ResearchPad - mammary-glands https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pathological and genetic aspects of spontaneous mammary gland tumor in <i>Tupaia belangeri</i> (tree shrew)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15738 Mammary gland cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women globally. Incidences of this cancer in Japan are on the increase. Annually, more than 70,000 new cases are recorded in Japan and about 1.7 million in the world. Many cases are still difficult to cure completely, and animal models are required for the characterization of the biology, therapeutic strategy, and preventive measures for spontaneous mammary tumor. The mouse model used currently has some limitations owing to structural differences between mouse and human mammary glands. Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), which belongs to the Tupaiidae family, shows relatively high genetic homology and structural similarity to human mammary glands. Here, we characterized the spontaneous mammary tumors in 61 female tree shrews of different ages. The incidence rate was 24.6% (15/61), and the rate of simultaneous or metachronous multiplex tumors was 60% (9/15). From the incidence pattern, some cases seemed to be of familial mammary gland tumor, as the offspring of female tree shrews No. 3 and 9 and male tree shrew No. 11 showed a high incidence rate, of 73.3% (11/15). Average incidence age for tumor development was 2 years and 3 months, and the earliest was 10 months. Histochemical analysis indicated that spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the tree shrew show the features of intraductal papillary adenomas (22 cases), except 2 tubulopapillary carcinoma cases (No. 75 and 131). All the cases were positive for the progesterone receptor, whereas 91.3% were positive for the estrogen receptor, and 4.3% were HER-2 positive. We have also confirmed the expression of nectin-4 in some mammary tumor cells. Additionally, we subjected tree shrews to cytodiagnosis or X-ray CT. Thus, the findings of this study highlight the potential of the tree shrew as a valuable new animal model for mammary gland tumor study.

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<![CDATA[The investigation of transcriptional repression mediated by ZEB2 in canine invasive micropapillary carcinoma in mammary gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478cacd5eed0c484bd3d4d

The E-cadherin loss has frequently been associated with transcriptional repression mediated by transcription factors, such as the Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox-2 (ZEB2). Invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPCs) of the breast are aggressive neoplasms frequently related to lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival. In the canine mammary gland, IMPCs has just been reported and, based on its behavioral similarity with the human IMPCs, appears to be a good spontaneous model to this human entity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2 in a spontaneous canine model of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland. The correlation among gene expression (ZEB2 and CDH1) and clinicopathological findings was also explored. Nineteen cases of IMPC of the canine mammary gland were obtained, protein and mRNA expression were investigated through immunohistochemistry and RNA In Situ Hybridization, respectively. To better understand the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2, immunofluorescence was performed in canine IMPCs. Immunohistochemically, most of IMPCs showed 1+ (14/19, 73.7%) for E-cadherin; and positivity for ZEB2 was diagnosed in 47.4% of the IMPCs. Regarding the RNA In Situ Hybridization (ISH), most of IMPCs showed 4+ and 0+ for E-cadherin (CDH1) and ZEB2 respectively. Through immunofluorescence, the first and second more frequent combinatorial group were E-cadherin+ZEB2- and E-cadherin+ZEB2+; neoplastic cells showing concomitantly weak expression for E-cadherin and positivity for ZEB2 were frequently observed. A negative correlation was observed between E-cadherin and progesterone receptor expression in IMPCs. Based on these results, canine mammary IMPCs show E-cadherin lost and, at times reveals nuclear positivity for the transcription factor ZEB2 that seems to exert transcriptional repression of the CDH1.

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<![CDATA[Impact of intramammary inoculation of inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus and antibiotics on the milk microbiota of water buffalo with subclinical mastitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d014ad5eed0c484039f42

