ResearchPad - magnetoencephalography https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Genuine cross-frequency coupling networks in human resting-state electrophysiological recordings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15766 Genuine interareal cross-frequency coupling (CFC) can be identified from human resting state activity using magnetoencephalography, stereoelectroencephalography, and novel network approaches. CFC couples slow theta and alpha oscillations to faster oscillations across brain regions.

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<![CDATA[A conceptual space for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b798d5eed0c4844905bd

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have become more and more popular these last years. Researchers use this technology for several types of applications, including attention and workload measures but also for the direct control of objects by the means of BCIs. In this work we present a first, multidimensional feature space for EEG-based BCI applications to help practitioners to characterize, compare and design systems, which use EEG-based BCIs. Our feature space contains 4 axes and 9 sub-axes and consists of 41 options in total as well as their different combinations. We presented the axes of our feature space and we positioned our feature space regarding the existing BCI and HCI taxonomies and we showed how our work integrates the past works, and/or complements them.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent development of cortical oscillations: Power, phase, and support of cognitive maturation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae433d5eed0c484589220

During adolescence, the integration of specialized functional brain networks related to cognitive control continues to increase. Slow frequency oscillations (4–10 Hz) have been shown to support cognitive control processes, especially within prefrontal regions. However, it is unclear how neural oscillations contribute to functional brain network development and improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. To bridge this gap, we employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to explore changes in oscillatory power and phase coupling across cortical networks in a sample of 68 adolescents and young adults. We found a redistribution of power from lower to higher frequencies throughout adolescence, such that delta band (1–3 Hz) power decreased, whereas beta band power (14–16 and 22–26 Hz) increased. Delta band power decreased with age most strongly in association networks within the frontal lobe and operculum. Conversely, beta band power increased throughout development, most strongly in processing networks and the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode (DM) network. In terms of phase, theta band (5–9 Hz) phase-locking robustly decreased with development, following an anterior-to-posterior gradient, with the greatest decoupling occurring between association networks. Additionally, decreased slow frequency phase-locking between frontolimbic regions was related to decreased impulsivity with age. Thus, greater decoupling of slow frequency oscillations may afford functional networks greater flexibility during the resting state to instantiate control when required.

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<![CDATA[Information spreading by a combination of MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern classification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fc2463d7e0897c6e025

To understand information representation in human brain activity, it is important to investigate its fine spatial patterns at high temporal resolution. One possible approach is to use source estimation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Previous studies have mainly quantified accuracy of this technique according to positional deviations and dispersion of estimated sources, but it remains unclear how accurately MEG source estimation restores information content represented by spatial patterns of brain activity. In this study, using simulated MEG signals representing artificial experimental conditions, we performed MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern analysis to examine whether MEG source estimation can restore information content represented by patterns of cortical current in source brain areas. Classification analysis revealed that the corresponding artificial experimental conditions were predicted accurately from patterns of cortical current estimated in the source brain areas. However, accurate predictions were also possible from brain areas whose original sources were not defined. Searchlight decoding further revealed that this unexpected prediction was possible across wide brain areas beyond the original source locations, indicating that information contained in the original sources can spread through MEG source estimation. This phenomenon of “information spreading” may easily lead to false-positive interpretations when MEG source estimation and classification analysis are combined to identify brain areas that represent target information. Real MEG data analyses also showed that presented stimuli were able to be predicted in the higher visual cortex at the same latency as in the primary visual cortex, also suggesting that information spreading took place. These results indicate that careful inspection is necessary to avoid false-positive interpretations when MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern analysis are combined.

