ResearchPad - management-of-high-risk-pregnancies https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Medications for opioid use disorder among pregnant women referred by criminal justice agencies before and after Medicaid expansion: A retrospective study of admissions to treatment centers in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15710 There has been a 4-fold increase in the number of pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD). Medications such as methadone and buprenorphine are standard of care for OUD and are recommended during pregnancy, but only 50% of pregnant women receive such medication.Pregnant women with OUD who are involved in the criminal justice system are at high risk of poor outcomes, but data regarding the use of medications for OUD in this population are limited.What did the researchers find?From 1992 to 2017, pregnant women in the US who were referred to treatment for OUD by a criminal justice agency (versus other referral sources) were half as likely to receive medication as part of their treatment plan.After implementation of the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid expansion, medication for OUD increased significantly more among pregnant women referred to treatment by criminal justice agencies in Medicaid expansion states compared with nonexpansion states.What do these findings mean?Pregnant women referred to treatment for OUD by criminal justice agencies were consistently less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, which increases their risk of overdose and poor maternal and neonatal outcomes.Improving access to Medicaid for justice-involved individuals may increase the rate at which pregnant women receive evidence-based treatment for OUD. ]]> <![CDATA[Implementing the INTERGROWTH-21st gestational dating and fetal and newborn growth standards in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya: Provider experiences, uptake and clinical decision-making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1980d5eed0c484b4d7dd

Background

Perinatal and newborn complications are major risk factors for unfavorable fetal and neonatal outcomes. Gestational dating and growth monitoring can be instrumental in the identification and management of high-risk pregnancies and births. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project developed the first global standards for gestational dating and fetal and newborn growth monitoring, supplying a toolkit for clinicians. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the first known implementation study of these standards in a low resource setting.

Methods

The study was performed in two 12-month phases from March 2016 to March 2018 at Jacaranda Health, a private maternity hospital in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and a provider survey were utilized to evaluate providers’ experiences during implementation. Client chart data, for pregnant women attending antenatal care and/or delivering at Jacaranda Health along with their newborns, were captured to assess uptake and effect of the standards on clinical decision-making.

Results

Facility-level support and provider buy-in proved to be critical factors driving the success of implementing the standards. However, additional support was needed to strengthen capacity to conduct and interpret ultrasounds and maintain motivation among providers. We observed a significant increase in the uptake of obstetric ultrasounds, particularly gestational dating, during the implementation of the standards. Although no significant changes were detected in the identification of high-risk pregnancies, referrals and deliveries by Cesarean section during implementation, we did observe a significant reduction in inductions for post-date. No significant barriers were reported regarding the use of the newborn standards. Over 80% of providers advocated for the standards to remain in place with some enhancements related mainly to training, advocacy and procurement.

Conclusions

The findings are timely with increasing global adoption of the standards and the challenging and multi-faceted nature of translating new, evidence-based guidelines into routine clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Serum from Pregnant Women Carrying a Fetus with Conotruncal Heart Defect Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Labeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd455d

Objective

To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD) fetus, using proteomic analysis.

Methods

The study was conducted using a nested case-control design. The 5473 maternal serum samples were collected at 14–18 weeks of gestation. The serum from 9 pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus, 10 with another CHD (ACHD) fetus, and 11 with a normal fetus were selected from the above samples, and analyzed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2D LC-MS/MS). The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ were further validated with Western blot.

Results

A total of 105 unique proteins present in the three groups were identified, and relative expression data were obtained for 92 of them with high confidence by employing the iTRAQ-based experiments. The downregulation of gelsolin in maternal serum of fetus with CTD was further verified by Western blot.

Conclusions

The identification of differentially expressed protein gelsolin in the serum of the pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus by using proteomic technology may be able to serve as a foundation to further explore the biomarker for detection of CTD fetus from the maternal serum.

