on all samples. We also retrospectively compared 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG bindings to 18F-FDG SUVmax on the pre-therapeutic PET/CT examination, if available. 68Ga-RM2 binding was significantly higher in tumors expressing GRPR on IHC than in GRPR-negative tumors (P = 0.022). In ER+ tumors, binding of 68Ga-RM2 was significantly higher than 18F-FDG (P = 0.015). In tumors with low Ki-67, 68Ga-RM2 binding was also significantly increased compared to 18F-FDG (P = 0.029). Overall, the binding of 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG displayed an opposite pattern in tumor samples and 68Ga-RM2 binding was significantly higher in tumors that had low 18F-FDG binding (P = 0.021). This inverse correlation was also documented in the few patients in whom a 18F-FDG PET/CT examination before surgery was available. Findings from this in vitro study suggest that GRPR targeting can be an alternative to 18F-FDG imaging in ER+ breast tumors. Moreover, because GRPR antagonists can also be labeled with lutetium-177 this opens new avenues for targeted radionuclide therapy in the subset of patients with progressive metastatic disease following conventional treatments.

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