ResearchPad - major-articles-and-brief-reports https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Human Bocavirus Infection in Young Children in the United States: Molecular Epidemiological Profile and Clinical Characteristics of a Newly Emerging Respiratory Virus<a href="#fn1"/>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11679 BackgroundHuman bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified human parvovirus that was originally identified in the respiratory secretions of children with respiratory tract disease. To further investigate the epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of HBoV infection, we screened infants and children <2 years of age (hereafter referred to as “children”) for HBoV

MethodsChildren for whom respiratory specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory tested negative for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses (types 1–3), influenza A and B viruses, and adenovirus, as well as asymptomatic children, underwent screening for HBoV by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Respiratory specimens were obtained from the children from 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2004

ResultsTwenty-two (5.2%) of the 425 children who had a respiratory specimen submitted to the diagnostic laboratory and 0 of the 96 asymptomatic children were found to be positive for HBoV by PCR (P=.02). Fever, rhinorrhea, cough, and wheezing were observed in ⩾50% of the HBoV-positive children. Of the 17 children who had chest radiography performed, 12 (70.6%) had abnormal findings. HBoV appeared to have a seasonal distribution. Nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the viral capsid protein (VP) 1/VP2 genes. Two distinct HBoV genotypes circulated during the study period

ConclusionsHBoV is circulating in the United States and is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children

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<![CDATA[Open Reading Frame 8a of the Human Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Not Only Promotes Viral Replication but Also Induces Apoptosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11676 Background. A unique genomic difference between human and civet severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) is that the former has a deletion of 29 nucleotides from open reading frame (orf) 8d that results in the generation of orf8a and orf8b. The objectives of the present study were to analyze antibody reactivity to ORF8a in patients with SARS and to elucidate the function of ORF8a.

Methods. Western-blot and immunofluorescent antibody assays were used to detect anti-ORF8a antibody. SARS-CoV HKU39849 was used to infect stable clones expressing ORF8a and cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA). The virus loads (VLs) and cytopathic effects (CPEs) were recorded. Confocal microscopy and several mitochondria-related tests were used to study the function of ORF8a.

Results. Two (5.4%) of 37 patients with SARS had anti-ORF8a antibodies. The VLs in the stable clones expressing ORF8a were significantly higher than those in control subjects 5 days after infection. siRNA against orf8a significantly reduced VLs and interrupted the CPE. ORF8a was found to be localized in mitochondria, and overexpression resulted in increases in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, caspase 3 activity, and cellular apoptosis.

Conclusions. ORF8a not only enhances viral replication but also induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Epidemiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome–Associated Coronavirus Infections in Taiwan<a href="#fn1"/>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8d1f2f8f-e475-40c8-9099-113397b69b45 Background In 2003, Taiwan experienced a series of outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and 1 laboratory-contamination accident. Here we describe a new phylogenetic analytical method to study the sources and dissemination paths of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections in Taiwan

Methods A phylogenetic analytical tool for combining nucleotide sequences from 6 variable regions of a SARS-CoV genome was developed by use of 20 published SARS-CoV sequences; and this method was validated by use of 80 published SARS-CoV sequences. Subsequently, this new tool was applied to provide a better understanding of the entire complement of Taiwanese SARS-CoV isolates, including 20 previously published and 19 identified in this study. The epidemiological data were integrated with the results from the phylogenetic tree and from the nucleotide-signature pattern

Results The topologies of phylogenetic trees generated by the new and the conventional strategies were similar, with the former having better robustness than the latter, especially in comparison with the maximum-likelihood trees: the new strategy revealed that during 2003 there were 5 waves of epidemic SARS-CoV infection, which belonged to 3 phylogenetic clusters in Taiwan

Conclusions The new strategy is more efficient than its conventional counterparts. The outbreaks of SARS in Taiwan originated from multiple sources

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<![CDATA[Safety and Immunogenicity of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine RSV/ΔNS2/Δ1313/I1314L in RSV-Seronegative Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N995bb3e9-b66b-4e90-a450-bd56d19e3756 A live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine containing a deletion of the interferon antagonist NS2 gene and mutations in the polymerase gene was well tolerated and infectious, inducing primary neutralizing antibody responses and potent memory antibody responses in RSV-seronegative children.

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<![CDATA[Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated Coronavirus Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3dcab851-017a-48da-b441-5cd966e28aee Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the principal etiologic agent of SARS. We analyzed serum samples obtained from 623 patients with SARS in Beijing, to determine whether infection with SARS-CoV can elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAbs).