Water buffalo mastitis represents a major issue in terms of animal health, cost of therapy, premature culling and decreased milk yeld. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to investigate strategies to avoid or reduce antibiotics’ based therapies, in particular during subclinical mastitis. The use of Generally Regarded As Safe bacteria (GRAS) such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus to restore the unbalance in mammary gland microbiota could provide potential corrective measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in milk microbiota after the intramammary treatment with inactivated cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus of mammary gland quarters naturally affected by subclinical mastitis as compared to antibiotic therapy.A number of 43 quarters affected by subclinical mastitis with no signs of clinical inflammation and aerobic culture positive for pathogens were included in the study. The experimental design was as follows: 11 quarters were treated with antibiotics, 15 with inactivated cultures of Lactobacillus rhmnosus and 17 with PBS as negative control, by means of intrammary injection. Samples were collected at eight time points, pre- (T-29, T-21, T-15, T-7, T0 days) and post- treatment (T1, T2, and T6 days). Microbiological culture and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) were perfomed on all the samples, and microbiota was determined on milk samples collected at T0 and T6 by amplifying the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene by PCR and sequencing using next generation sequencing technique. Treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus elicited a strong chemotactic response, as determined by a significant increase of leukocytes in milk, but did not change the microbiological culture results of the treated quarters. For what concerns the analysis of the microbiota, the treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced the modification in relative abundance of some genera such as Pseudomonas and 5-7N15. As expected, antibiotic treatment caused major changes in microbiota structure with an increase of Methylobacterium relative abundance. No changes were detected after PBS treatment. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that the in vivo intrammmary treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus has a transient pro-inflammatory activity by increasing SCC and is capable to modify the microbiota of milk after six days from inoculation, albeit slightly, even when the bacterial cultures were heat inactivated. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential use of this GRAS as supportive therapy against mastitis.

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<![CDATA[Heat stress induces proteomic changes in the liver and mammary tissue of dairy cows independent of feed intake: An iTRAQ study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa54ed5eed0c484ca2dbc

Heat stress decreases milk yield and deleteriously alters milk composition. Reduced feed intake partially explains some of the consequences of heat stress, but metabolic changes in the mammary tissue and liver associated with milk synthesis have not been thoroughly evaluated. In the current study, changes of protein abundance in the mammary tissue and liver between heat-stressed cows with ad libitum intake and pair-fed thermal neutral cows were investigated using the iTRAQ proteomic approach. Most of the differentially expressed proteins from mammary tissue and liver between heat-stressed and pair-fed cows were involved in Gene Ontology category of protein metabolic process. Pathway analysis indicated that differentially expressed proteins in the mammary tissue were related to pyruvate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pathways, while those in the liver participated in oxidative phosphorylation and antigen processing and presentation pathways. Several heat shock proteins directly interact with each other and were considered as central “hubs” in the protein interaction network. These findings provide new insights to understand the turnover of protein biosynthesis pathways within hepatic and mammary tissue that likely contribute to changes in milk composition from heat-stressed cows.

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<![CDATA[MIND model for triple-negative breast cancer in syngeneic mice for quick and sequential progression analysis of lung metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b143463d7e116be9c9aa

Mouse models of breast cancer with specific molecular subtypes (e.g., ER or HER2 positive) in an immunocompetent or an immunocompromised environment significantly contribute to our understanding of cancer biology, despite some limitations, and they give insight into targeted therapies. However, an ideal triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) mouse model is lacking. What has been missing in the TNBC mouse model is a sequential progression of the disease in an essential native microenvironment. This notion inspired us to develop a TNBC-model in syngeneic mice using a mammary intraductal (MIND) method. To achieve this goal, Mvt-1and 4T1 TNBC mouse cell lines were injected into the mammary ducts via nipples of FVB/N mice and BALB/c wild-type immunocompetent mice, respectively. We established that the TNBC-MIND model in syngeneic mice could epitomize all breast cancer progression stages and metastasis into the lungs via lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination within four weeks. Collectively, the syngeneic mouse-TNBC-MIND model may serve as a unique platform for further investigation of the underlying mechanisms of TNBC growth and therapies.

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<![CDATA[Comprehensive RNA-Seq Profiling to Evaluate the Sheep Mammary Gland Transcriptome in Response to Experimental Mycoplasma agalactiae Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da14ab0ee8fa60b7a7a4

Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M. agalactiae type strain PG2 in comparison with uninfected control animals using Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the infected udders and RT-qPCR analyses of selected DEGs showed their expression profiles to be in agreement with results from RNA-Seq. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed majority of the DEGs to be associated with mycoplasma defense responses that are directly or indirectly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses. Similar RNA-Seq analyses were also performed with spleen cells of the same sheep to know the specific systemic transcriptome responses. Spleen cells exhibited a comparatively lower number of DEGs suggesting a less prominent host response in this organ. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes host transcriptomics of M. agalactiae infection and the related immune-inflammatory responses. The data provides useful information to further dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying mycoplasma mastitis, which is a prerequisite for designing effective intervention strategies.

