ResearchPad - macrophages https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SULF1 suppresses Wnt3A-driven growth of bone metastatic prostate cancer in perlecan-modified 3D cancer-stroma-macrophage triculture models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14741 Bone marrow stroma influences metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) progression, latency, and recurrence. At sites of PCa bone metastasis, cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor-associated macrophages interact to establish a perlecan-rich desmoplastic stroma. As a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan (HSPG2) stores and stabilizes growth factors, including heparin-binding Wnt3A, a positive regulator of PCa cell growth. Because PCa cells alone do not induce CAF production of perlecan in the desmoplastic stroma, we sought to discover the sources of perlecan and its growth factor-releasing modifiers SULF1, SULF2, and heparanase in PCa cells and xenografts, bone marrow fibroblasts, and macrophages. SULF1, produced primarily by bone marrow fibroblasts, was the main glycosaminoglycanase present, a finding validated with primary tissue specimens of PCa metastases with desmoplastic bone stroma. Expression of both HSPG2 and SULF1 was concentrated in αSMA-rich stroma near PCa tumor nests, where infiltrating pro-tumor TAMs also were present. To decipher SULF1’s role in the reactive bone stroma, we created a bone marrow biomimetic hydrogel incorporating perlecan, PCa cells, macrophages, and fibroblastic bone marrow stromal cells. Finding that M2-like macrophages increased levels of SULF1 and HSPG2 produced by fibroblasts, we examined SULF1 function in Wnt3A-mediated PCa tumoroid growth in tricultures. Comparing control or SULF1 knockout fibroblastic cells, we showed that SULF1 reduces Wnt3A-driven growth, cellularity, and cluster number of PCa cells in our 3D model. We conclude that SULF1 can suppress Wnt3A-driven growth signals in the desmoplastic stroma of PCa bone metastases, and SULF1 loss favors PCa progression, even in the presence of pro-tumorigenic TAMs.

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<![CDATA[Prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 reduction enhances skeletal muscle tissue regeneration after soft tissue trauma in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14698 The transcription factor Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a pivotal role in tissue regeneration. HIF-1 is negatively controlled by O2-dependent prolyl hydroxylases with a predominant role of prolyl hydroxylase 2 isoform (Phd2). Transgenic mice, hypomorphic for this isoform, accumulate more HIF-1 under normoxic conditions. Using these mice, we investigated the influence of Phd2 and HIF-1 on the regenerative capability of skeletal muscle tissue after myotrauma. Phd2-hypomorphic and wild type mice (on C57Bl/6 background) were grouped with regeneration times from 6 to 168 hours after closed mechanic muscle trauma to the hind limb. Tissue samples were analysed by immuno-staining and real-time PCR. Bone marrow derived macrophages of wild type and Phd2-hypomorphic mice were isolated and analysed via flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. Phd2 reduction led to a higher regenerative capability due to enhanced activation of myogenic factors accompanied by induction of genes responsible for glucose and lactate metabolism in Phd2-hypomorphic mice. Macrophage infiltration into the trauma areas in hypomorphic mice started earlier and was more pronounced compared to wild type mice. Phd2-hypomorphic mice also showed higher numbers of macrophages in areas with sustained trauma 72 hours after myotrauma application. In conclusion, we postulate that the HIF-1 pathway is activated secondary to a Phd2 reduction which may lead to i) higher activation of myogenic factors, ii) increased number of positive stem cell proliferation markers, and iii) accelerated macrophage recruitment to areas of trauma, resulting in faster muscle tissue regeneration after myotrauma. With the current development of prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors, our findings point towards a potential clinical benefit after myotrauma.