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<![CDATA[Neural Correlates of Attention to Human-Made Sounds: An ERP Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d9ab0ee8fa60b66cc0

Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have suggested that human made sounds are processed differently from non-human made sounds. Multiple groups have suggested that voices might be processed as “special,” much like faces. Although previous literature has explored neural correlates of voice perception under varying task demands, few studies have examined electrophysiological correlates of attention while directly comparing human made and non-human made sounds. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to compare attention to human versus non-human made sounds in an oddball paradigm. ERP components of interest were the P300, and fronto-temporal positivity to voices (FTVP), which has been reported in previous investigations of voice versus non-voice stimuli. We found that participants who heard human made sounds as “target” or infrequent stimuli had significantly larger FTPV amplitude, shorter FTPV latency, and larger P300 amplitude than those who heard non-human sounds as “target” stimuli. Our results are in concordance with previous findings that human-made and non-human made sounds are processed differently, and expand upon previous literature by demonstrating increased attention to human versus non-human made sounds, even when the non-human made sounds are ones that require immediate attention in daily life (e.g. a car horn). Heightened attention to human-made sounds is important theoretically and has potential for application in tests of social interest in populations with autism.

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<![CDATA[Occipital Alpha Activity during Stimulus Processing Gates the Information Flow to Object-Selective Cortex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1dab0ee8fa60b7da71

A simultaneous EEG-fMRI study demonstrates that alpha-band activity in early visual cortex is associated with gating visual information to downstream regions, boosting attended information and suppressing distraction.

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<![CDATA[Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4eab0ee8fa60b8d525

The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences.

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<![CDATA[Evaluating age-related change in lip somatosensation using somatosensory evoked magnetic fields]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be10c7

Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) to electrical stimulation on the right and left sides of the lower lip were measured using magnetoencephalography and compared in the bilateral hemispheres of 31 healthy normal young and 29 healthy normal elderly subjects to evaluate age-related change in lip somatosensation. The initial peak of the response around 13 ms, designated as N13m, and the second peak of the response, designated as P21m, were investigated. The N13m response, which was detected in 22 of 62 hemispheres in young adults and 37 of 58 hemispheres in elderly adults, showed significantly prolonged latency and increased equivalent current dipole (ECD) moment in the elderly adults. The P21m response, which was detected in 56 of 62 hemispheres in young adults and in 52 of 58 hemispheres in elderly adults, showed longer peak latency in the elderly adults. No significant difference was found in the ECD moment for P21m, which suggests that aging affected the SEFs of the lip somatosensation, but the effects of aging on N13m and P21m differed. Prolonged latency and increased ECD moment of N13m might result from decreased peripheral conduction and increased cortical excitation system associated with aging. Therefore, the initial response component might be an objective parameter for investigating change in lip function with age.

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<![CDATA[Augmented Pain Processing in Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortex in Fibromyalgia: A Magnetoencephalography Study Using Intra-Epidermal Electrical Stimulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db25ab0ee8fa60bd0333

The aim of this study was to investigate augmented pain processing in the cortical somatosensory system in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Cortical evoked responses were recorded in FM (n = 19) and healthy subjects (n = 21) using magnetoencephalography after noxious intra-epidermal electrical stimulation (IES) of the hand dorsum (pain rating 6 on a numeric rating scale, perceptually-equivalent). In addition, healthy subjects were stimulated using the amplitude corresponding to the average stimulus intensity rated 6 in patients with FM (intensity-equivalent). Quantitative sensory testing was performed on the hand dorsum or thenar muscle (neutral site) and over the trapezius muscle (tender point), using IES (thresholds, ratings, temporal summation of pain, stimulus-response curve) and mechanical stimuli (threshold, ratings). Increased amplitude of cortical responses was found in patients with FM as compared to healthy subjects. These included the contralateral primary (S1) and bilateral secondary somatosensory cortices (S2) in response to intensity-equivalent stimuli and the contralateral S1 and S2 in response to perceptually-equivalent stimuli. The amplitude of the contralateral S2 response in patients with FM was positively correlated with average pain intensity over the last week. Quantitative sensory testing results showed that patients with FM were more sensitive to painful IES as well as to mechanical stimulation, regardless of whether the stimulation site was the hand or the trapezius muscle. Interestingly, the slope of the stimulus-response relationship as well as temporal summation of pain in response to IES was not different between groups. Together, these results suggest that the observed pain augmentation in response to IES in patients with FM could be due to sensitization or disinhibition of the cortical somatosensory system. Since the S2 has been shown to play a role in higher-order functions, further studies are needed to clarify the role of augmented S2 response in clinical characteristics of FM.