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<![CDATA[Smoking during Pregnancy Is Associated with a Decreased Incidence of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries in Nulliparous Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1eab0ee8fa60b7e098

Background

Smoking is a modifiable lifestyle factor that has been shown to be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and to have adverse health and dose-dependent connective tissue effects. The objective of this study was to examine whether smoking during pregnancy was associated with the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) among six birthweight groups in singleton vaginal deliveries, considering nulliparous and multiparous women separately between 1997 and 2007 in Finland.

Methodology

A retrospective population-based register study. Populations included women with spontaneous singleton vaginal deliveries, consisting of all 213,059 nulliparous and all 288,391 multiparous women. Incidence of OASIS (n = 2,787) between smoking status groups was adjusted using logistic regression analyses.

Principal Findings

Of the nulliparous women, 13.1% were smokers, 3.6% had given up smoking during the first trimester of their pregnancy and 81.1% were non-smokers. Among these groups 0.7%, 0.9% and 1.1%, respectively suffered OASIS (p≤0.001). Nulliparous women who smoked had a 28% (95% CI 16–38%, p≤0.001) lower risk of OASIS compared to non-smokers, when adjusting for background variables. In multiparous women, the overall frequencies of OASIS were much lower (0.0–0.2%). A similar inverse relationship between OASIS rates and smoking was significant in pooled univariate analysis of multiparous women, but multivariate analysis revealed statistically insignificant results between non-smokers and smokers.

Conclusions

Nulliparous women who were smokers had a 28% lower incidence of OASIS. However, smoking during pregnancy cannot be recommended since it has shown to be associated with other adverse pregnancy outcomes and adverse health effects. The observed association warrants clinical repetition studies and, if confirmed, also in vitro studies focusing on connective tissue properties at a molecular and cellular level.

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<![CDATA[Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da17ab0ee8fa60b7bb5b

Background

The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups.

Methods

A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines.

Results

Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation level compared with tertiary educated ones (OR = 0.20, P = 0.003). Half of all women had <80% of the recommended antenatal care content. A higher proportion of high-risk than low-risk women scored <80% of the routine care content (p<0.015). The majority of the additional laboratory tests were performed on high-risk women. Provision of antenatal education showed comparatively poor compliance to guidelines, more than half of the antenatal advice topics assessed were rarely provided to the women. High-risk women were associated with a higher prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Conclusions

Disproportionate utilisation of antenatal care according to risk level of pregnancy indicates the need for better scheduling of care. The risk-oriented approach often results in a tendency to focus on the risk conditions of the women. Training interventions are recommended to improve communication and to help healthcare professionals understand the priorities of the women. Further studies are required to assess the reason for disproportionate utilisation of antenatal care according to risk level and how delivery of antenatal advice can be improved, reviewing both user and provider perspectives.

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<![CDATA[Medically Complex Pregnancies and Early Breastfeeding Behaviors: A Retrospective Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9daab0ee8fa60b672e9

Background

Breastfeeding is beneficial for women and infants, and medical contraindications are rare. Prenatal and labor-related complications may hinder breastfeeding, but supportive hospital practices may encourage women who intend to breastfeed. We measured the relationship between having a complex pregnancy (entering pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, or obesity) and early infant feeding, accounting for breastfeeding intentions and supportive hospital practices.

Methods

We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a nationally-representative survey of women who gave birth in 2011–2012 in a US hospital (N = 2400). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between pregnancy complexity and breastfeeding. Self-reported prepregnancy diabetes or hypertension, gestational diabetes, or obesity indicated a complex pregnancy. The outcome was feeding status 1 week postpartum; any breastfeeding was evaluated among women intending to breastfeed (N = 1990), and exclusive breastfeeding among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (N = 1418). We also tested whether breastfeeding intentions or supportive hospital practices mediated the relationship between pregnancy complexity and infant feeding status.

