ResearchPad - maize https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of purple sweet corn juice before and after boiling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7720 Sweet corn juice is becoming increasingly popular in China. In order to provide valuable health-related information to consumers, the nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of raw and boiled purple sweet corn juices were herein investigated. Sugars, antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed by conventional chemical methods. The viscosity and stability of juices were determined by Ubbelohde viscosity meter and centrifugation, respectively. Boiling process could elevate viscosity, stability and sugar content, and reduce antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity in corn juice. In addition, short time boiling efficiently reduced the degradation of anthocyanins during subsequent refrigeration. The content of amino acids, vitamin B1/B2 and E were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of fatty acids and aroma compounds. Several aroma compounds not previously reported in corn were identified, including 1-heptanol, 2-methyl-2-butenal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. Interestingly, the boiling process had no apparent effect on the amino acids profile, but it caused a 45.8% loss of fatty acids in the juice by promoting the retention of fatty acids in the corn residue. These results provide detailed information that could be used for increasing consumers’ knowledge of sweet corn juice, further development of sweet corn juice by food producers, and maize breeding programs.

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<![CDATA[Genome-wide haplotype-based association analysis of key traits of plant lodging and architecture of maize identifies major determinants for leaf angle: hapLA4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89773ed5eed0c4847d27e7

Traits related to plant lodging and architecture are important determinants of plant productivity in intensive maize cultivation systems. Motivated by the identification of genomic associations with the leaf angle, plant height (PH), ear height (EH) and the EH/PH ratio, we characterized approximately 7,800 haplotypes from a set of high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in an association panel consisting of tropical maize inbred lines. The proportion of the phenotypic variations explained by the individual SNPs varied between 7%, for the SNP S1_285330124 (located on chromosome 9 and associated with the EH/PH ratio), and 22%, for the SNP S1_317085830 (located on chromosome 6 and associated with the leaf angle). A total of 40 haplotype blocks were significantly associated with the traits of interest, explaining up to 29% of the phenotypic variation for the leaf angle, corresponding to the haplotype hapLA4.04, which was stable over two growing seasons. Overall, the associations for PH, EH and the EH/PH ratio were environment-specific, which was confirmed by performing a model comparison analysis using the information criteria of Akaike and Schwarz. In addition, five stable haplotypes (83%) and 15 SNPs (75%) were identified for the leaf angle. Finally, approximately 62% of the associated haplotypes (25/40) did not contain SNPs detected in the association study using individual SNP markers. This result confirms the advantage of haplotype-based genome-wide association studies for examining genomic regions that control the determining traits for architecture and lodging in maize plants.

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<![CDATA[Options for calibrating CERES-maize genotype specific parameters under data-scarce environments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac02d5eed0c484d07ff4

Most crop simulation models require the use of Genotype Specific Parameters (GSPs) which provide the Genotype component of G×E×M interactions. Estimation of GSPs is the most difficult aspect of most modelling exercises because it requires expensive and time-consuming field experiments. GSPs could also be estimated using multi-year and multi locational data from breeder evaluation experiments. This research was set up with the following objectives: i) to determine GSPs of 10 newly released maize varieties for the Nigerian Savannas using data from both calibration experiments and by using existing data from breeder varietal evaluation trials; ii) to compare the accuracy of the GSPs generated using experimental and breeder data; and iii) to evaluate CERES-Maize model to simulate grain and tissue nitrogen contents. For experimental evaluation, 8 different experiments were conducted during the rainy and dry seasons of 2016 across the Nigerian Savanna. Breeder evaluation data were also collected for 2 years and 7 locations. The calibrated GSPs were evaluated using data from a 4-year experiment conducted under varying nitrogen rates (0, 60 and 120kg N ha-1). For the model calibration using experimental data, calculated model efficiency (EF) values ranged between 0.88–0.94 and coefficient of determination (d-index) between 0.93–0.98. Calibration of time-series data produced nRMSE below 7% while all prediction deviations were below 10% of the mean. For breeder experiments, EF (0.58–0.88) and d-index (0.56–0.86) ranges were lower. Prediction deviations were below 17% of the means for all measured variables. Model evaluation using both experimental and breeder trials resulted in good agreement (low RMSE, high EF and d-index values) between observed and simulated grain yields, and tissue and grain nitrogen contents. It is concluded that higher calibration accuracy of CERES-Maize model is achieved from detailed experiments. If unavailable, data from breeder experimental trials collected from many locations and planting dates can be used with lower but acceptable accuracy.

