ResearchPad - lysine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The impact of rumen-protected amino acids on the expression of key- genes involved in the innate immunity of dairy sheep]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14615 Rumen protected amino acids inclusion in ewes’ diets has been proposed to enhance their innate immunity. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine or lysine, as well as with a combination of these amino acids in two different ratios, on the expression of selected key-genes (NLRs, MyD88, TRIF, MAPK-1, IRF-3, JunD, TRAF-3, IRF-5, IL-1α, IL-10, IKK-α, STAT-3 and HO-1). Thus, sixty Chios dairy ewes (Ovis aries) were assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments (12 animals/ treatment): A: basal diet consist of concentrates, wheat straw and alfalfa hay (control group); B: basal diet +6.0 g/head rumen-protected methionine; C: basal diet + 5.0 g/head rumen-protected lysine; D: basal diet +6.0 g/head rumen-protected methionine + 5.0 g/head rumen-protected lysine and E: basal diet +12.0 g/head rumen-protected methionine + 5.0 g/head rumen-protected lysine. The results revealed a significant downregulation of relative transcript level of the IL-1α gene in the neutrophils of C and in monocytes of D ewes compared with the control. Significantly lower mRNA transcript accumulation was also observed for the MyD88 gene in the neutrophils of ewes fed with lysine only (C). The mRNA relative expression levels of JunD gene were highly induced in the monocytes, while those of IL-10 and HO-1 genes were declined in the neutrophils of ewes fed with the C and D diets compared with the control. Lower transcript levels of STAT-3 gene were observed in the neutrophils of ewes fed with either C or with E diets in comparison with the control. In conclusion, our results suggest that the dietary supplementation of ewes with rumen-protected amino acids, down regulate the expression of some genes involved in the pro-inflammatory signalling.

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<![CDATA[Uncovering and resolving challenges of quantitative modeling in a simplified community of interacting cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99020dd5eed0c484b97589

Quantitative modeling is useful for predicting behaviors of a system and for rationally constructing or modifying the system. The predictive power of a model relies on accurate quantification of model parameters. Here, we illustrate challenges in parameter quantification and offer means to overcome these challenges, using a case example in which we quantitatively predict the growth rate of a cooperative community. Specifically, the community consists of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, each engineered to release a metabolite required and consumed by its partner. The initial model, employing parameters measured in batch monocultures with zero or excess metabolite, failed to quantitatively predict experimental results. To resolve the model–experiment discrepancy, we chemically identified the correct exchanged metabolites, but this did not improve model performance. We then remeasured strain phenotypes in chemostats mimicking the metabolite-limited community environments, while mitigating or incorporating effects of rapid evolution. Almost all phenotypes we measured, including death rate, metabolite release rate, and the amount of metabolite consumed per cell birth, varied significantly with the metabolite environment. Once we used parameters measured in a range of community-like chemostat environments, prediction quantitatively agreed with experimental results. In summary, using a simplified community, we uncovered and devised means to resolve modeling challenges that are likely general to living systems.

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<![CDATA[Novel site-specific PEGylated L-asparaginase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7587d5eed0c4843cfe5d

L-asparaginase (ASNase) from Escherichia coli is currently used in some countries in its PEGylated form (ONCASPAR, pegaspargase) to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PEGylation refers to the covalent attachment of poly(ethylene) glycol to the protein drug and it not only reduces the immune system activation but also decreases degradation by plasmatic proteases. However, pegaspargase is randomly PEGylated and, consequently, with a high degree of polydispersity in its final formulation. In this work we developed a site-specific N-terminus PEGylation protocol for ASNase. The monoPEG-ASNase was purified by anionic followed by size exclusion chromatography to a final purity of 99%. The highest yield of monoPEG-ASNase of 42% was obtained by the protein reaction with methoxy polyethylene glycol-carboxymethyl N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (10kDa) in 100 mM PBS at pH 7.5 and PEG:ASNase ratio of 25:1. The monoPEG-ASNase was found to maintain enzymatic stability for more days than ASNase, also was resistant to the plasma proteases like asparaginyl endopeptidase and cathepsin B. Additionally, monoPEG-ASNase was found to be potent against leukemic cell lines (MOLT-4 and REH) in vitro like polyPEG-ASNase. monoPEG-ASNase demonstrates its potential as a novel option for ALL treatment, being an inventive novelty that maintains the benefits of the current enzyme and solves challenges.