Results

More than 33% of women had a complex pregnancy; these women had 30% lower odds of intending to breastfeed (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52–0.98). Rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed were similar for women with and without complex pregnancies. Women who intended to breastfeed had similar rates of any breastfeeding 1 week postpartum regardless of pregnancy complexity, but complexity was associated with >30% lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47–0.98). Supportive hospital practices were strongly associated with higher odds of any or exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (AOR = 4.03; 95% CI, 1.81–8.94; and AOR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.70–4.23, respectively).

Conclusions

Improving clinical and hospital support for women with complex pregnancies may increase breastfeeding rates and the benefits of breastfeeding for women and infants.

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<![CDATA[The Changes in Maternal Mortality in 1000 Counties in Mid-Western China by a Government-Initiated Intervention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da19ab0ee8fa60b7c3e6

Background

Since 2000, the Chinese government has implemented an intervention program to reduce maternal mortality and eliminate neonatal tetanus in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals 5. To assess the effectiveness of this intervention program, we analyzed the level, trend and reasons defining the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the 1,000 priority counties before and after implementation of the intervention between 1999 and 2007.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The data was obtained from the National Maternal and Child Health Routine Reporting System. The intervention included providing basic and emergency obstetric equipment and supplies to local medical hospitals, and also included providing professional training to local obstetric doctors, development of obstetric emergency centers and “green channel” express referral networks, reducing or waiving the cost of hospital delivery, and conducting community health education. Based on the initiation time of the intervention and the level of poverty, 1,000 counties, containing a total population of 300 million, were categorized into three groups. MMR significantly decreased by about 50%, with an average reduction rate of 9.24%, 16.06%, and 18.61% per year in the three county groups, respectively. The hospital delivery rate significantly increased. Obstetric hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths and significantly declined, with an average decrease in the MMR of 11.25%, 18.03%, and 24.90% per year, respectively. The magnitude of the MMR, the average reduction rate of the MMR, and the occurrence of the leading causes of death were closely associated with the percentage of poverty.

Conclusions/Significance

The intervention program implemented by the Chinese government has significantly reduced the MMR in mid-western China, suggesting that well-targeted interventions could be an efficient strategy to reducing MMR in resource-poor areas. Reduction of the MMR not only depends on conducting proven interventions, but also relies on economic development in rural areas with a high burden of maternal death.

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<![CDATA[Elevated Expression of KiSS-1 in Placenta of Chinese Women with Early-Onset Preeclampsia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab4ab0ee8fa60bac640

Preeclampsia (PE) is a heterogeneous syndrome affecting 2% to 8% of all pregnancies and is the world’s leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. In many cases of PE, shallow trophoblast invasion results in inappropriate maternal spiral artery remodeling and impaired placental function. Multiple genes have been implicated in trophoblast invasion, among which are KiSS-1 and GPR54. The gene product of KiSS-1 is metastin, which is a ligand for the receptor GPR54. Both metastin and GPR54 are expressed in the placenta of normal pregnancy and have been implicated in modulating trophoblast invasion through inhibiting migration of trophoblast cells. We have previously reported that the expression level of KiSS-1 was higher in trophoblasts from women with preeclampsia as compared to normal controls. Here, using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we extend our analysis to demonstrate that elevated KiSS-1 expression occurs only in early-onset preeclampsia (ePE) and not late-onset preeclampsia (lPE). However, no difference in the expression levels of GPR54 is observed between ePE, lPE, and normal controls. Further, we show that KiSS-1 expression is also increased in placenta of intrauterine death and birth asphyxia in comparison to normal newborns of ePE and lPE. Our findings suggest that aberrant upregulation of KiSS-1 expression may contribute to the underlying mechanism of ePE as well as birth asphyxia.

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<![CDATA[“Early Rupture of Membranes” during Induced Labor as a Risk Factor for Cesarean Delivery in Term Nulliparas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9fab0ee8fa60ba52e6

Objective

To determine if “early rupture of membranes” (early ROM) during induction of labor is associated with an increased risk of cesarean section in term nulliparas.