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<![CDATA[Novel polyclonal antibody-based rapid gold sandwich immunochromatographic strip for detecting the major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) in honey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac8fd5eed0c484d08a41

Honey adulteration is becoming increasingly alarming incidents in food safety. Monitoring and detecting adulteration face greater challenges. Honey contains the major royal jelly proteins (MRJP) secreted by bee workers. To detect honey adulteration fast and accurately, a rapid gold sandwich immunochromatographic strip (GSIS) was developed based on two specific polyclonal antibodies (PoAbs) against the MRJP1, the most abundant protein of all MRJPs. We determined the best of pH value (pH 8.6) and PoAb SP-1 amount (5 μg/mL) in conjunction with colloidal. The cut-off value (sensitivity) of GSIS in detecting MRJP1 is 2.0 μg/mL in solution. Validation analysis with RJ, milk vetch honey, acacia honey and honey adulteration containing rice syrup and corn syrup with different ratios demonstrated that the GSIS could show consistent Test line (T line) when the test samples contain more than 30% pure honey or MRJP1 0.4 mg/g. The validation results by isotope ratio mass spectrometry on the same pure and all adulteration milk vetch honey samples showed the same information of GSIS test. The qualitative assay GSIS provided a valuable new way for honey authenticity and laid the foundation for the future application of GSIS with monoclonal antibodies in honey authentication.

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<![CDATA[Averting wheat blast by implementing a ‘wheat holiday’: In search of alternative crops in West Bengal, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe4ad5eed0c484e5b82c

The emergence of wheat-blast in Bangladesh in the 2015–16 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop threatens the food security of South Asia. A potential spread of the disease from Bangladesh to India could have devastating impacts on India’s overall food security as wheat is its second most important staple food crop. West Bengal state in eastern India shares a 2,217 km-long border with Bangladesh and has a similar agro-ecology, enhancing the prospects of the disease entering India via West Bengal. The present study explores the possibility of a ‘wheat holiday’ policy in the nine border districts of West Bengal. Under the policy, farmers in these districts would stop wheat cultivation for at least two years. The present scoping study assesses the potential economic feasibility of alternative crops to wheat. Of the ten crops considered, maize, gram (chickpea), urad (black gram), rapeseed and mustard, and potatoes are found to be potentially feasible alternative crops. Any crop substitution would need support to ease the transition including addressing the challenges related to the management of alternative crops, ensuring adequate crop combinations and value chain development. Still, as wheat is a major staple, there is some urgency to support further research on disease epidemiology and forecasting, as well as the development and dissemination of blast-resistant wheat varieties across South Asia.

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<![CDATA[A comparison of emulsion stability for different OSA-modified waxy maize emulsifiers: Granules, dissolved starch, and non-solvent precipitates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d0bd5eed0c484c81df8

This work investigates the stability of emulsions prepared by using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified waxy maize starch in the form of granules, dissolved starch, and non-solvent precipitated starch as Pickering emulsion stabilisers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different forms of starches on the stability of emulsion using light microscopy, light scattering, and static multiple light scattering. All starch samples were hydrophobically modified with 3% (w/w) n-octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA). Starch polymer solutions were prepared by dissolving OSA- modified starch in water in an autoclave at 140°C. Non-solvent precipitates were obtained through ethanol precipitation of dissolved waxy maize. The stability of the oil/water emulsions were different for the three forms of starches used. The granule-based emulsions were unstable, with only a small proportion of the granules adsorbed onto oil droplets, as viewed under a light microscope. The emulsions were observed to cream after 2 hours. The dissolved starch and non-solvent precipitate-based emulsions were stable towards creaming for months, and they had almost 100% emulsifying index (EI = 1) by visual observation and EI ~ 0.9 by multiple light scattering measurements. The results from light microscopy and multiple light scattering measurements indicated the occurrence of coalescence for all three types of emulsions. The coalescence was fastest within days for the granule stabilised system while it was slower both for the dissolved starch and non-solvent precipitate-based emulsions. The latter demonstrated the least degree of coalescence over time. Thus, it was concluded that differences in starch particle size and molecular structure influenced the emulsion droplet size and stability. A decreased particle size correlates to a decrease in droplet size, thus increasing stabilisation against creaming. However, stability towards coalescence was low for the large granules but was best for the non-solvent precipitate starch indicating that there is a window of optimal particle size for stability. Thus, best emulsifying properties were obtained with the non-solvent precipitates (~ 120 nm particle size) where the emulsions remained stable after one year of storage. In conclusion, this study illustrated the potentiality of non-solvent precipitated starch as emulsion stabilizers.