Methods. We developed a highly sensitive and safe neutralization assay using the SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus and used this assay to determine the titers of the NAbs in serum samples from patients with SARS.

Results. We found that 85.9% of serum samples contained NAbs against SARS-CoV and that most of the NAb activities could be attributed to immunoglobulin G. The NAbs became detectable first at 5–10 days after the onset of symptoms, and their levels peaked at 20–30 days and then were sustained for >150 days. The serum samples could neutralize the pseudotype particles bearing the spike glycoproteins from different SARS-CoV strains, suggesting that the NAbs to SARS-CoV were broadly reactive.

Conclusions. NAbs to SARS-CoV are broadly elicited in patients with SARS and, according to their kinetics, may correlate with viral load during the early stages of the disease. These results suggest that it is possible to develop effective vaccines against SARS and that NAbs provide a potential strategy for treating patients with SARS.

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<![CDATA[Association between a Novel Human Coronavirus and Kawasaki Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6a74fa8-0d4e-4bfa-95e3-759c75b05115 Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis of childhood; its etiology is unknown. We identified evidence of a novel human coronavirus, designated “New Haven coronavirus” (HCoVNH), in respiratory secretions from a 6-month-old infant with classic Kawasaki disease. To further investigate the possible association between HCoV-NH infection and Kawasaki disease, we conducted a case-control study. Specimens of respiratory secretions from 8 (72.7%) of 11 children with Kawasaki disease and from 1 (4.5%) of 22 control subjects (children without Kawasaki disease matched by age and the time the specimens were obtained) tested positive for HCoVNH by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Mantel-Haenszel matched odds ratio, 16.0 [95% confidence interval, 3.4–74.4]; P = .0015). These data suggest that HCoV-NH infection is associated with Kawasaki disease.

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<![CDATA[Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Genetic Variant rs12252-C Associated With Disease Severity in Coronavirus Disease 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbca07851-1b8c-4468-915b-517516aaf38c We report evidence of an age-dependent allelic association between interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (rs12252 allele) and severity of coronavirus disease 2019, highlighting the need for further studies and the potential for a personalized, genotype-based approach to identifying high-risk individuals.

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<![CDATA[Blinded Case‐Control Study of the Relationship between Human Coronavirus NL63 and Kawasaki Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N84c0cc85-b665-4ff7-848e-7448fb421428

Abstract

We conducted a blinded, case‐control, retrospective study in pediatric patients hospitalized at The Children’s Hospital, Denver, Colorado, to determine whether human coronavirus (HCoV)–NL63 infection is associated with Kawasaki syndrome (KS). Over the course of a 7‐month period, nasopharyngeal‐wash samples from 2 (7.7%) of 26 consecutive children with KS and 4 (7.7%) of 52 matched control subjects tested positive for HCoV‐NL63 by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. These data suggest that, although HCoV‐NL63 was circulating in children in our community during the time of the study, the prevalence of infection with HCoV‐NL63 was not greater in patients with KS than in control subjects.

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<![CDATA[Exceptionally Potent Cross-Reactive Neutralization of Nipah and Hendra Viruses by a Human Monoclonal Antibody]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N523c03a1-e788-40fd-8304-2d7f68dca285

Abstract

We have previously identified neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) by panning a large nonimmune antibody library against a soluble form of the HeV attachment-envelope glycoprotein G (sGHeV). One of these antibodies, m102, which exhibited the highest level of cross-reactive neutralization of both NiV and HeV G, was affinity maturated by light-chain shuffling combined with random mutagenesis of its heavy-chain variable domain and panning against sGHeV. One of the selected antibody Fab clones, m102.4, had affinity of binding to sGHeV that was equal to or higher than that of the other Fabs; it was converted to IgG1 and tested against infectious NiV and HeV. It exhibited exceptionally potent and cross-reactive inhibitory activity with 50% inhibitory concentrations below 0.04 and 0.6 μg/mL, respectively. The virus-neutralizing activity correlated with the binding affinity of the antibody to sGHeV and sGNiV. m102.4 bound a soluble form of NiV G (sGNiV) better than it bound sGHeV, and it neutralized NiV better than HeV, despite being originally selected against sGHeV. These results suggest that m102.4 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diseases caused by henipaviruses. It could be also used for prophylaxis and diagnosis, and as a research reagent

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<![CDATA[Spectrum of Viruses and Atypical Bacteria in Intercontinental Air Travelers with Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N27630fbe-f31d-4772-b939-73dd4c583479