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<![CDATA[SPOP promotes ubiquitination and degradation of MyD88 to suppress the innate immune response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14645 MyD88 is a central adaptor that mediates initiation of the innate immune response and production of the proinflammatory cytokines that restrain pathogens and activate adaptive immunity. Although MyD88 is crucial for a host to prevent pathogenic infection, misregulation of its abundance might lead to autoimmune diseases. Thus, degradation of MyD88 is a key canonical mechanism for terminating cytokine production. Here, we characterized a novel E3 ligase, SPOP, that targets MyD88 for degradation. ChSPOP attenuated IL-1β production through K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation of chMyD88, and thus impaired immune responses. Spop deficient mice showed more susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. These findings demonstrate that SPOP is a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent pathway activation triggered by LPS and Salmonella typhimurium, which helps the host to maintain immune homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[Early cell-autonomous accumulation of neutral lipids during infection promotes mycobacterial growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14614 Lipids represent an important source of nutrition for infecting mycobacteria, accumulating within the necrotic core of granulomas and present in foamy macrophages associated with mycobacterial infection. In order to better understand the timing, process and importance of lipid accumulation, we developed methods for direct in vivo visualization and quantification of this process using the zebrafish-M. marinum larval model of infection. We find that neutral lipids accumulate cell-autonomously in mycobacterium-infected macrophages in vivo during early infection, with detectable levels of accumulation by two days post-infection. Treatment with ezetimibe, an FDA-approved drug, resulted in decreased levels of free cholesterol and neutral lipids, and a reduction of bacterial growth in vivo. The effect of ezetimibe in reducing bacterial growth was dependent on the mce4 operon, a key bacterial determinant of lipid utilization. Thus, in vivo, lipid accumulation can occur cell-autonomously at early timepoints of mycobacterial infection, and limitation of this process results in decreased bacterial burden.

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<![CDATA[Harnessing helminth-driven immunoregulation in the search for novel therapeutic modalities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14550 Parasitic helminths have coevolved with humans over millennia, intricately refining and developing an array of mechanisms to suppress or skew the host’s immune system, thereby promoting their long-term survival. Some helminths, such as hookworms, cause little to no overt pathology when present in modest numbers and may even confer benefits to their human host. To exploit this evolutionary phenomenon, clinical trials of human helminth infection have been established and assessed for safety and efficacy for a range of immune dysfunction diseases and have yielded mixed outcomes. Studies of live helminth therapy in mice and larger animals have convincingly shown that helminths and their excretory/secretory products possess anti-inflammatory drug-like properties and represent an untapped pharmacopeia. These anti-inflammatory moieties include extracellular vesicles, proteins, glycans, post-translational modifications, and various metabolites. Although the concept of helminth-inspired therapies holds promise, it also presents a challenge to the drug development community, which is generally unfamiliar with foreign biologics that do not behave like antibodies. Identification and characterization of helminth molecules and vesicles and the molecular pathways they target in the host present a unique opportunity to develop tailored drugs inspired by nature that are efficacious, safe, and have minimal immunogenicity. Even so, much work remains to mine and assess this out-of-the-box therapeutic modality. Industry-based organizations need to consider long-haul investments aimed at unraveling and exploiting unique and differentiated mechanisms of action as opposed to toe-dipping entries with an eye on rapid and profitable turnarounds.

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<![CDATA[Comparing in vitro and in vivo virulence phenotypes of Burkholderia pseudomallei type G strains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc780

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a saprophytic rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. This disease has previously been described as endemic in areas such as northern Australia and Southeast Asia, but, more recently, a better understanding of the epidemiology of melioidosis indicated that the disease is distributed worldwide, including regions of the Americas and Africa. A 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) typing system has been developed for Bpm and has revealed that ITS types C, E, and hybrid CE are mainly associated with Australia and Southeast Asia while type G strains are more associated with cases of melioidosis in the Western Hemisphere. The purpose of the current study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo virulence profiles of the understudied Bpm type G strains Ca2009, Ca2013a, Mx2013, and 724644 and compared such phenotypes to the commonly studied Bpm type C strain K96243. We evaluated virulence by measuring invasion/uptake and survival of these Bpm strains in murine respiratory epithelial LA-4 cells and alveolar macrophage MH-S cells using different multiplicity of infections (MOIs of 1 and 10). We also calculated the lethal dose 50 values (LD50) in BALB/c mice that were inoculated intranasally with either Ca2009, Ca2013a, or Mx2013. Overall, the virulence and lethality phenotypes of Bpm type G strains were similar to the Bpm type C strain K96243. Additional comparative analyses between the Bpm ITS types may lead to a better understanding of the contribution of the ITS type to the epidemiology and ecology of Bpm strains.