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<![CDATA[Auditory Conflict Resolution Correlates with Medial–Lateral Frontal Theta/Alpha Phase Synchrony]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf5ab0ee8fa60bc27fa

When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters “A” or “O”. They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60–110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance.

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<![CDATA[Long-range temporal correlations in neural narrowband time-series arise due to critical dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf5df

We show theoretically that the hypothesis of criticality as a theory of long-range fluctuation in the human brain may be distinguished from the theory of passive filtering on the basis of macroscopic neuronal signals such as the electroencephalogram, using novel theory of narrowband amplitude time-series at criticality. Our theory predicts the division of critical activity into meta-universality classes. As a consequence our analysis shows that experimental electroencephalography data favours the hypothesis of criticality in the human brain.

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<![CDATA[Functional Roles of 10 Hz Alpha-Band Power Modulating Engagement and Disengagement of Cortical Networks in a Complex Visual Motion Task]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daecab0ee8fa60bbf808

Alpha band power, particularly at the 10 Hz frequency, is significantly involved in sensory inhibition, attention modulation, and working memory. However, the interactions between cortical areas and their relationship to the different functional roles of the alpha band oscillations are still poorly understood. Here we examined alpha band power and the cortico-cortical interregional phase synchrony in a psychophysical task involving the detection of an object moving in depth by an observer in forward self-motion. Wavelet filtering at the 10 Hz frequency revealed differences in the profile of cortical activation in the visual processing regions (occipital and parietal lobes) and in the frontoparietal regions. The alpha rhythm driving the visual processing areas was found to be asynchronous with the frontoparietal regions. These findings suggest a decoupling of the 10 Hz frequency into separate functional roles: sensory inhibition in the visual processing regions and spatial attention in the frontoparietal regions.

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<![CDATA[Rapid Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex during Affective Associative Learning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6ecc2

MultiCS conditioning is an affective associative learning paradigm, in which affective categories consist of many similar and complex stimuli. Comparing visual processing before and after learning, recent MultiCS conditioning studies using time-sensitive magnetoencephalography (MEG) revealed enhanced activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions towards emotionally paired versus neutral stimuli already during short-latency processing stages (i.e., 50 to 80 ms after stimulus onset). The present study aimed at showing that this rapid differential activation develops as a function of the acquisition and not the extinction of the emotional meaning associated with affectively paired stimuli. MEG data of a MultiCS conditioning study were analyzed with respect to rapid changes in PFC activation towards aversively (electric shock) paired and unpaired faces that occurred during the learning of stimulus-reinforcer contingencies. Analyses revealed an increased PFC activation towards paired stimuli during 50 to 80 ms already during the acquisition of contingencies, which emerged after a single pairing with the electric shock. Corresponding changes in stimulus valence could be observed in ratings of hedonic valence, although participants did not seem to be aware of contingencies. These results suggest rapid formation and access of emotional stimulus meaning in the PFC as well as a great capacity for adaptive and highly resolving learning in the brain under challenging circumstances.

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<![CDATA[How Does the Extraction of Local and Global Auditory Regularities Vary with Context?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b90753