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<![CDATA[Cloning and functional analysis of the promoter of a stress-inducible gene (Zmap) in maize]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673070d5eed0c484f37b30

The anionic peroxidases play an important role in a variety of plant physiological processes. We characterized and isolated the Zmap promoter (PZmap) at the 5′ flanking region in order to better understand the regulatory mechanisms of Zmap gene expression. A series of PZmap deletion derivatives, termed a1 –a6, at positions −1694, −1394, −1138, −784, −527 and −221 from the translation start site were blended to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was used to study each deletion construct in tobaccos. Sequence analysis showed that several cis-acting elements (MYB binding site, Box-II, a TGACG-element, a CGTCA-element and a low temperature responsive element) were located within the promoter. Deletion analysis suggested the sequence between −1,694 and −1394bp may contain cis-elements associated with GUS up regulation. The MYB binding site (-757) might act as a negative drought-responsive element. There might be repressor elements located in the region (−1,694 to −1394bp) to repress Zmap expression under 4°C. The characterized promoter would be an ideal candidate for genetic engineering for improving the resistance of maize to different stressors.

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<![CDATA[Alternative splicing of ZmCCA1 mediates drought response in tropical maize]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5269d5eed0c4842bc7b1

The circadian clock regulates numerous biological processes in plants, especially development and stress responses. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) is one of the core components of the day–night rhythm response and is reportedly associated with ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown if alternative splicing of ZmCCA1 is modulated by external stress in maize, such as drought stress and photoperiod. Here, we identified three ZmCCA1 splice variants in the tropical maize line CML288, which are predicted to encode three different protein isoforms, i.e., ZmCCA1.1, ZmCCA1.2, and ZmCCA1.3, which all retain the MYB domain. In maize, the expression levels of ZmCCA1 splice variants were influenced by photoperiod, tissue type, and drought stress. In transgenic A. thaliana, ZmCCA1.1 may be more effective than ZmCCA1.3 in increasing drought tolerance while ZmCCA1.2 may have only a small effect on tolerance to drought stress. Additionally, although CCA1 genes have been found in many plant species, alternative CCA1 splicing events are known to occur in species-specific ways. Our study provides new sight to explore the function of ZmCCA1 splice variants’ response to abiotic stress, and clarify the linkage between circadian clock and environmental stress in maize.

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<![CDATA[Genetic and phenotypic diversity in 2000 years old maize (Zea mays L.) samples from the Tarapacá region, Atacama Desert, Chile]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52eed5eed0c4842bd2a7

The evolution of maize (Zea mays L.) is highly controversial given the discrepancies related to the phenotypic and genetic changes suffered by the species, the incidence of human groups and the times in which these changes occurred. Also, morphological and genetic traits of crops are difficult to evaluate in the absence of fossils macro-botanical remains. In contrast in the Tarapacá region (18–21° S), Atacama Desert of Chile, prehispanic settlements (ca. 2500–400 yr BP) displayed extensive maize agriculture. The presence of archaeological macro-botanical remains of maize provided a unique opportunity to study the evolution of this crop, covering a temporal sequence of at least 2000 years. Thus, in this study, we ask how the morphological and genetic diversity of maize has varied since its introduction during prehispanic times in the Tarapacá region. To answer this, we measured and compared morphological traits of size and shape between archaeological cobs and kernels and 95 ears from landraces. To established genetic diversity eight microsatellite markers (SSR) were analyzed in archaeological and modern kernels. Genetic diversity was estimated by allelic frequency rates, the average number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He). Differences between populations and genetic structure were estimated by fixation index FST and STRUCTURE analysis. Our results indicate significant phenotypic differences and genetic distance between archaeological maize and landraces. This result is suggestive of an introduction of new varieties or drastic selective changes in modern times in Tarapacá. Additionally, archaeological maize shows a low genetic diversity and a progressive increase in the size of ears and kernels. These results suggest a human selection during prehispanic times and establish that prehispanic farmers played an important role in maize development. They also provide new clues for understanding the evolutionary history of maize in hyperarid conditions.