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<![CDATA[Host immune responses during Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis infection and treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc0d0d75e-fba6-45d6-a2e4-1505f9de6f1c

Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis (TSCT), caused by the tapeworm T. solium, is a foodborne and zoonotic disease classified since 2010 by WHO as a neglected tropical isease. It causes considerable impact on health and economy and is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy in most endemic countries of Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia. There is some evidence that the prevalence of TSCT in high-income countries has recently increased, mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. In regions endemic for TSCT, human cysticercosis can manifest clinically as neurocysticercosis (NCC), resulting in epileptic seizures and severe progressive headaches, amongst other neurological signs and/or symptoms. The development of these symptoms results from a complex interplay between anatomical cyst localization, environmental factors, parasite’s infective potential, host genetics, and, especially, host immune responses. Treatment of individuals with active NCC (presence of viable cerebral cysts) with anthelmintic drugs together with steroids is usually effective and, in the majority, reduces the number and/or size of cerebral lesions as well as the neurological symptoms. However, in some cases, treatment may profoundly enhance anthelmintic inflammatory responses with ensuing symptoms, which, otherwise, would have remained silent as long as the cysts are viable. This intriguing silencing process is not yet fully understood but may involve active modulation of host responses by cyst-derived immunomodulatory components released directly into the surrounding brain tissue or by the induction of regulatory networks including regulatory T cells (Treg) or regulatory B cells (Breg). These processes might be disturbed once the cysts undergo treatment-induced apoptosis and necrosis or in a coinfection setting such as HIV. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the immunology and pathogenesis of NCC with a highlight on the mobilization of immune cells during human NCC and their interaction with viable and degenerating cysticerci. Moreover, the immunological parameters associated with NCC in people living with HIV/AIDS and treatments are discussed. Eventually, we propose open questions to understand the role of the immune system and its impact in this intriguing host–parasite crosstalk.

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<![CDATA[Microglia exit the CNS in spinal root avulsion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79a3e5d5eed0c4841d1bf2

Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Their ability to migrate outside of the CNS, however, is not understood. Using time-lapse imaging in an obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) model, we show that microglia squeeze through the spinal boundary and emigrate to peripheral spinal roots. Although both macrophages and microglia respond, microglia are the debris-clearing cell. Once outside the CNS, microglia re-enter the spinal cord in an altered state. These peripheral nervous system (PNS)-experienced microglia can travel to distal CNS areas from the injury site, including the brain, with debris. This emigration is balanced by two mechanisms—induced emigration via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) dependence and restriction via contact-dependent cellular repulsion with macrophages. These discoveries open the possibility that microglia can migrate outside of their textbook-defined regions in disease states.

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<![CDATA[Swainsonine, an alpha-mannosidase inhibitor, may worsen cervical cancer progression through the increase in myeloid derived suppressor cells population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897787d5eed0c4847d2ef3

Cervical cancer, caused by high oncogenic risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, continues to be a public health problem, mainly in developing countries. Using peptide phage display as a tool to identify potential molecular targets in HPV associated tumors, we identified α-mannosidase, among other enriched sequences. This enzyme is expressed in both tumor and inflammatory compartment of the tumor microenvironment. Several studies in experimental models have shown that its inhibition by swainsonine (SW) led to inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis directly and indirectly, through activation of macrophages and NK cells, promoting anti-tumor activity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to test if swainsonine treatment could modulate anti-tumor immune responses and therefore interfere in HPV associated tumor growth. Validation of our biopanning results showed that cervical tumors, both tumor cells and leukocytes, expressed α-mannosidase. Ex vivo experiments with tumor associated macrophages showed that SW could partially modulate macrophage phenotype, decreasing CCL2 secretion and impairing IL-10 and IL-6 upregulation, which prompted us to proceed to in vivo tests. However, in vivo, SW treatment increased tumor growth. Investigation of the mechanisms leading to this result showed that SW treatment significantly induced the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the spleen of tumor bearing mice, which inhibited T cell activation. Our results suggested that SW contributes to cervical cancer progression by favoring proliferation and accumulation of myeloid cells in the spleen, thus exacerbating these tumors systemic effects on the immune system, therefore facilitating tumor growth.

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<![CDATA[Host and parasite responses in human diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc39d5eed0c48498f231

Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is a rare form of leishmaniasis where parasites grow uncontrolled in diffuse lesions across the skin. Meta-transcriptomic analysis of biopsies from DCL patients infected with Leishmania amazonensis demonstrated an infiltration of atypical B cells producing a surprising preponderance of the IgG4 isotype. DCL lesions contained minimal CD8+ T cell transcripts and no evidence of persistent TH2 responses. Whereas localized disease exhibited activated (so-called M1) macrophage presence, transcripts in DCL suggested a regulatory macrophage (R-Mϕ) phenotype with higher levels of ABCB5, DCSTAMP, SPP1, SLAMF9, PPARG, MMPs, and TM4SF19. The high levels of parasite transcripts in DCL and the remarkable uniformity among patients afforded a unique opportunity to study parasite gene expression in this disease. Patterns of parasite gene expression in DCL more closely resembled in vitro parasite growth in resting macrophages, in the absence of T cells. In contrast, parasite gene expression in LCL revealed 336 parasite genes that were differently upregulated, relative to DCL and in vitro macrophage growth, and these transcripts may represent transcripts that are produced by the parasite in response to host immune pressure.