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<![CDATA[SIRT5 deficiency suppresses mitochondrial ATP production and promotes AMPK activation in response to energy stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc99ed5eed0c484529ee3

Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a member of the NAD+-dependent sirtuin family of protein deacylase that catalyzes removal of post-translational modifications, such as succinylation, malonylation, and glutarylation on lysine residues. In light of the SIRT5's roles in regulating mitochondrion function, we show here that SIRT5 deficiency leads to suppression of mitochondrial NADH oxidation and inhibition of ATP synthase activity. As a result, SIRT5 deficiency decreases mitochondrial ATP production, increases AMP/ATP ratio, and subsequently activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured cells and mouse hearts under energy stress conditions. Moreover, Sirt5 knockout attenuates transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction in mice, which is associated with decreased ATP level, increased AMP/ATP ratio and enhanced AMPK activation. Our study thus uncovers an important role of SIRT5 in regulating cellular energy metabolism and AMPK activation in response to energy stress.

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<![CDATA[Lysine 27 of replication-independent histone H3.3 is required for Polycomb target gene silencing but not for gene activation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52c1d5eed0c4842bcf85

Proper determination of cell fates depends on epigenetic information that is used to preserve memory of decisions made earlier in development. Post-translational modification of histone residues is thought to be a central means by which epigenetic information is propagated. In particular, modifications of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) are strongly correlated with both gene activation and gene repression. H3K27 acetylation is found at sites of active transcription, whereas H3K27 methylation is found at loci silenced by Polycomb group proteins. The histones bearing these modifications are encoded by the replication-dependent H3 genes as well as the replication-independent H3.3 genes. Owing to differential rates of nucleosome turnover, H3K27 acetylation is enriched on replication-independent H3.3 histones at active gene loci, and H3K27 methylation is enriched on replication-dependent H3 histones across silenced gene loci. Previously, we found that modification of replication-dependent H3K27 is required for Polycomb target gene silencing, but it is not required for gene activation. However, the contribution of replication-independent H3.3K27 to these functions is unknown. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to mutate the endogenous replication-independent H3.3K27 to a non-modifiable residue. Surprisingly, we find that H3.3K27 is also required for Polycomb target gene silencing despite the association of H3.3 with active transcription. However, the requirement for H3.3K27 comes at a later stage of development than that found for replication-dependent H3K27, suggesting a greater reliance on replication-independent H3.3K27 in post-mitotic cells. Notably, we find no evidence of global transcriptional defects in H3.3K27 mutants, despite the strong correlation between H3.3K27 acetylation and active transcription.

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<![CDATA[Partitioning the efficiency of utilization of amino acids in growing broilers: Multiple linear regression and multivariate approaches]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab828d5eed0c484026eed