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<![CDATA[Mammary epithelial cell phenotype disruption in vitro and in vivo through ERalpha36 overexpression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc137

Estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ERα36) is a variant of the canonical estrogen receptor alpha (ERα66), widely expressed in hormone sensitive cancer cells and whose high expression level correlates with a poor survival prognosis for breast cancer patients. While ERα36 activity have been related to breast cancer progression or acquired resistance to treatment, expression level and location of ERα36 are poorly documented in the normal mammary gland. Therefore, we explored the consequences of a ERα36 overexpression in vitro in MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells and in vivo in a unique model of MMTV-ERα36 transgenic mouse strain wherein ERα36 mRNA was specifically expressed in the mammary gland. By a combination of bioinformatics and computational analyses of microarray data, we identified hierarchical gene networks, downstream of ERα36 and modulated by the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Concomitantly, ERα36 overexpression lowered proliferation rate but enhanced migration potential and resistance to staurosporin-induced apoptosis of the MCF-10A cell line. In vivo, ERα36 expression led to duct epithelium thinning and disruption in adult but not in prepubescent mouse mammary gland. These phenotypes correlated with a loss of E-cadherin expression. Here, we show that an enhanced expression of ERα36 is sufficient, by itself, to disrupt normal breast epithelial phenotype in vivo and in vitro through a dominant-positive effect on nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways. These results also suggest that, in the presence of adult endogenous steroid levels, ERα36 overexpression in vivo contributes to alter mammary gland architecture which may support pre-neoplastic lesion and augment breast cancer risk.

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<![CDATA[Three-dimensional cell shapes and arrangements in human sweat glands as revealed by whole-mount immunostaining]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be116e

Because sweat secretion is facilitated by mechanical contraction of sweat gland structures, understanding their structure-function relationship could lead to more effective treatments for patients with sweat gland disorders such as heat stroke. Conventional histological studies have shown that sweat glands are three-dimensionally coiled tubular structures consisting of ducts and secretory portions, although their detailed structural anatomy remains unclear. To better understand the details of the three-dimensional (3D) coiled structures of sweat glands, a whole-mount staining method was employed to visualize 3D coiled gland structures with sweat gland markers for ductal luminal, ductal basal, secretory luminal, and myoepithelial cells. Imaging the 3D coiled gland structures demonstrated that the ducts and secretory portions were comprised of distinct tubular structures. Ductal tubules were occasionally bent, while secretory tubules were frequently bent and formed a self-entangled coiled structure. Whole-mount staining of complex coiled gland structures also revealed the detailed 3D cellular arrangements in the individual sweat gland compartments. Ducts were composed of regularly arranged cuboidal shaped cells, while secretory portions were surrounded by myoepithelial cells longitudinally elongated along entangled secretory tubules. Whole-mount staining was also used to visualize the spatial arrangement of blood vessels and nerve fibers, both of which facilitate sweat secretion. The blood vessels ran longitudinally parallel to the sweat gland tubules, while nerve fibers wrapped around secretory tubules, but not ductal tubules. Taken together, whole-mount staining of sweat glands revealed the 3D cell shapes and arrangements of complex coiled gland structures and provides insights into the mechanical contraction of coiled gland structures during sweat secretion.

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<![CDATA[Peroral Estradiol Is Sufficient to Induce Carcinogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Ovariectomized Rats without Progesterone]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4bab0ee8fa60b8cc79