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<![CDATA[The role of TLR9 on Leishmania amazonensis infection and its influence on intranasal LaAg vaccine efficacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95ebd5eed0c484734fa1

Leishmania (L.) amazonensis is one of the etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil. Currently, there is no vaccine approved for human use against leishmaniasis, although several vaccine preparations are in experimental stages. One of them is Leishvacin, or LaAg, a first-generation vaccine composed of total L. amazonensis antigens that has consistently shown an increase of mouse resistance against CL when administered intranasally (i.n.). Since Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is highly expressed in the nasal mucosa and LaAg is composed of TLR9-binding DNA CpG motifs, in this study we proposed to investigate the role of TLR9 in both L. amazonensis infection and in LaAg vaccine efficacy in C57BL/6 (WT) mice and TLR9-/- mice. First, we evaluated, the infection of macrophages by L. amazonensis in vitro, showing no significant difference between macrophages from WT and TLR9-/- mice in terms of both infection percentage and total number of intracellular amastigotes, as well as NO production. In addition, neutrophils from WT and TLR9-/- mice had similar capacity to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to L. amazonensis. L. amazonensis did not activate dendritic cells from WT and TLR9-/- mice, analysed by MHCII and CD86 expression. However, in vivo, TLR9-/- mice were slightly more susceptible to L. amazonensis infection than WT mice, presenting a larger lesion and an increased parasite load at the peak of infection and in the chronic phase. The increased TLR9-/- mice susceptibility was accompanied by an increased IgG and IgG1 production; a decrease of IFN-γ in infected tissue, but not IL-4 and IL-10; and a decreased number of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells in the lesion-draining lymph nodes. Also, TLR9-/- mice could not control parasite growth following i.n. LaAg vaccination unlike the WT mice. This protection failure was associated with a reduction of the hypersensitivity response induced by immunization. The TLR9-/- vaccinated mice failed to respond to antigen stimulation and to produce IFN-γ by lymph node cells. Together, these results suggest that TLR9 contributes to C57BL/6 mouse resistance against L. amazonensis, and that the TLR9-binding LaAg comprising CpG motifs may be important for intranasal vaccine efficacy against CL.

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<![CDATA[Modulation of calcium signaling pathway by hepatitis C virus core protein stimulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c6cd5eed0c484ad893f

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major cause of hepatic inflammation and liver disease. HCV triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production from hepatic macrophages, or Kupffer cells, to drive the hepatic inflammatory response. Here we examined HCV activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling cascade in primary human monocyte derived macrophages and THP-1 cell models of hepatic macrophages to define the HCV-specific agonist and cellular processes of inflammasome activation. We identified the HCV core protein as a virion-specific factor of inflammasome activation. The core protein was both necessary and sufficient for IL-1β production from macrophages exposed to HCV or soluble core protein alone. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by the HCV core protein required calcium mobilization linked with phospholipase-C activation. Our findings reveal a molecular basis of hepatic inflammasome activation and IL-1β release triggered by HCV core protein.

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<![CDATA[Immune-enhancing effects of anionic macromolecules extracted from Codium fragile on cyclophosphamide-treated mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac78d5eed0c484d08831

Immune-regulation and homeostasis are critical in cancer therapy and immunomodulatory biomaterials have been used to decrease side effects of immunosuppressant drugs. Anionic macromolecules (CFAMs) were isolated from the seaweed Codium fragile, and its immune-enhancing biological activities were examined in CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. CFAMs improved the splenic lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, and spleen index. The expression of immune-associated genes was highly upregulated in splenic lymphocytes, and gene expression was differently regulated according to mitogens such as T-cell (Con A) and B-cell (LPS) mitogens. Additionally, CFAMs boosted the proliferation, NO production, and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. CFAMs also considerably stimulated immune-associated gene expression in peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, our results showed CFAMs mediated its immune-enhancing effects via the MAPK pathway. These suggested CFAMs can be used as a potent immunomodulatory material under immune-suppressive condition. Furthermore, CFAMs may also be used as a bio-functional and pharmaceutical material for improving human health and immunity.