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<![CDATA[Enrichment of Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria and Burkholderiales drives selection of bacterial community from soil by maize roots in a traditional milpa agroecosystem]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254508d5eed0c48442bd4d

Milpas are rain-fed agroecosystems involving domesticated, semi-domesticated and tolerated plant species that combine maize with a large variety of other crop, tree or shrub species. Milpas are low input and low-tillage, yet highly productive agroecosystems, which have been maintained over millennia in indigenous communities in Mexico and other countries in Central America. Thus, milpas may retain ancient plant-microorganisms interactions, which could have been lost in modern high-tillage monocultures with large agrochemical input. In this work, we performed high-throughput 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of soil adjacent to maize roots and bulk soil sampled at 30 cm from the base of the plants. We found that the bacterial communities of maize root soil had a lower alpha diversity, suggesting selection of microorganisms by maize-roots from the bulk-soil community. Beta diversity analysis confirmed that these environments harbor two distinct microbial communities; differences were driven by members of phyla Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria, as well as the order Burkholderiales (Betaproteobacteria), all of which had higher relative abundance in soil adjacent to the roots. Numerous studies have shown the influence of maize plants on bacterial communities found in soil attached tightly to the roots; here we further show that the influence of maize roots at milpas on bacterial communities is detectable even in plant-free soil collected nearby. We propose that members of Verrucomicrobia and other phyla found in the rhizosphere may establish beneficial plant-microbe interactions with maize roots in milpas, and propose to address their cultivation for future studies on ecology and potential use.

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<![CDATA[Modified TCA/acetone precipitation of plant proteins for proteomic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21513bd5eed0c4843f93fc

Protein extracts obtained from cells or tissues often require removal of interfering substances for the preparation of high-quality protein samples in proteomic analysis. A number of protein extraction methods have been applied to various biological samples. TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol extraction, a common method of protein extraction, is thought to minimize protein degradation and activity of proteases as well as reduce contaminants like salts and polyphenols. However, the TCA/acetone precipitation method relies on the complete pulverization and repeated rinsing of tissue powder to remove the interfering substances, which is laborious and time-consuming. In addition, by prolonged incubation in TCA/acetone, the precipitated proteins are more difficult to re-dissolve. We have described a modified method of TCA/acetone precipitation of plant proteins for proteomic analysis. Proteins of cells or tissues were extracted using SDS-containing buffer, precipitated with equal volume of 20% TCA/acetone, and washed with acetone. Compared to classical TCA/acetone precipitation and simple acetone precipitation, this protocol generates comparable yields, spot numbers, and proteome profiling, but takes less time (ca. 45 min), thus avoiding excess protein modification and degradation after extended-period incubation in TCA/acetone or acetone. The modified TCA/acetone precipitation method is simple, fast, and suitable for proteomic analysis of various plant tissues in proteomic analysis.

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<![CDATA[Effective chemical protection against the maize late wilt causal agent, Harpophora maydis, in the field]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22a0bed5eed0c4849ebffa

Late wilt, a disease severely affecting maize fields throughout Israel, is characterized by relatively rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The disease’s causal agent is the fungus Harpophora maydis, a soil-borne and seed-borne pathogen, which is currently controlled using reduced sensitivity maize cultivars. In a former study, we showed that Azoxystrobin (AS) injected into a drip irrigation line assigned for each row can suppress H. maydis in the field and that AS seed coating can provide an additional layer of protection. In the present study, we examine a more cost-effective protective treatment using this fungicide with Difenoconazole mixture (AS+DC), or Fluazinam, or Fluopyram and Trifloxystrobin mixture, or Prothioconazole and Tebuconazole mixture in combined treatment of seed coating and a drip irrigation line for two coupling rows. A recently developed Real-Time PCR method revealed that protecting the plants using AS+DC seed coating alone managed to delay pathogen DNA spread in the maize tissues, in the early stages of the growth season (up to the age of 50 days from sowing), but was less effective in protecting the crops later. AS+DC seed coating combined with drip irrigation using AS+DC was the most successful treatment, and in the double-row cultivation, it reduced fungal DNA in the host tissues to near zero levels. This treatment minimized the development of wilt symptoms by 41% and recovered cob yield by a factor of 1.6 (to the level common in healthy fields). Moreover, the yield classified as A class (cob weight of more than 250 g) increased from 58% to 75% in this treatment. This successful treatment against H. maydis in Israel can now be applied in vast areas to protect sensitive maize cultivars against maize late wilt disease.