A role for estrogens in breast cancer is widely accepted, however, recent evidence highlights that timing and exposure levels are important in determining whether they elicit harmful versus beneficial effects. The rat chemical carcinogen model has been widely used to study the effects of estrogens but conclusions on the levels that lead to tumor development and an absolute requirement for progesterone (P4) are lacking. A newer method of hormone administration mixes hormones with nut butter for peroral consumption allowing for a less stressful method of long-term administration with lower spikes in serum estradiol (E2) levels. The present study was designed to determine if estrogens alone at a physiological dose can drive carcinogen-induced tumors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats or if P4 is also required using this method of hormone administration. Short-term studies were conducted to determine the dose of estrogen (E) that would lead to increased uterine weight following OVX. Subsequently, rats were OVX on postnatal day (PND) 40 then treated daily with E (600 μg/kg/day), P4 (15 mg/kg/day), or the combination. On PND 50, all rats were injected with nitrosomethylurea to induce mammary tumors. Uterine weights, body weights, and serum E2 levels were measured to demonstrate the efficacy of the method for increasing E2 levels during long-term treatment. After 26 weeks, tumor incidence was similar in Sham, E, and E + P4 animals indicating that E was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis when hormone levels were normalized by this method. This study demonstrates peroral administration can be used in long-term studies to elucidate relationships between different types and levels of steroid hormones.

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<![CDATA[Antibiofilm and antibacterial effects of specific chitosan molecules on Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bovine mastitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf644

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing bovine intramammary infections (IMIs) and mastitis. Mastitis is the primary cause for the use of antibiotics in dairy farms but therapeutic failure is often observed. One of the reasons for the lack of effectiveness of antibiotic therapy despite the observed susceptibility of bacterial isolates in vitro are bacterial biofilms. In this study, we used chitosan of well-defined molecular weight (0.4–0.6, 1.3, 2.6 and 4.0 kDa) and investigated their antibiofilm and antibacterial activities in in vitro and in vivo models related to S. aureus IMIs. A chitosan of at least 6 units of glucosamine was necessary for maximum antibacterial activity. The 2.6 and 4.0 kDa forms were able to prevent biofilm production by the biofilm hyperproducer strain S. aureus 2117 and a bovine MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus). The intramammary administration of the 2.6 kDa chitosan showed no adverse effects in mice or in cows, as opposed to the slight inflammatory effect observed in mammary glands with the 4.0 kDa derivative. The 2.6 kDa chitosan killed bacteria embedded in pre-established biofilms in a dose-dependent manner with a >3 log10 reduction in CFU at 4 mg/ml. Also, the 2.6 kDa chitosan could prevent the persistence of the internalized MRSA into the mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T. An in vitro checkerboard assay showed that the 2.6 kDa chitosan produced a synergy with the macrolide class of antibiotics (e.g., tilmicosin) and reduced the MIC of both molecules by 2–8 times. Finally, the intramammary administration of the 2.6 kDa chitosan alone (P<0.01) or in combination with tilmicosin (P<0.0001) reduced the colonization of mammary glands in a murine IMI model. Our results suggest that the use of chitosan alone or in combination with a low dose of a macrolide could help reduce antibiotic use in dairy farms.

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<![CDATA[HER-2 and EGFR mRNA Expression and Its Relationship with Versican in Malignant Matrix-Producing Tumors of the Canine Mammary Gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da17ab0ee8fa60b7b92e

Versican expression promotes tumor growth by destabilizing focal cell contacts, thus impeding cell adhesion and facilitating cell migration. It not only presents or recruits molecules to the cell surface, but also modulates gene expression levels and coordinates complex signal pathways. Previously, we suggested that the interaction between versican and human epidermal growth factor receptors may be directly associated with tumor aggressiveness. Thus, the expression of EGFR and HER-2 in these neoplasms may contribute to a better understanding of the progression mechanisms in malignant mammary tumors. The purpose of this study was to correlate the gene and protein expressions of EGFR and HER2 by RNA In Situ Hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively, and their relationship with the versican expression in carcinomas in mixed tumors and carcinosarcomas of the canine mammary gland. The results revealed that EGFR mRNA expression showed a significant difference between in situ and invasive carcinomatous areas in low and high versican expression groups. Identical results were observed in HER-2 mRNA expression. In immunohistochemistry analysis, neoplasms with low versican expression showed greater EGFR immunostaining in the in situ areas than in invasive areas, even as the group presenting high versican expression displayed greater EGFR and HER-2 staining in in situ areas. Significant EGFR and HER-2 mRNA and protein expressions in in situ carcinomatous sites relative to invasive areas suggest that these molecules play a role during the early stages of tumor progression.