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<![CDATA[Potassium response and homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates environmental adaptation and is important for host colonization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e93cd5eed0c48496fa58

Successful host colonization by bacteria requires sensing and response to the local ionic milieu, and coordination of responses with the maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the face of changing conditions. We previously discovered that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) responds synergistically to chloride (Cl-) and pH, as cues to the immune status of its host. This raised the intriguing concept of abundant ions as important environmental signals, and we have now uncovered potassium (K+) as an ion that can significantly impact colonization by Mtb. The bacterium has a unique transcriptional response to changes in environmental K+ levels, with both distinct and shared regulatory mechanisms controlling Mtb response to the ionic signals of K+, Cl-, and pH. We demonstrate that intraphagosomal K+ levels increase during macrophage phagosome maturation, and find using a novel fluorescent K+-responsive reporter Mtb strain that K+ is not limiting during macrophage infection. Disruption of Mtb K+ homeostasis by deletion of the Trk K+ uptake system results in dampening of the bacterial response to pH and Cl-, and attenuation in host colonization, both in primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo in a murine model of Mtb infection. Our study reveals how bacterial ionic homeostasis can impact environmental ionic responses, and highlights the important role that abundant ions can play during host colonization by Mtb.

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<![CDATA[TRIM2, a novel member of the antiviral family, limits New World arenavirus entry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d3dd5eed0c484c82342

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins belong to a large family with many roles in host biology, including restricting virus infection. Here, we found that TRIM2, which has been implicated in cases of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMTD) in humans, acts by blocking hemorrhagic fever New World arenavirus (NWA) entry into cells. We show that Trim2-knockout mice, as well as primary fibroblasts from a CMTD patient with mutations in TRIM2, are more highly infected by the NWAs Junín and Tacaribe virus than wild-type mice or cells are. Using mice with different Trim2 gene deletions and TRIM2 mutant constructs, we demonstrate that its antiviral activity is uniquely independent of the RING domain encoding ubiquitin ligase activity. Finally, we show that one member of the TRIM2 interactome, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPA), a known inhibitor of phagocytosis, also restricts NWA infection and conversely that TRIM2 limits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. In addition to demonstrating a novel antiviral mechanism for TRIM proteins, these studies suggest that the NWA entry and phagocytosis pathways overlap.

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<![CDATA[Fat cells gobbling up norepinephrine?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcd9d5eed0c484dec37d

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls key aspects of adipose tissue (AT) function through the release of norepinephrine (NE) and beta adrenergic signaling. Sympathetic tone is determined by NE release but also by the rate of extracellular NE clearance that historically has been believed to occur solely through solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2) expressed on sympathetic neurons. Song and colleagues show that adipocytes can also clear NE through organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3). This contributes to our understanding of how adrenergic signaling is controlled in AT and also emphasizes the need to develop better methods to assess adrenergic signaling in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Genomic instability at the locus of sterol C24-methyltransferase promotes amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania parasites]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e92cd5eed0c48496f91a

Amphotericin B is an increasingly important tool in efforts to reduce the global disease burden posed by Leishmania parasites. With few other chemotherapeutic options available for the treatment of leishmaniasis, the potential for emergent resistance to this drug is a considerable threat. Here we characterised four novel amphotericin B-resistant Leishmania mexicana lines. All lines exhibited altered sterol biosynthesis, and hypersensitivity to pentamidine. Whole genome sequencing demonstrated resistance-associated mutation of the sterol biosynthesis gene sterol C5-desaturase in one line. However, in three out of four lines, RNA-seq revealed loss of expression of sterol C24-methyltransferase (SMT) responsible for drug resistance and altered sterol biosynthesis. Additional loss of the miltefosine transporter was associated with one of those lines. SMT is encoded by two tandem gene copies, which we found to have very different expression levels. In all cases, reduced overall expression was associated with loss of the 3’ untranslated region of the dominant gene copy, resulting from structural variations at this locus. Local regions of sequence homology, between the gene copies themselves, and also due to the presence of SIDER1 retrotransposon elements that promote multi-gene amplification, correlate to these structural variations. Moreover, in at least one case loss of SMT expression was not associated with loss of virulence in primary macrophages or in vivo. Whilst such repeat sequence-mediated instability is known in Leishmania genomes, its presence associated with resistance to a major antileishmanial drug, with no evidence of associated fitness costs, is a significant concern.