How does the human brain extract regularities from its environment? There is evidence that short range or ‘local’ regularities (within seconds) are automatically detected by the brain while long range or ‘global’ regularities (over tens of seconds or more) require conscious awareness. In the present experiment, we asked whether participants' attention was needed to acquire such auditory regularities, to detect their violation or both. We designed a paradigm in which participants listened to predictable sounds. Subjects could be distracted by a visual task at two moments: when they were first exposed to a regularity or when they detected violations of this regularity. MEG recordings revealed that early brain responses (100–130 ms) to violations of short range regularities were unaffected by visual distraction and driven essentially by local transitional probabilities. Based on global workspace theory and prior results, we expected that visual distraction would eliminate the long range global effect, but unexpectedly, we found the contrary, i.e. late brain responses (300–600 ms) to violations of long range regularities on audio-visual trials but not on auditory only trials. Further analyses showed that, in fact, visual distraction was incomplete and that auditory and visual stimuli interfered in both directions. Our results show that conscious, attentive subjects can learn the long range dependencies present in auditory stimuli even while performing a visual task on synchronous visual stimuli. Furthermore, they acquire a complex regularity and end up making different predictions for the very same stimulus depending on the context (i.e. absence or presence of visual stimuli). These results suggest that while short-range regularity detection is driven by local transitional probabilities between stimuli, the human brain detects and stores long-range regularities in a highly flexible, context dependent manner.

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<![CDATA[On the Potential of a New Generation of Magnetometers for MEG: A Beamformer Simulation Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da13ab0ee8fa60b7a63a

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a sophisticated tool which yields rich information on the spatial, spectral and temporal signatures of human brain function. Despite unique potential, MEG is limited by a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which is caused by both the inherently small magnetic fields generated by the brain, and the scalp-to-sensor distance. The latter is limited in current systems due to a requirement for pickup coils to be cryogenically cooled. Recent work suggests that optically-pumped magnetometers (OPMs) might be a viable alternative to superconducting detectors for MEG measurement. They have the advantage that sensors can be brought to within ~4 mm of the scalp, thus offering increased sensitivity. Here, using simulations, we quantify the advantages of hypothetical OPM systems in terms of sensitivity, reconstruction accuracy and spatial resolution. Our results show that a multi-channel whole-head OPM system offers (on average) a fivefold improvement in sensitivity for an adult brain, as well as clear improvements in reconstruction accuracy and spatial resolution. However, we also show that such improvements depend critically on accurate forward models; indeed, the reconstruction accuracy of our simulated OPM system only outperformed that of a simulated superconducting system in cases where forward field error was less than 5%. Overall, our results imply that the realisation of a viable whole-head multi-channel OPM system could generate a step change in the utility of MEG as a means to assess brain electrophysiological activity in health and disease. However in practice, this will require both improved hardware and modelling algorithms.

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<![CDATA[Detecting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Resting State Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f1ab0ee8fa60b6e76f

Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG) from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz), together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8–12 Hz). A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI.

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<![CDATA[Cortical Reorganisation during a 30-Week Tinnitus Treatment Program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da43ab0ee8fa60b8abba

Subjective tinnitus is characterised by the conscious perception of a phantom sound. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic tinnitus have disrupted sound-evoked cortical tonotopic maps, time-shifted evoked auditory responses, and altered oscillatory cortical activity. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) compare sound-evoked brain responses and cortical tonotopic maps in individuals with bilateral tinnitus and those without tinnitus; and (ii) investigate whether changes in these sound-evoked responses occur with amelioration of the tinnitus percept during a 30-week tinnitus treatment program. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 12 bilateral tinnitus participants and 10 control normal-hearing subjects reporting no tinnitus were recorded at baseline, using 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz tones presented monaurally at 70 dBSPL through insert tube phones. For the tinnitus participants, MEG recordings were obtained at 5-, 10-, 20- and 30- week time points during tinnitus treatment. Results for the 500 Hz and 1000 Hz sources (where hearing thresholds were within normal limits for all participants) showed that the tinnitus participants had a significantly larger and more anteriorly located source strengths when compared to the non-tinnitus participants. During the 30-week tinnitus treatment, the participants’ 500 Hz and 1000 Hz source strengths remained higher than the non-tinnitus participants; however, the source locations shifted towards the direction recorded from the non-tinnitus control group. Further, in the left hemisphere, there was a time-shifted association between the trajectory of change of the individual’s objective (source strength and anterior-posterior source location) and subjective measures (using tinnitus reaction questionnaire, TRQ). The differences in source strength between the two groups suggest that individuals with tinnitus have enhanced central gain which is not significantly influenced by the tinnitus treatment, and may result from the hearing loss per se. On the other hand, the shifts in the tonotopic map towards the non-tinnitus participants’ source location suggests that the tinnitus treatment might reduce the disruptions in the map, presumably produced by the tinnitus percept directly or indirectly. Further, the similarity in the trajectory of change across the objective and subjective parameters after time-shifting the perceptual changes by 5 weeks suggests that during or following treatment, perceptual changes in the tinnitus percept may precede neurophysiological changes. Subgroup analyses conducted by magnitude of hearing loss suggest that there were no differences in the 500 Hz and 1000 Hz source strength amplitudes for the mild-moderate compared with the mild-severe hearing loss subgroup, although the mean source strength was consistently higher for the mild-severe subgroup. Further, the mild-severe subgroup had 500 Hz and 1000 Hz source locations located more anteriorly (i.e., more disrupted compared to the control group) compared to the mild-moderate group, although this was trending towards significance only for the 500Hz left hemisphere source. While the small numbers of participants within the subgroup analyses reduce the statistical power, this study suggests that those with greater magnitudes of hearing loss show greater cortical disruptions with tinnitus and that tinnitus treatment appears to reduce the tonotopic map disruptions but not the source strength (or central gain).