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<![CDATA[Dichloroacetate affects proliferation but not apoptosis in canine mammary cell lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be0423

Targeting mitochondrial energy metabolism is a novel approach in cancer research and can be traced back to the description of the Warburg effect. Dichloroacetate, a controversially discussed subject of many studies in cancer research, is a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor. Dichloroacetate causes metabolic changes in cancerous glycolysis towards oxidative phosphorylation via indirect activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in mitochondria. Canine mammary cancer is frequently diagnosed but after therapy prognosis still remains poor. In this study, canine mammary carcinoma, adenoma and non-neoplastic mammary gland cell lines were treated using 10 mM Dichloroacetate. The effect on cell number, lactate release and PDH expression and cell respiration was investigated. Further, the effect on apoptosis and several apoptotic proteins, proliferation, and microRNA expression was evaluated. Dichloroacetate was found to reduce cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis in all examined cell lines.

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<![CDATA[Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide Modulate Gene Expressions of Drug Transporters in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells Correlation to Inflammatory Biomarkers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae4ab0ee8fa60bbce80

Inflammation in the mammary gland (mastitis) is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide, often caused by the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Little is known about the effects of mastitis on drug transporters and the impact on transporter-mediated excretion of drugs into milk. We used murine mammary epithelial HC11 cells, after lactogenic differentiation into a secreting phenotype, and studied gene expressions of ABC- and SLC- transporters after treatment of cells with S. aureus and lipopolysaccharide, an endotoxin secreted by E. coli. The studied transporters were Bcrp, Mdr1, Mrp1, Oatp1a5, Octn1 and Oct1. In addition, Csn2, the gene encoding β-casein, was analyzed. As biomarkers of the inflammatory response, gene expressions of the cytokines Il6 and Tnfα and the chemokine Cxcl2 were determined. Our results show that S. aureus and LPS treatment of cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, induced an up-regulation of Mdr1 and of the inflammatory biomarkers, except that Tnfα was not affected by lipopolysaccharide. By simple regression analysis we could demonstrate statistically significant positive correlations between each of the transporters with each of the inflammatory biomarkers in cells treated with S. aureus. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.7–0.9 for all but one correlation. After treatment of cells with lipopolysaccharide, statistically significant correlations were only found between Mdr1 and the two parameters Cxcl2 and Il6. The expression of Csn2 was up-regulated in cells treated with S. aureus, indicating that the secretory function of the cells was not impaired. The strong correlation in gene expressions between transporters and inflammatory biomarkers may suggest a co-regulation and that the transporters have a role in the transport of cytokines and chemokines. Our results demonstrate that transporters in mammary cells can be affected by infection, which may have an impact on transport of essential compounds and contaminants into milk.

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<![CDATA[Can milk cell or skim milk miRNAs be used as biomarkers for early pregnancy detection in cattle?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf97

The most critical phase of pregnancy is the first three weeks following insemination. During this period about 50% of high yielding lactating cows suffer embryonic loss prior to implantation, which poses a high economic burden on dairy farmers. Early diagnosis of pregnancy in cattle is therefore essential for monitoring breeding outcome and efficient production intervals. Regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) that reach easily accessible body fluids via a ‘liquid biopsy’ could be a new class of pregnancy predicting biomarkers. As milk is obtained regularly twice daily and non-invasively from the animal, it represents an ideal sample material. Our aim was to establish a pregnancy test system based on the discovery of small RNA biomarkers derived from the bovine milk cellular fraction and skim milk of cows. Milk samples were taken on days 4, 12 and 18 of cyclic cows and after artificial insemination, respectively, of the same animals (n = 6). miRNAs were analysed using small RNA sequencing (small RNA Seq). The miRNA profiles of milk cells and skim milk displayed similar profiles despite the presence of immune cell related miRNAs in milk cells. Trends in regulation of miRNAs between the oestrous cycle and pregnancy were found in miR-cluster 25~106b and its paralog cluster 17~92, miR-125 family, miR-200 family, miR-29 family, miR-15a, miR-21, miR-26b, miR-100, miR-140, 193a-5p, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-652, miR-2898 and let-7i. A separation of cyclic and pregnant animals was achieved in a principal component analysis. Bta-miRs-29b, -221, -125b and -200b were successfully technically validated using quantitative real-time PCR, however biological validation failed. Therefore we cannot recommend the diagnostic use of these miRNAs in milk as biomarkers for detection of bovine pregnancy for now.