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<![CDATA[Modulation of the immune response and infection pattern to Leishmania donovani in visceral leishmaniasis due to arsenic exposure: An in vitro study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633951d5eed0c484ae6493

The arsenic contamination of ground water in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic areas in Bihar, India leads to human exposure through drinking water. Possibly, the consumed arsenic (As) accumulates in the tissues of VL patients, who subsequently internalize intracellular amastigotes to confer resistance against chemotherapy to the parasite, leading to modulation in the host’s immune response. This hypothesis appears to be consistent with the in vitro findings that in arsenic-exposed parasites, the mitochondrial membrane potential became depolarized, whereas the reduced thiol and lactate production was overexpressed with enhanced glucose consumption; therefore, the reduced thiol possibly supports an immunosuppressive state in the host cells. This observation was well supported by the down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) with a suppressed anti-leishmanial function of macrophage (NO, ROS). In contrast, the pathophysiological mechanism of VL has received ample support by the promotion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the presence of arsenic-exposed Leishmania parasites (LdAS). Dysfunction of mitochondria and the overexpression of lactate production raise the possibility of the Warburg effect being operative through the up-regulation of glucose consumption by parasites to enhance the energy production, possibly augmenting virulence. Therefore, we surmise from our data that arsenic exposure to Leishmania donovani modulates the immune response and infection pattern by impairing parasite function, which may affect the anti-leishmanial effect in VL.

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<![CDATA[New insights of the local immune response against both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5259d5eed0c4842bc6ca

Background

Cystic echinococcosis is caused by the metacestode of the zoonotic flatworm Echinococcus granulosus. Within the viscera of the intermediate host, the metacestode grows as a unilocular cyst known as hydatid cyst. This cyst is comprised of two layers of parasite origin: germinal and laminated layers, and one of host origin: the adventitial layer, that encapsulates the parasite. This adventitial layer is composed of collagen fibers, epithelioid cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes. To establish itself inside the host, the germinal layer produces the laminated layer, and to continue its life cycle, generates protoscoleces. Some cysts are unable to produce protoscoleces, and are defined as infertile cysts. The molecular mechanisms involved in cyst fertility are not clear, however, the host immune response could play a crucial role.

Methodology/Principal findings

We collected hydatid cysts from both liver and lungs of slaughtered cattle, and histological sections of fertile, infertile and small hydatid cysts were stained with haematoxylin-eosin. A common feature observed in infertile cysts was the disorganization of the laminated layer by the infiltration of host immune cells. These infiltrating cells eventually destroy parts of laminated layer. Immunohistochemical analysis of both parasite and host antigens, identify these cells as cattle macrophages and are present inside the cysts associated to germinal layer.

Conclusions/Significance

This is the first report that indicates to cell from immune system present in adventitial layer of infertile bovine hydatid cysts could disrupt the laminated layer, infiltrating and probably causing the infertility of cyst.

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<![CDATA[Surface molecules of extracellular vesicles secreted by the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica direct their internalisation by host cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f2dd5eed0c484840b72

Helminth parasites secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can be internalised by host immune cells resulting in modulation of host immunity. While the molecular cargo of EVs have been characterised in many parasites, little is known about the surface-exposed molecules that participate in ligand-receptor interactions with the host cell surface to initiate vesicle docking and subsequent internalisation. Using a membrane-impermeable biotin reagent to capture proteins displayed on the outer membrane surface of two EV sub-populations (termed 15k and 120k EVs) released by adult F. hepatica, we describe 380 surface proteins including an array of virulence factors, membrane transport proteins and molecules involved in EV biogenesis/trafficking. Proteomics and immunohistochemical analysis show that the 120k EVs have an endosomal origin and may be released from the parasite via the protonephridial (excretory) system whilst the larger 15k EVs are released from the gastrodermal epithelial cells that line the fluke gut. A parallel lectin microarray strategy was used to profile the topology of major surface oligosaccharides of intact fluorogenically-labelled EVs as they would be displayed to the host. Lectin profiles corresponding to glycoconjugates exposed on the surface of the 15 K and 120K EV sub-populations are practically identical but are distinct from those of the parasite surface tegument, although all are predominated by high mannose sugars. We found that while the F. hepatica EVs were resistant to exo- and endo-glycosidases, the glyco-amidase PNGase F drastically remodelled the surface oligosaccharides and blocked the uptake of EVs by host macrophages. In contrast, pre-treatment with antibodies obtained from infected hosts, or purified antibodies raised against the extracellular domains of specific EV surface proteins (DM9-containing protein, CD63 receptor and myoferlin), significantly enhanced their cellular internalisation. This work highlights the diversity of EV biogenesis and trafficking pathways used by F. hepatica and sheds light on the molecular interaction between parasite EVs and host cells.

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