Study Design

The rate of cesarean section and the timing of ROM during the course of labor were examined in term singleton nulliparas whose labor was induced. Cases were divided into 2 groups according the timing of ROM: 1)“early ROM”, defined as ROM at a cervical dilatation<4 cm during labor; and 2) “late ROM”, ROM at a cervical dilatation≥4 cm during labor. Nonparametric techniques were used for statistical analysis.

Results

1) In a total of 500 cases of study population, “early ROM” occurred in 43% and the overall cesarean section rate was 15.8%; 2) patients with “early ROM” had a higher rate of cesarean section and cesarean section due to failure to progress than did those with “late ROM” (overall cesarean section rate: 24%[51/215] vs. 10%[28/285], p<0.01; cesarean section rate due to failure to progress: 18%[38/215] vs. 8%[22/285], p<0.01 for each) and this difference remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables.

Conclusion

“Early ROM” during the course of induced labor is a risk factor for cesarean section in term singleton nulliparas.

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<![CDATA[Setting Research Priorities to Reduce Almost One Million Deaths from Birth Asphyxia by 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0cab0ee8fa60bca751

Joy Lawn and colleagues used a systematic process developed by the Child Health Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) to define and rank research options to reduce mortality from intrapartum-related neonatal deaths (birth asphyxia) by the year 2015.

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<![CDATA[Micronutrient Levels and Supplement Intake in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da75ab0ee8fa60b966f2

Background

Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery.

Objective

To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery.

Design

A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy.

Results

The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies.

Conclusion

Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients.

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<![CDATA[Plasma Concentrations of Soluble Endoglin versus Standard Evaluation in Patients with Suspected Preeclampsia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0cab0ee8fa60bca6d2

Background

The purpose of this study was to compare plasma soluble endoglin (sEng) levels with standard clinical evaluation or plasma levels of other angiogenic proteins [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PlGF)] in predicting short-term adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with suspected preeclampsia presenting prior to 34 weeks.

Methods and Findings

Data from all women presenting at <34 weeks for evaluation of preeclampsia with singleton pregnancies (July 2009−October 2010) were included in this analysis and sEng levels were measured at presentation. Data was analyzed for 170 triage encounters and presented as median {25−75th centile}. Thirty-three percent of patients (56 of 170) experienced an adverse outcome. sEng levels (ng/ml) were significantly elevated in patients who subsequently experienced adverse outcomes compared to those who did not (32.3 {18.1, 55.8} vs 4.8 {3.2, 8.6}, p<0.0001). At a 10% false positive rate, sEng had higher detection rates of adverse outcomes than the combination of highest systolic blood pressure, proteinuria and abnormal laboratory tests (80.4 {70.0, 90.8} vs 63.8 {51.4, 76.2}, respectively). Subjects in the highest quartile of sEng were more likely to deliver early compared to those in the lowest quartile (HR: 14.96 95% CI: 8.73−25.62, p<0.0001). Natural log transformed sEng correlated positively with log sFlt1 levels (r = 0.87) and inversely with log PlGF levels (r = −0.79) (p<0.0001 for both). Plasma sEng had comparable area under the curve for prediction of adverse outcomes as measurement of sFlt1/PlGF ratio (0.88 {0.81, 0.95} for sEng versus 0.89 {0.83, 0.95} for sFlt1/PlGF ratio, p = 0.74).

Conclusions

In women with suspected preeclampsia presenting prior to 34 weeks of gestation, sEng performs better than standard clinical evaluation in detecting adverse maternal and fetal outcomes occurring within two weeks of presentation. Soluble endoglin was strongly correlated with sFlt1 and PlGF levels, suggesting common pathogenic pathways leading to preeclampsia.

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<![CDATA[Compensatory Feto-Placental Upregulation of the Nitric Oxide System during Fetal Growth Restriction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da99ab0ee8fa60ba2fe6

Background

Fetal Growth Restriction is often associated with a feto-placental vascular dysfunction conceivably involving endothelial cells. Our study aimed to verify this pathogenic role for feto-placental endothelial cells and, coincidentally, demonstrate any abnormality in the nitric oxide system.