Determining the efficiency of amino acid (AA) utilization in growing animals is crucial to estimate their requirement accurately. In broiler chickens, the composition of AA in feather is different from feather-free body and the proportion of feathers will change along broiler’s growth, which may impact the efficiency of utilization on AA consumed. Therefore, in order to establish a method that predicts the efficiency of utilization for feather-free body and feather, two approaches were evaluated: a multiple linear regression and a multivariate analysis. Additionally, a new factorial model was proposed to predict AA requirements in broiler chickens. Data from 13 trials that evaluated the requirements for lysine (Lys), sulphur AA (SAA), threonine (Thr), and valine (Val) in male broilers were used for the analyses. Both methods of analysis were consistent in showing that the efficiency of utilization in feather-free body and feather were different. Using multiple linear regression, the values of efficiency of utilization estimated in feather-free body were 0.68, 0.72, 0.81, 0.79 (mg of amino acid deposited / mg of amino acid consumed above maintenance) and in feather were 0.58, 0.77, 0.78, and 1.57 (mg/mg) for Lys, SAA, Thr, and Val, respectively. Applying the multivariate approach, the corresponding predicted values were 0.68, 0.67, 4.23, 0.27 (mg/mg) in feather-free body and 1.16, 0.86, 0.16, and 1.10 (mg/mg) in feather, respectively. According to the results, efficiency of utilization may be related, to some extent, on the concentration determined in each tissue. The uncertainty around the amount of AA consumed for gain directed to feather-free body or feather deposition could be a limitation for multivariate analyses. The results indicated that multiple linear regression predictions may be better estimates of utilization efficiency. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the effect of age on deposition and partitioning of dietary AA in different parts of the broiler.

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<![CDATA[Towards a molecular basis of ubiquitin signaling: A dual-scale simulation study of ubiquitin dimers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf86f60d5eed0c48405a957

Covalent modification of proteins by ubiquitin or ubiquitin chains is one of the most prevalent post-translational modifications in eukaryotes. Different types of ubiquitin chains are assumed to selectively signal respectively modified proteins for different fates. In support of this hypothesis, structural studies have shown that the eight possible ubiquitin dimers adopt different conformations. However, at least in some cases, these structures cannot sufficiently explain the molecular basis of the selective signaling mechanisms. This indicates that the available structures represent only a few distinct conformations within the entire conformational space adopted by a ubiquitin dimer. Here, molecular simulations on different levels of resolution can complement the structural information. We have combined exhaustive coarse grained and atomistic simulations of all eight possible ubiquitin dimers with a suitable dimensionality reduction technique and a new method to characterize protein-protein interfaces and the conformational landscape of protein conjugates. We found that ubiquitin dimers exhibit characteristic linkage type-dependent properties in solution, such as interface stability and the character of contacts between the subunits, which can be directly correlated with experimentally observed linkage-specific properties.

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<![CDATA[Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Nav1.9 Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels Stably Expressed in HEK-293 Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da16ab0ee8fa60b7b622

The voltage dependent sodium channel Nav1.9, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and has been linked to human genetic pain disorders, which makes it target of interest for the development of new pain therapeutics. However, characterization of Nav1.9 pharmacology has been limited due in part to the historical difficulty of functionally expressing recombinant channels. Here we report the successful generation and characterization of human, mouse and rat Nav1.9 stably expressed in human HEK-293 cells. These cells exhibit slowly activating and inactivating inward sodium channel currents that have characteristics of native Nav1.9. Optimal functional expression was achieved by coexpression of Nav1.9 with β1/β2 subunits. While recombinantly expressed Nav1.9 was found to be sensitive to sodium channel inhibitors TC-N 1752 and tetracaine, potency was up to 100-fold less than reported for other Nav channel subtypes despite evidence to support an interaction with the canonical local anesthetic (LA) binding region on Domain 4 S6. Nav1.9 Domain 2 S6 pore domain contains a unique lysine residue (K799) which is predicted to be spatially near the local anesthetic interaction site. Mutation of this residue to the consensus asparagine (K799N) resulted in an increase in potency for tetracaine, but a decrease for TC-N 1752, suggesting that this residue can influence interaction of inhibitors with the Nav1.9 pore. In summary, we have shown that stable functional expression of Nav1.9 in the widely used HEK-293 cells is possible, which opens up opportunities to better understand channel properties and may potentially aid identification of novel Nav1.9 based pharmacotherapies.