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<![CDATA[De novo transcriptome assembly of the Chinese pearl barley, adlay, by full-length isoform and short-read RNA sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19669bd5eed0c484b525fb

Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi) is a tropical grass that has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and is known for its nutritional benefits. Recent studies have shown that vitamin E compounds in adlay protect against chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. However, the molecular basis of adlay's health benefits remains unknown. Here, we generated adlay gene sets by de novo transcriptome assembly using long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) and short-read RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The gene sets obtained from Iso-seq and RNA-seq contained 31,177 genes and 57,901 genes, respectively. We confirmed the validity of the assembled gene sets by experimentally analyzing the levels of prolamin and vitamin E biosynthesis-associated proteins in adlay plant tissues and seeds. We compared the screened adlay genes with known gene families from closely related plant species, such as rice, sorghum and maize. We also identified tissue-specific genes from the adlay leaf, root, and young and mature seed, and experimentally validated the differential expression of 12 randomly-selected genes. Our study of the adlay transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for genetic studies that can enhance adlay breeding programs in the future.

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<![CDATA[Screening and verification of genes associated with leaf angle and leaf orientation value in inbred maize lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eefd5eed0c484d28e63

Leaf angle and leaf orientation value are important traits affecting planting density and photosynthetic efficiency. To identify the genes involved in controlling leaf angle and leaf orientation value, we utilized 1.49×106 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers obtained after sequencing 80 backbone inbred maize lines in Jilin Province, based on phenotype data from two years, and analyzed these two traits in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). A total of 33 SNPs were significantly associated (P<0.000001) with the two target traits. Twenty-two SNPs were significantly associated with leaf angle and distributed on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, explaining 21.62% of the phenotypic variation. Eleven SNPs were significantly associated with leaf orientation value and distributed on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9, explaining 29.63% of the phenotypic variation. Within the mean linkage disequilibrium (LD) distance of 9.7 kb for the significant SNP locus, 22 leaf angle candidate genes were detected, and 3 of these candidate genes harbored significant SNPs, with phenotype contribution rates greater than 10%. Two candidate genes at distances less than 100 bp from significant SNPs showed phenotype contribution rates greater than 8%. Seven leaf orientation value candidate genes were detected: 3 of these candidate genes harbored significant SNPs, with phenotype contribution rates greater than 10%. Eight inbred maize lines with significant differences in leaf angle and leaf orientation value were selected to test candidate gene expression levels from 182 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The 5 leaf angle candidate genes and 3 leaf orientation value candidate genes were verified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed significant differences in the expression levels of the above eight genes between inbred maize lines with significant differences in leaf angle and leaf orientation value.

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<![CDATA[Genetic architecture and selective sweeps after polygenic adaptation to distant trait optima]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfc6225d5eed0c484ec6d60

Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation to changing environments is an essential goal of population and quantitative genetics. While technological advances now allow interrogation of genome-wide genotyping data in large panels, our understanding of the process of polygenic adaptation is still limited. To address this limitation, we use extensive forward-time simulation to explore the impacts of variation in demography, trait genetics, and selection on the rate and mode of adaptation and the resulting genetic architecture. We simulate a population adapting to an optimum shift, modeling sequence variation for 20 QTL for each of 12 different demographies for 100 different traits varying in the effect size distribution of new mutations, the strength of stabilizing selection, and the contribution of the genomic background. We then use random forest regression approaches to learn the relative importance of input parameters in determining a number of aspects of the process of adaptation, including the speed of adaptation, the relative frequency of hard sweeps and sweeps from standing variation, or the final genetic architecture of the trait. We find that selective sweeps occur even for traits under relatively weak selection and where the genetic background explains most of the variation. Though most sweeps occur from variation segregating in the ancestral population, new mutations can be important for traits under strong stabilizing selection that undergo a large optimum shift. We also show that population bottlenecks and expansion impact overall genetic variation as well as the relative importance of sweeps from standing variation and the speed with which adaptation can occur. We then compare our results to two traits under selection during maize domestication, showing that our simulations qualitatively recapitulate differences between them. Overall, our results underscore the complex population genetics of individual loci in even relatively simple quantitative trait models, but provide a glimpse into the factors that drive this complexity and the potential of these approaches for understanding polygenic adaptation.