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<![CDATA[ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium - Effects of Prochloraz]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacaab0ee8fa60bb3f4b

Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11) featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV). Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz, previously reported to influence BCRP in mammary cells, was investigated on transporter expression and function in the two cell lines. Transporters studied were BCRP, MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5/OATP1A2, OCTN1 and OCT1. Gene expressions of BCRP and OCT1 in murine mammary glands were increased during gestation and lactation, whereas MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5 and OCTN1 were decreased, compared to expressions in virgins. All transporters measured in mammary glands of mice were detected in bovine mammary tissue and in HC11 cells, while only MDR1 and MRP1 were detected in BME-UV cells. Prochloraz treatment induced MDR1 gene and protein expression in both differentiated HC11 and BME-UV cells and increased protein function in HC11 cells, resulting in decreased accumulation of the MDR1 substrate digoxin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that murine (HC11) and bovine (BME-UV) mammary epithelial cells can be applied to characterize expression and function of transporters as well as effects of contaminants on the mammary transporters. An altered expression, induced by a drug or toxic chemical, on any of the transporters expressed in the mammary epithelial cells during lactation may modulate the well-balanced composition of nutrients and/or secretion of contaminants in milk with potential adverse effects on breast-fed infants and dairy consumers.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Combination of Estradiol with Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulators (SPRMs) on Human Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e5ab0ee8fa60b6b033

Use of estrogen or estrogen / progestin combination was an approved regimen for menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT). However, more recent patient-centered studies revealed an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in women receiving menopausal hormone therapy with estrogen plus progestin rather than estrogen alone. Tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) has been proposed to eliminate the progesterone component of MHT with supporting evidences. Based on our previous studies it is evident that SPRMs have a safer profile on endometrium in preventing unopposed estrogenicity. We hypothesized that a combination of estradiol (E2) with selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) to exert a safer profile on endometrium will also reduce mammary gland proliferation and could be used to prevent breast cancer when used in MHT. In order to test our hypothesis, we compared the estradiol alone or in combination with our novel SPRMs, EC312 and EC313. The compounds were effectively controlled E2 mediated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in T47D breast cancer cells. The observed effects were found comparable that of BZD in vitro. The effects of SPRMs were confirmed by receptor binding studies as well as gene and protein expression studies. Proliferation markers were found downregulated with EC312/313 treatment in vitro and reduced E2 induced mammary gland proliferation, evidenced as reduced ductal branching and terminal end bud growth in vivo. These data supporting our hypothesis that E2+EC312/EC313 blocked the estrogen action may provide basic rationale to further test the clinical efficacy of SPRMs to prevent breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women undergoing MHT.

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<![CDATA[Reciprocity in the Developmental Regulation of Aquaporins 1, 3 and 5 during Pregnancy and Lactation in the Rat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db47ab0ee8fa60bd8ed8

Milk secretion involves significant flux of water, driven largely by synthesis of lactose within the Golgi apparatus. It has not been determined whether this flux is simply a passive consequence of the osmotic potential between cytosol and Golgi, or whether it involves regulated flow. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water channels that regulate water flux. AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 have previously been detected in mammary tissue, but evidence of developmental regulation (altered expression according to the developmental and physiological state of the mammary gland) is lacking and their cellular/subcellular location is not well understood. In this paper we present evidence of developmental regulation of all three of these AQPs. Further, there was evidence of reciprocity since expression of the rather abundant AQP3 and less abundant AQP1 increased significantly from pregnancy into lactation, whereas expression of the least abundant AQP5 decreased. It would be tempting to suggest that AQP3 and AQP1 are involved in the secretion of water into milk. Paradoxically, however, it was AQP5 that demonstrated most evidence of expression located at the apical (secretory) membrane. The possibility is discussed that AQP5 is synthesized during pregnancy as a stable protein that functions to regulate water secretion during lactation. AQP3 was identified primarily at the basal and lateral membranes of the secretory cells, suggesting a possible involvement in regulated uptake of water and glycerol. AQP1 was identified primarily at the capillary and secretory cell cytoplasmic level and may again be more concerned with uptake and hence milk synthesis, rather than secretion. The fact that expression was developmentally regulated supports, but does not prove, a regulatory involvement of AQPs in water flux through the milk secretory cell.