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<![CDATA[Controlling caspase activity in life and death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcee4 ]]> <![CDATA[SENP7 Potentiates cGAS Activation by Relieving SUMO-Mediated Inhibition of Cytosolic DNA Sensing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd09a

Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS, a.k.a. MB21D1), a cytosolic DNA sensor, catalyzes formation of the second messenger 2’3’-cGAMP that activates the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling. How the cGAS activity is modulated remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 7 (SENP7) interacted with and potentiated cGAS activation. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) was conjugated onto the lysine residues 335, 372 and 382 of cGAS, which suppressed its DNA-binding, oligomerization and nucleotidyl-transferase activities. SENP7 reversed this inhibition via catalyzing the cGAS de-SUMOylation. Consistently, silencing of SENP7 markedly impaired the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by cGAS-STING axis. SENP7-knockdown mice were more susceptible to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. SENP7 was significantly up-regulated in patients with SLE. Our study highlights the temporal modulation of the cGAS activity via dynamic SUMOylation, uncovering a novel mechanism for fine-tuning the STING signaling in innate immunity.

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<![CDATA[The Mechanism of Mycobacterium smegmatis PafA Self-Pupylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da97ab0ee8fa60ba23b0

PafA, the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) ligase, catalyzes the Pup modification of bacterial proteins and targets the substrates for proteasomal degradation. It has been reported that that M. smegmatis PafA can be poly-pupylated. In this study, the mechanism of PafA self-pupylation is explored. We found that K320 is the major target residue for the pupylation of PafA. During the self-pupylation of PafA, the attachment of the first Pup to PafA is catalyzed by the other PafA molecule through an intermolecular reaction, while the formation of the polymeric Pup chain is carried out in an intramolecular manner through the internal ligase activity of the already pupylated PafA. Among the three lysine residues, K7, K31 and K61, in M. smegmatis Pup, K7 and K31 are involved in the formation of the poly-Pup chain in PafA poly-pupylation. Poly-pupylation of PafA can be reversibly regulated by depupylase Dop. The polymeric Pup chain formed through K7/K31 linkage is much more sensitive to Dop than the mono-Pup directly attached to PafA. Moreover, self-pupylation of PafA is involved in the regulation of its stability in vivo in a proteasome-dependent manner, suggesting that PafA self-pupylation functions as a mechanism in the auto-regulation of the Pup-proteasome system.

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<![CDATA[Arginine and Lysine Transporters Are Essential for Trypanosoma brucei]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d2ab0ee8fa60b64b44

For Trypanosoma brucei arginine and lysine are essential amino acids and therefore have to be imported from the host. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants identified cationic amino acid transporters among members of the T. brucei AAAP (amino acid/auxin permease) family. TbAAT5-3 showed high affinity arginine uptake (Km 3.6 ± 0.4 μM) and high selectivity for L-arginine. L-arginine transport was reduced by a 10-times excess of L-arginine, homo-arginine, canavanine or arginine-β-naphthylamide, while lysine was inhibitory only at 100-times excess, and histidine or ornithine did not reduce arginine uptake rates significantly. TbAAT16-1 is a high affinity (Km 4.3 ± 0.5 μM) and highly selective L-lysine transporter and of the compounds tested, only L-lysine and thialysine were competing for L-lysine uptake. TbAAT5-3 and TbAAT16-1 are expressed in both procyclic and bloodstream form T. brucei and cMyc-tagged proteins indicate localization at the plasma membrane. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TbAAT5 and TbAAT16 in bloodstream form trypanosomes resulted in growth arrest, demonstrating that TbAAT5-mediated arginine and TbAAT16-mediated lysine transport are essential for T. brucei. Growth of induced RNAi lines could partially be rescued by supplementing a surplus of arginine or lysine, respectively, while addition of both amino acids was less efficient. Single and double RNAi lines indicate that additional low affinity uptake systems for arginine and lysine are present in T. brucei.