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<![CDATA[Lateralization in Alpha-Band Oscillations Predicts the Locus and Spatial Distribution of Attention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da23ab0ee8fa60b7f9fc

Attending to a task-relevant location changes how neural activity oscillates in the alpha band (8–13Hz) in posterior visual cortical areas. However, a clear understanding of the relationships between top-down attention, changes in alpha oscillations in visual cortex, and attention performance are still poorly understood. Here, we tested the degree to which the posterior alpha power tracked the locus of attention, the distribution of attention, and how well the topography of alpha could predict the locus of attention. We recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data while subjects performed an attention demanding visual discrimination task that dissociated the direction of attention from the direction of a saccade to indicate choice. On some trials, an endogenous cue predicted the target’s location, while on others it contained no spatial information. When the target’s location was cued, alpha power decreased in sensors over occipital cortex contralateral to the attended visual field. When the cue did not predict the target’s location, alpha power again decreased in sensors over occipital cortex, but bilaterally, and increased in sensors over frontal cortex. Thus, the distribution and the topography of alpha reliably indicated the locus of covert attention. Together, these results suggest that alpha synchronization reflects changes in the excitability of populations of neurons whose receptive fields match the locus of attention. This is consistent with the hypothesis that alpha oscillations reflect the neural mechanisms by which top-down control of attention biases information processing and modulate the activity of neurons in visual cortex.

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<![CDATA[Grasping Hand Verbs: Oscillatory Beta and Alpha Correlates of Action-Word Processing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da87ab0ee8fa60b9c9cc

The grounded cognition framework proposes that sensorimotor brain areas, which are typically involved in perception and action, also play a role in linguistic processing. We assessed oscillatory modulation during visual presentation of single verbs and localized cortical motor regions by means of isometric contraction of hand and foot muscles. Analogously to oscillatory activation patterns accompanying voluntary movements, we expected a somatotopically distributed suppression of beta and alpha frequencies in the motor cortex during processing of body-related action verbs. Magnetoencephalographic data were collected during presentation of verbs that express actions performed using the hands (H) or feet (F). Verbs denoting no bodily movement (N) were used as a control. Between 150 and 500 msec after visual word onset, beta rhythms were suppressed in H and F in comparison with N in the left hemisphere. Similarly, alpha oscillations showed left-lateralized power suppression in the H-N contrast, although at a later stage. The cortical oscillatory activity that typically occurs during voluntary movements is therefore found to somatotopically accompany the processing of body-related verbs. The combination of a localizer task with the oscillatory investigation applied to verb reading as in the present study provides further methodological possibilities of tracking language processing in the brain.

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<![CDATA[Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3aab0ee8fa60bd49d9

Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15–30 Hz) is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography) at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex.

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