Methods

Prenatal assessment of feto-placental vascular function was combined with measurement of nitric oxide (in the form of S-nitrosohemoglobin) and its nitrite byproduct, and of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. Umbilical vein endothelial cells were also harvested to determine their gene profile. The study comprised term pregnancies with normal (n = 40) or small-for-gestational-age (n = 20) newborns, small-for-gestational-age preterm pregnancies (n = 15), and bi-chorial, bi-amniotic twin pregnancies with discordant fetal growth (n = 12).

Results

Umbilical blood nitrite (p<0.001) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (p = 0.02) rose with fetal growth restriction while asymmetric dimethylarginine decreased (p = 0.003). Nitrite rise coincided with an abnormal Doppler profile from umbilical arteries. Fetal growth restriction umbilical vein endothelial cells produced more nitrite and also exhibited reciprocal changes in vasodilator (upwards) and vasoconstrictor (downwards) transcripts. Elevation in blood nitrite and S-nitrosohemoglobin persisted postnatally in the fetal growth restriction offspring.

Conclusion

Fetal growth restriction is typified by increased nitric oxide production during pregnancy and after birth. This response is viewed as an adaptative event to sustain placental blood flow. However, its occurrence may modify the endothelial phenotype and may ultimately represent an element of risk for cardiovascular disease in adult life.

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<![CDATA[Poor Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Stimulated Contractility in Human Myometrium from Postdates Pregnancies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc5ff6

Prolongation of pregnancy i.e. going more than 10 days over the estimated due date, complicates up to 10% of all pregnancies and is associated with increased risk to both mother and fetus. Despite the obvious need for contractions of the uterus to end pregnancy, there have been no studies directly examining the role of uterine smooth muscle, myometrium, in the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic contractile characteristics of myometrium taken from women with prolonged pregnancy (>41 weeks and 3 days) was reduced compared to those delivering at term (39–41 weeks). We recruited women undergoing Caesarean Section (CS) delivery either pre-labour (n = 27) or in labour (n = 66) at term or postdates. The contractile ability of the postdates myometrium, whether spontaneous or elicited by oxytocin or high-K solution, was significantly reduced compared to term myometrium. These differences remained when adjusted for parity and other maternal characteristics. The findings remained significant when expressed per cross sectional area. Histological examination revealed no differences between the two groups. The contractile differences were however related to intracellular Ca transients suggesting an effect of [Ca] on reduced force production in the postdates group. In summary, myometrium from prolonged pregnancies contracts poorly in vitro even when stimulated with oxytocin and in active labour. Responses to high K+ and measurements of Ca suggest that alterations in excitation contraction coupling, rather than any histological changes of the myometrium, may underlie the differences between term and postdates myometrium. We show that postdates pregnancy is associated with poor myometrial activity and suggest that this may contribute to increased myometrial quiescence and hence, prolonged gestation.

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<![CDATA[Targeted capture enrichment assay for non-invasive prenatal testing of large and small size sub-chromosomal deletions and duplications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdba2a

Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using whole genome and targeted sequencing has become increasingly accepted for clinical detection of Trisomy 21 and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Few studies have shown that sub-chromosomal deletions or duplications associated with genetic syndromes can also be detected in the fetus noninvasively. There are still limitations on these methodologies such as the detection of variants of unknown clinical significance, high number of false positives, and difficulties to detect small aberrations. We utilized a recently developed targeted sequencing approach for the development of a NIPT assay, for large and small size deletions/duplications, which overcomes these existing limitations. Artificial pregnancies with microdeletion/microduplication syndromes were created by spiking DNA from affected samples into cell free DNA (cfDNA) from non-pregnant samples. Unaffected spiked samples and normal pregnancies were used as controls. Target Capture Sequences (TACS) for seven syndromes were designed and utilized for targeted capture enrichment followed by sequencing. Data was analyzed using a statistical pipeline to identify deletions or duplications on targeted regions. Following the assay development a proof of concept study using 33 normal pregnancies, 21 artificial affected and 17 artificial unaffected pregnancies was carried out to test the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. All 21 abnormal spiked-in samples were correctly classified as subchromosomal aneuploidies while the 33 normal pregnancies or 17 normal spiked-in samples resulted in a false positive result. We have developed an NIPT assay for the detection of sub-chromosomal deletions and duplications using the targeted capture enrichment technology. This assay demonstrates high accuracy, high read depth of the genomic region of interest, and can identify deletions/duplications as small as 0.5 Mb. NIPT of fetal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes can be of enormous benefit in the management of pregnancies at risk both for prospective parents and health care providers.