Abstract

Respiratory infections after air travel are frequent, but epidemiological data are incomplete. Using sensitive polymerase chain reactions, we studied the spectrum of atypical bacteria and respiratory viruses in travelers fulfilling the case definition of severe acute respiratory syndrome. A pathogen was identified in 67 travelers (43.2%). Influenza and parainfluenza viruses were most prevalent, at 14.2% and 15.5%, respectively. Prevalences of adenoviruses, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses, and rhinoviruses ranged between 2.6% and 4.8%. Human bocavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Legionella, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydophila species were absent or appeared at frequencies of <1%. To our knowledge, these are the first specific baseline data for the mentioned agents in the context of air travel.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiological Profile and Clinical Associations of Human Bocavirus and Other Human Parvoviruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9768861c-63c2-43ad-add6-6bd4efc9372d

Abstract

BackgroundHuman bocavirus (HBoV) and PARV4 are newly discovered human parvoviruses. HBoV, which was first detected in respiratory samples, has a potential role in the development of human respiratory disease. The present study compared the frequencies, epidemiological profiles, and clinical backgrounds of HBoV and PARV4 infections with those of other respiratory virus infections, by evaluating diagnostic samples referred to the Specialist Virology Laboratory (SVL) at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

MethodsAnonymized samples and study subject information were obtained from the respiratory sample archive of the SVL. Samples were screened for HBoV, PARV4, B19, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses, influenza viruses, and parainfluenza viruses by use of nested polymerase chain reaction

ResultsHBoV infection was detected in 47 (8.2%) of 574 study subjects,&amp;ranking third in prevalence behind RSV infection (15.7%) and adenovirus infection (10.3%). Peak incidences of HBoV were noted among infants and young children (age, 6–24 months) during the midwinter months (December and January) and were specifically associated with lower respiratory tract infections. HBoV infections were frequently accompanied by other respiratory viruses (frequency, 43%), and they were more prevalent among individuals infected with other respiratory viruses (17%), frequently adenovirus or RSV. All respiratory samples were negative for PARV4

ConclusionsIn the present study, HBoV was a frequently detected, potential respiratory pathogen, with a prevalence and an epidemiological profile comparable to those of RSV. Identification of HBoV infections may be clinically important in the future

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<![CDATA[Development and Characterization of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome–Associated Coronavirus–Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody That Provides Effective Immunoprophylaxis in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N919ec885-06d1-48fa-9071-3090ecfe19e3

Abstract

Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) remains a significant public health concern after the epidemic in 2003. Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that neutralize SARS-associated coronavirus (SARSCoV) could provide protection for exposed individuals.

Methods. Transgenic mice with human immunoglobulin genes were immunized with the recombinant major surface (S) glycoprotein ectodomain of SARS-CoV. Epitopes of 2 neutralizing MAbs derived from these mice were mapped and evaluated in a murine model of SARS-CoV infection.

Results. Both MAbs bound to S glycoprotein expressed on transfected cells but differed in their ability to block binding of S glycoprotein to Vero E6 cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed 2 antibody-binding epitopes: one MAb (201) bound within the receptor-binding domain at aa 490–510, and the other MAb (68) bound externally to the domain at aa 130–150. Mice that received 40 mg/kg of either MAb prior to challenge with SARS-CoV were completely protected from virus replication in the lungs, and doses as low as 1.6 mg/kg offered significant protection.

Conclusions. Two neutralizing epitopes were defined for MAbs to SARS-CoV S glycoprotein. Antibodies to both epitopes protected mice against SARS-CoV challenge. Clinical trials are planned to test MAb 201, a fully human MAb specific for the epitope within the receptor-binding region.

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<![CDATA[Airflow Decline after Myeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The Role of Community Respiratory Viruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N86ee7818-5074-4439-829f-f88ad5396107

Abstract

We conducted a 12-year retrospective study to determine the effects that the community respiratory-virus species and the localization of respiratory-tract virus infection have on severe airflow decline, a serious and fatal complication occurring after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Of 132 HCT recipients with respiratory-tract virus infection during the initial 100 days after HCT, 50 (38%) developed airflow decline ⩽1 year after HCT. Lower-respiratory-tract infection with parainfluenza (odds ratio [OR], 17.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0–160]; P=.01) and respiratory syncytial virus (OR, 3.6 [95% CI, 1.0–13]; P=.05) independently increased the risk of development of airflow decline ⩽1 year after HCT. The airflow decline was immediately detectable after infection and was strongest for lower-respiratory-tract infection with parainfluenza virus; it stabilized during the months after the respiratory-tract virus infection, but, at ⩽1 year after HCT, the initial lung function was not restored. Thus, community respiratory virus–associated airflow decline seems to be specific to viral species and infection localization