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<![CDATA[Histone H1 Variants in Arabidopsis Are Subject to Numerous Post-Translational Modifications, Both Conserved and Previously Unknown in Histones, Suggesting Complex Functions of H1 in Plants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa4ab0ee8fa60ba6c72

Linker histones (H1s) are conserved and ubiquitous structural components of eukaryotic chromatin. Multiple non-allelic variants of H1, which differ in their DNA/nucleosome binding properties, co-exist in animal and plant cells and have been implicated in the control of genetic programs during development and differentiation. Studies in mammals and Drosophila have revealed diverse post-translational modifications of H1s, most of which are of unknown function. So far, it is not known how this pattern compares with that of H1s from other major lineages of multicellular Eukaryotes. Here, we show that the two main H1variants of a model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana are subject to a rich and diverse array of post-translational modifications. The distribution of these modifications in the H1 molecule, especially in its globular domain (GH1), resembles that occurring in mammalian H1s, suggesting that their functional significance is likely to be conserved. While the majority of modifications detected in Arabidopsis H1s, including phosphorylation, acetylation, mono- and dimethylation, formylation, crotonylation and propionylation, have also been reported in H1s of other species, some others have not been previously identified in histones.

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<![CDATA[The mechanism of sirtuin 2–mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd0a6

Sirtuin genes have been associated with aging and are known to affect multiple cellular pathways. Sirtuin 2 was previously shown to modulate proteotoxicity associated with age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (PD). However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the interplay between sirtuin 2 and α-synuclein, the major component of the pathognomonic protein inclusions in PD and other synucleinopathies. We found that α-synuclein is acetylated on lysines 6 and 10 and that these residues are deacetylated by sirtuin 2. Genetic manipulation of sirtuin 2 levels in vitro and in vivo modulates the levels of α-synuclein acetylation, its aggregation, and autophagy. Strikingly, mutants blocking acetylation exacerbate α-synuclein toxicity in vivo, in the substantia nigra of rats. Our study identifies α-synuclein acetylation as a key regulatory mechanism governing α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity, demonstrating the potential therapeutic value of sirtuin 2 inhibition in synucleinopathies.

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<![CDATA[HAT2 mediates histone H4K4 acetylation and affects micrococcal nuclease sensitivity of chromatin in Leishmania donovani]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf64e

Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as acetylation and methylation are known to affect chromatin higher order structures. Primary targets of these modifications include basic residues present at N-terminus tail region of core histones. Four histone acetyltransferase (HAT) genes have been identified in trypanosomatids. HAT1, HAT3 and HAT4 of Leishmania donovani have been partially characterized. However, there is no report about HAT2 of Leishmania donovani. Lysine residues present on the N-terminal tail of Leishmania donovani histone H4 are conserved in other trypanosomatids and humans. PTMs of lysines modulate various functions at chromatin level. The four histone acetyltransferases encoded in Leishmania genome were over-expressed to analyse their functional activity. All four HATs were found actively acetylating core histones H3/H4. Similar to L. donovani HAT3 and HAT4, HAT2 was found to be a member of MYST family protein and have SAS2 type domain. Over-expression of HAT2 significantly increases acetylation of H4K4. To analyse the effect of HAT2 over-expression on chromatin accessibility, micrococcal nuclease digestion assay was performed. MNase digestion resulted in a higher proportion of the mononucleosomes and dinucleosomes in HAT2 over-expressing cells as compared to WT L. donovani cells. Acetylation of lysine-4 neutralizes the amino terminal region of histone H4. This weakens its interaction with neighbouring nucleosomes and the linker DNA. HAT2 over-expression in L. donovani resulted in highly accessible chromatin suggesting chromatin decondensation. HAT2 may have an important role to play in global regulation of transcription in L. donovani. Better understanding of these epigenetic determinants of parasite would help in designing novel therapeutic strategies.