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<![CDATA[SNPSelect: A scalable and flexible targeted sequence-based genotyping solution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bca48fb40307c051665641c

In plant breeding the use of molecular markers has resulted in tremendous improvement of the speed with which new crop varieties are introduced into the market. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is routinely used for association studies, Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping studies, marker-assisted backcrosses and validation of large numbers of novel SNPs. Here we present the KeyGene SNPSelect technology, a scalable and flexible multiplexed, targeted sequence-based, genotyping solution. The multiplex composition of SNPSelect assays can be easily changed between experiments by adding or removing loci, demonstrating their content flexibility. To demonstrate this versatility, we first designed a 1,056-plex maize assay and genotyped a total of 374 samples originating from an F2 and a Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population and a maize germplasm collection. Next, subsets of the most informative SNP loci were assembled in 384-plex and 768-plex assays for further genotyping. Indeed, selection of the most informative SNPs allows cost-efficient yet highly informative genotyping in a custom-made fashion, with average call rates between 88.1% (1,056-plex assay) and 99.4% (384-plex assay), and average reproducibility rates between duplicate samples ranging from 98.2% (1056-plex assay) to 99.9% (384-plex assay). The SNPSelect workflow can be completed from a DNA sample to a genotype dataset in less than three days. We propose SNPSelect as an attractive and competitive genotyping solution to meet the targeted genotyping needs in fields such as plant breeding.

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<![CDATA[Comparative analysis of the male inflorescence transcriptome profiles of an ms22 mutant of maize]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6003a7463d7e38dd0d05b9

In modern agricultural production, maize is the most successful crop utilizing heterosis. 712C-ms22 is an important male sterile material in maize. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing analysis of the V10 stage of male inflorescence. Through this analysis, 27.63 million raw reads were obtained, and trimming of the raw data revealed 26.63 million clean reads, with an average match rate of 94.64%. Using Tophat software, we matched these clean reads to the maize reference genome. The abundance of 39,622 genes was measured, and 35,399 genes remained after filtering out the non-expressed genes across all the samples. These genes were classified into 19 categories by clusters of orthologous groups of protein annotation. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of the male sterile and fertile 712C-ms22 maize revealed some key DEGs that may be related to metabolic pathways. qRT-PCR analysis validated the gene expression patterns identified by RNA-seq. This analysis revealed some of the essential genes responsible for pollen development and for pollen tube elongation. Our findings provide useful markers of male sterility and new insights into the global mechanisms mediating male sterility in maize.

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<![CDATA[Development and characterization of the first dsRNA-resistant insect population from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b0436ae463d7e0f0e6b97b5

The use of dsRNA to control insect pests via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is being explored by researchers globally. However, with every new class of insect control compounds, the evolution of insect resistance needs to be considered, and understanding resistance mechanisms is essential in designing durable technologies and effective resistance management strategies. To gain insight into insect resistance to dsRNA, a field screen with subsequent laboratory selection was used to establish a population of DvSnf7 dsRNA-resistant western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major maize insect pest. WCR resistant to ingested DvSnf7 dsRNA had impaired luminal uptake and resistance was not DvSnf7 dsRNA-specific, as indicated by cross resistance to all other dsRNAs tested. No resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein was observed. DvSnf7 dsRNA resistance was inherited recessively, located on a single locus, and autosomal. Together these findings will provide insights for dsRNA deployment for insect pest control.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of miRNAs in Response to Short-Term Waterlogging in Three Inbred Lines of Zea mays]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da57ab0ee8fa60b8f2b0

Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.

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<![CDATA[QTL Analysis of Shading Sensitive Related Traits in Maize under Two Shading Treatments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da70ab0ee8fa60b94953

During maize development and reproduction, shading stress is an important abiotic factor influencing grain yield. To elucidate the genetic basis of shading stress in maize, an F2:3 population derived from two inbred lines, Zhong72 and 502, was used to evaluate the performance of six traits under shading treatment and full-light treatment at two locations. The results showed that shading treatment significantly decreased plant height and ear height, reduced stem diameter, delayed day-to-tassel (DTT) and day-to-silk (DTS), and increased anthesis-silking interval (ASI). Forty-three different QTLs were identified for the six measured traits under shading and full light treatment at two locations, including seven QTL for plant height, nine QTL for ear height, six QTL for stem diameter, seven QTL for day-to-tassel, six QTL for day-to-silk, and eight QTL for ASI. Interestingly, three QTLs, qPH4, qEH4a, and qDTT1b were detected under full sunlight and shading treatment at two locations simultaneously, these QTL could be used for selecting elite hybrids with high tolerance to shading and high plant density. And the two QTL, qPH10 and qDTS1a, were only detected under shading treatment at two locations, should be quit for selecting insensitive inbred line in maize breeding procedure by using MAS method.

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