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<![CDATA[Prophylaxis and Therapy for Chikungunya Virus Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9612edb8-faf3-4ce1-b402-259ea295ffa4

Abstract

BackgroundChikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a recently reemerged arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak of infection in the Indian Ocean region and India that has a very significant potential to spread globally because of the worldwide distribution of its mosquito vectors. CHIKV induces a usually self-limited disease in humans that is characterized by fever, arthralgia, myalgia, and rash; however, cases of severe CHIKV infection have recently been described, particularly in adults with underlying condition and neonates born to viremic mothers

MethodsHuman polyvalent immunoglobulins were purified from plasma samples obtained from donors in the convalescent phase of CHIKV infection, and the preventive and curative effects of these immunoglobulins were investigated in 2 mouse models of CHIKV infection that we developed

ResultsCHIKV immunoglobulins contain anti-CHIKV antibodies and exhibit a high in vitro neutralizing activity and a powerful prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against CHIKV infection in vivo, including in the neonate

ConclusionsAdministration of CHIKV immunoglobulins may constitute a safe and efficacious prevention strategy and treatment for individuals exposed to CHIKV who are at risk of severe infection, such as neonates born to viremic mothers and adults with underlying conditions. These results provide a proof-of-concept for purifying human immunoglobulins from plasma samples from patients in the convalescent phase of an emerging infectious disease for which neither prevention nor treatment is available

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<![CDATA[CCR5 Plays a Critical Role in the Development of Myocarditis and Host Protection in Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc1b0b3e3-ddf0-4000-8336-4ee67c03ff36

Abstract

The pathogenesis of myocarditis during Trypanosoma cruzi infection is poorly understood. We investigated the role played by chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) in the influx of T cells to the cardiac tissue of T. cruzi—infected mice. mRNA and protein for the CCR5 ligands CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 were detected in the hearts of infected mice in association with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. There was a high level of CCR5 expression on CD8+ T cells in the hearts of infected mice. Moreover, CCR5 expression on CD8+ T cells was positively modulated by T. cruzi infection. CCR5-deficient mice infected with T. cruzi experienced a dramatically inhibited migration of T cells to the heart and were also more susceptible to infection. These results suggest that CCR5 and its ligands play a central role in the control of T cell influx in T. cruzi-infected mice. Knowledge of the mechanisms that trigger and control the migration of cells to the heart in patients with Chagas disease may help in the design of drugs that prevent myocarditis and protect against the development of severe disease.

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<![CDATA[Inhibition of Proprotein Convertases Abrogates Processing of the Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein in Infected Cells but Does Not Reduce Viral Infectivity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndd77e250-73ed-4277-8a2f-055a84d7e8c4

Abstract

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is associated with a high case-fatality rate, and the potential pandemic spread of the virus is a public health concern. The spike protein of MERS-CoV (MERS-S) facilitates viral entry into host cells, which depends on activation of MERS-S by cellular proteases. Proteolytic activation of MERS-S during viral uptake into target cells has been demonstrated. However, it is unclear whether MERS-S is also cleaved during S protein synthesis in infected cells and whether cleavage is required for MERS-CoV infectivity. Here, we show that MERS-S is processed by proprotein convertases in MERS-S–transfected and MERS-CoV–infected cells and that several RXXR motifs located at the border between the surface and transmembrane subunit of MERS-S are required for efficient proteolysis. However, blockade of proprotein convertases did not impact MERS-S–dependent transduction of target cells expressing high amounts of the viral receptor, DPP4, and did not modulate MERS-CoV infectivity. These results show that MERS-S is a substrate for proprotein convertases and demonstrate that processing by these enzymes is dispensable for S protein activation. Efforts to inhibit MERS-CoV infection by targeting host cell proteases should therefore focus on enzymes that process MERS-S during viral uptake into target cells.

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<![CDATA[Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Infants With Acute Otitis Media]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N36250938-7c22-4655-a6f7-914363a3b98d

Abstract

Background. Interspecies interactions of the nasopharyngeal microbiota are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media (AOM). Capturing the breadth of microbial interactions requires a detailed description of the microbiota during health and AOM.