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<![CDATA[H3 Histone Tail Conformation within the Nucleosome and the Impact of K14 Acetylation Studied Using Enhanced Sampling Simulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa1ab0ee8fa60ba5b7c

Acetylation of lysine residues in histone tails is associated with gene transcription. Because histone tails are structurally flexible and intrinsically disordered, it is difficult to experimentally determine the tail conformations and the impact of acetylation. In this work, we performed simulations to sample H3 tail conformations with and without acetylation. The results show that irrespective of the presence or absence of the acetylation, the H3 tail remains in contact with the DNA and assumes an α-helix structure in some regions. Acetylation slightly weakened the interaction between the tail and DNA and enhanced α-helix formation, resulting in a more compact tail conformation. We inferred that this compaction induces unwrapping and exposure of the linker DNA, enabling DNA-binding proteins (e.g., transcription factors) to bind to their target sequences. In addition, our simulation also showed that acetylated lysine was more often exposed to the solvent, which is consistent with the fact that acetylation functions as a post-translational modification recognition site marker.

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<![CDATA[Lactoferrin binding protein B – a bi-functional bacterial receptor protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdcfee

Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB) is a bi-lobed outer membrane-bound lipoprotein that comprises part of the lactoferrin (Lf) receptor complex in Neisseria meningitidis and other Gram-negative pathogens. Recent studies have demonstrated that LbpB plays a role in protecting the bacteria from cationic antimicrobial peptides due to large regions rich in anionic residues in the C-terminal lobe. Relative to its homolog, transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB), there currently is little evidence for its role in iron acquisition and relatively little structural and biophysical information on its interaction with Lf. In this study, a combination of crosslinking and deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, information-driven computational docking, bio-layer interferometry, and site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe LbpB:hLf complexes. The formation of a 1:1 complex of iron-loaded Lf and LbpB involves an interaction between the Lf C-lobe and LbpB N-lobe, comparable to TbpB, consistent with a potential role in iron acquisition. The Lf N-lobe is also capable of binding to negatively charged regions of the LbpB C-lobe and possibly other sites such that a variety of higher order complexes are formed. Our results are consistent with LbpB serving dual roles focused primarily on iron acquisition when exposed to limited levels of iron-loaded Lf on the mucosal surface and effectively binding apo Lf when exposed to high levels at sites of inflammation.

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<![CDATA[Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1cab0ee8fa60bce416

Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of an adequate level of Lysine in fishmeal diet formulation for optimum growth.

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<![CDATA[Synthesis of Non-linear Protein Dimers through a Genetically Encoded Thiol-ene Reaction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da94ab0ee8fa60ba138e

Site-specific incorporation of bioorthogonal unnatural amino acids into proteins provides a useful tool for the installation of specific functionalities that will allow for the labeling of proteins with virtually any probe. We demonstrate the genetic encoding of a set of alkene lysines using the orthogonal PylRS/PylTCUA pair in Escherichia coli. The installed double bond functionality was then applied in a photoinitiated thiol-ene reaction of the protein with a fluorescent thiol-bearing probe, as well as a cysteine residue of a second protein, showing the applicability of this approach in the formation of heterogeneous non-linear fused proteins.

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<![CDATA[Protective Effects of Acetylation on the Pathological Reactions of the Lens Crystallins with Homocysteine Thiolactone]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dcab0ee8fa60b68184

Various post-translational lens crystallins modifications result in structural and functional insults, contributing to the development of lens opacity and cataract disorders. Lens crystallins are potential targets of homocysteinylation, particularly under hyperhomocysteinemia which has been indicated in various eye diseases. Since both homocysteinylation and acetylation primarily occur on protein free amino groups, we applied different spectroscopic methods and gel mobility shift analysis to examine the possible preventive role of acetylation against homocysteinylation. Lens crystallins were extensively acetylated in the presence of acetic anhydride and then subjected to homocysteinylation in the presence of homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL). Extensive acetylation of the lens crystallins results in partial structural alteration and enhancement of their stability, as well as improvement of α-crystallin chaperone-like activity. In addition, acetylation partially prevents HCTL-induced structural alteration and aggregation of lens crystallins. Also, acetylation protects against HCTL-induced loss of α-crystallin chaperone activity. Additionally, subsequent acetylation and homocysteinylation cause significant proteolytic degradation of crystallins. Therefore, further experimentation is required in order to judge effectively the preventative role of acetylation on the structural and functional insults induced by homocysteinylation of lens crystallins.

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