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<![CDATA[Invagination of Ectodermal Placodes Is Driven by Cell Intercalation-Mediated Contraction of the Suprabasal Tissue Canopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da71ab0ee8fa60b94d26

Ectodermal organs such as teeth, hair follicles, and mammary glands begin their development as placodes. These are local epithelial thickenings that invaginate into mesenchymal space. There is currently little mechanistic understanding of the cellular processes driving the early morphogenesis of these organs and of why they lead to invagination rather than simple tissue thickening. Here, we show that placode invagination depends on horizontal contraction of superficial layers of cells that form a shrinking and thickening canopy over underlying epithelial cells. This contraction occurs by cell intercalation and is mechanically coupled to the basal layer by peripheral basal cells that extend apically and centripetally while remaining attached to the basal lamina. This process is topologically analogous to well-studied apical constriction mechanisms, but very different from them both in scale and molecular mechanism. Mechanical cell–cell coupling is propagated through the tissue via E-cadherin junctions, which in turn depend on tissue-wide tension. We further present evidence that this mechanism is conserved among different ectodermal organs and is, therefore, a novel and fundamental morphogenetic motif widespread in embryonic development.

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<![CDATA[Non-Classical ProIL-1beta Activation during Mammary Gland Infection Is Pathogen-Dependent but Caspase-1 Independent]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da27ab0ee8fa60b81104

Infection of the mammary gland with live bacteria elicits a pathogen-specific host inflammatory response. To study these host-pathogen interactions wild type mice, NF-kappaB reporter mice as well as caspase-1 and IL-1beta knockout mice were intramammarily challenged with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The murine mastitis model allowed to compare the kinetics of the induced cytokine protein profiles and their underlying pathways. In vivo and ex vivo imaging showed that E. coli rapidly induced NF-kappaB inflammatory signaling concomitant with high mammary levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and MCP-1 as determined by multiplex analysis. In contrast, an equal number of S. aureus bacteria induced a low NF-kappaB activity concomitant with high mammary levels of the classical IL-1beta fragment. These quantitative and qualitative differences in local inflammatory mediators resulted in an earlier neutrophil influx and in a more extensive alveolar damage post-infection with E. coli compared to S. aureus. Western blot analysis revealed that the inactive proIL-1beta precursor was processed into pathogen-specific IL-1beta fragmentation patterns as confirmed with IL-1beta knockout animals. Additionally, caspase-1 knockout animals allowed to investigate whether IL-1beta maturation depended on the conventional inflammasome pathway. The lack of caspase-1 did not prevent extensive proIL-1beta fragmentation by either of S. aureus or E. coli. These non-classical IL-1beta patterns were likely caused by different proteases and suggest a sentinel function of IL-1beta during mammary gland infection. Thus, a key signaling nodule can be defined in the differential host innate immune defense upon E. coli versus S. aureus mammary gland infection, which is independent of caspase-1.

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<![CDATA[A bioluminescence reporter mouse that monitors expression of constitutively active β-catenin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc648

This short technical report describes the generation and characterization of a bioluminescence reporter mouse that is engineered to detect and longitudinally monitor the expression of doxycycline-induced constitutively active β-catenin. The new responder transgenic mouse contains the TetO-ΔN89β-CatTMILA transgene, which consists of the tet-operator followed by a bicistronic sequence encoding a stabilized form of active β-catenin (ΔN89β-catenin), an internal ribosome entry site, and the firefly luciferase gene. To confirm that the transgene operates as designed, TetO-ΔN89β-CatTMILA transgenic mouse lines were crossed with an effector mouse that harbors the mouse mammary tumor virus-reverse tetracycline transactivator (MMTV-rtTA) transgene (termed MTB hereon), which primarily targets rtTA expression to the mammary epithelium. Following doxycycline administration, the resultant MTB/CatTMILA bigenic reporter exhibited precocious lobuloalveologenesis, ductal hyperplasia, and mammary adenocarcinomas, which were visualized and monitored by in vivo bioluminescence detection. Therefore, we predict that the TetO-ΔN89β-CatTMILA transgenic responder mouse—when crossed with the appropriate effector transgenic—will have wide-applicability to non-invasively monitor the influence of constitutively active β-catenin expression on cell-fate specification, proliferation, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation in a broad spectrum of target tissues.

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