Methods. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of 163 infants with (n = 153) or without (n = 10) AOM was characterized using nasopharyngeal swabs and multiplexed pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected during 4 winter seasons from 2004 through 2010 for infants with AOM and during 2010 for controls.

Results. Fifty-eight bacterial families were identified, of which Moraxellaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Pasteurellaceae were the most frequent. Commensal families were less prevalent in infants with AOM than in controls. In infants with AOM, prior exposure to antimicrobials and administration of the heptavalent conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7) were also associated with reduced prevalence of distinct commensal families (Streptococcaceae and Corynebacteriaceae). In addition, antimicrobial exposure increased the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and the abundance of Pasteurellaceae. Other factors, such as age, sex, day care, and a history of recurrent AOM, did not influence the microbiota.

Conclusions. Infants’ nasopharyngeal microbiota undergoes significant changes during AOM and after exposure to antimicrobials and PCV7, which is mainly attributable to reduced prevalence of commensal bacterial families.

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<![CDATA[Fully Human Monoclonal Antibody Directed to Proteolytic Cleavage Site in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus S Protein Neutralizes the Virus in a Rhesus Macaque SARS Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndc2ed0cb-220a-45fe-ac8a-97c497c6ee88

Abstract

Background. There is still no effective method to prevent or treat severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which is caused by SARS coronavirus (CoV). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a fully human monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV in vitro in a Rhesus macaque model of SARS.

Methods. The antibody 5H10 was obtained by vaccination of KM mice bearing human immunoglobulin genes with Escherichiacoli–producing recombinant peptide containing the dominant epitope of the viral spike protein found in convalescent serum samples from patients with SARS.

Results. 5H10, which recognized the same epitope that is also a cleavage site critical for the entry of SARS-CoV into host cells, inhibited propagation of the virus and pathological changes found in Rhesus macaques infected with the virus through the nasal route. In addition, we analyzed the mode of action of 5H10, and the results suggested that 5H10 inhibited fusion between the virus envelope and host cell membrane. 5H10 has potential for use in prevention and treatment of SARS if it reemerges.

Conclusions. This study represents a platform to produce fully human antibodies against emerging infectious diseases in a timely and safe manner.

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<![CDATA[The First Identification and Retrospective Study of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6d253428-b185-439f-a906-5a8ee2ca2a2c

Abstract

Background. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic in central and northeastern China. This article describes the first identified patient with SFTS and a retrospective study on SFTS in Japan.

Methods. Virologic and pathologic examinations were performed on the patient's samples. Laboratory diagnosis of SFTS was made by isolation/genome amplification and/or the detection of anti-SFTSV immunoglobulin G antibody in sera. Physicians were alerted to the initial diagnosis and asked whether they had previously treated patients with symptoms similar to those of SFTS.

Results. A female patient who died in 2012 received a diagnosis of SFTS. Ten additional patients with SFTS were then retrospectively identified. All patients were aged ≥50 years and lived in western Japan. Six cases were fatal. The ratio of males to females was 8:3. SFTSV was isolated from 8 patients. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all of the Japanese SFTSV isolates formed a genotype independent to those from China. Most patients showed symptoms due to hemorrhage, possibly because of disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or hemophagocytosis.

Conclusions. SFTS has been endemic to Japan, and SFTSV has been circulating naturally within the country.

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<![CDATA[Community-Wide, Contemporaneous Circulation of a Broad Spectrum of Human Rhinoviruses in Healthy Australian Preschool-Aged Children During a 12-Month Period]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3afc3158-04fc-4477-8889-f13561d94737

Abstract

Human rhinovirus (HRV) replication triggers exacerbation of asthma and causes most acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs), which may manifest as influenza-like illness. The recent assignment of 60 previously unknown HRV types to a third HRV species, Human rhinovirus C, raised questions about the prevalence of these picornavirus types in the community, the extent of HRV diversity at a single site, and whether the HRVs have an equally diverse clinical impact on their hosts. We quantified HRV diversity, and there was no clinical impact attributable to HRV species and genotypes among a community population of preschool-aged children with ARI who provided respiratory samples during 2003. All HRV species were represented among 138 children with ARI, and 74 distinct HRV types were cocirculating. Fever accompanied 32.8% of HRV-positive ARI cases. HRVs were less likely than DNA viruses to be codetected with another virus, suggesting virus interference at the community level, demonstrated by the inverse correlation between influenza virus detection and HRV detection.

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