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<![CDATA[Constructing a Population-Based Research Database from Routine Maternal Screening Records: A Resource for Studying Alloimmunization in Pregnant Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbb10c

Background

Although screening for maternal red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy is a standard procedure, the prevalence and clinical consequences of non-anti-D immunization are poorly understood. The objective was to create a national database of maternal antibody screening results that can be linked with population health registers to create a research resource for investigating these issues.

Study Design and Methods

Each birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register was uniquely identified and linked to the text stored in routine maternal antibody screening records in the time window from 9 months prior to 2 weeks after the delivery date. These text records were subjected to a computerized search for specific antibodies using regular expressions. To illustrate the research potential of the resulting database, selected antibody prevalence rates are presented as tables and figures, and the complete data (from more than 60 specific antibodies) presented as online moving graphical displays.

Results

More than one million (1,191,761) births with valid screening information from 1982–2002 constitute the study population. Computerized coverage of screening increased steadily over time and varied by region as electronic records were adopted. To ensure data quality, we restricted analysis to birth records in areas and years with a sustained coverage of at least 80%, representing 920,903 births from 572,626 mothers in 17 of the 24 counties in Sweden. During the study period, non-anti-D and anti-D antibodies occurred in 76.8/10,000 and 14.1/10,000 pregnancies respectively, with marked differences between specific antibodies over time.

Conclusion

This work demonstrates the feasibility of creating a nationally representative research database from the routine maternal antibody screening records from an extended calendar period. By linkage with population registers of maternal and child health, such data are a valuable resource for addressing important clinical questions, such as the etiological significance of non-anti-D antibodies.

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<![CDATA[Neonatal Injury at Cephalic Vaginal Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Extent of Association with Shoulder Dystocia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da87ab0ee8fa60b9cc7e

Purpose

To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF) and brachial plexus injury (BPI); and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia.

Methods

This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared between groups. The control group (1300) was composed of the four singleton vaginal deliveries that immediately followed each birth injury. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed in order to find independent risk factors associated with BPI and CF. A subgroup analysis involved comparison of features of BPI cases with or without associated shoulder dystocia.

Results

During the study period, the total number of vaginal deliveries was 44092. The rates of CF, BPI and shoulder dystocia during the study period were 0,6%, 0,16% and 0,29%, respectively. In the logistic regression model, shoulder dystocia, GDM, multiparity, gestational age >42 weeks, protracted labor, short second stage of labor and fetal birth weight greater than 4250 grams increased the risk of CF independently. Shoulder dystocia and protracted labor were independently associated with BPI when controlled for other factors. Among neonates with BPI whose injury was not associated with shoulder dystocia, five (12.2%) sustained permanent injury, whereas one neonate (4.5%) with BPI following shoulder dystocia sustained permanent injury (p = 0.34).

Conclusion

BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia might have a higher rate of concomitant CF and permanent sequelae.

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<![CDATA[Cesarean Section Rates and Indications in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Study from Medecins sans Frontieres]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d8ab0ee8fa60b66beb

Objectives

The World Health Organization considers Cesarean section rates of 5–15% to be the optimal range for targeted provision of this life saving intervention. However, access to safe Cesarean section in resource-limited settings is much lower, estimated at 1–2% reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study reports Cesarean sections rates and indications in Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, and Sierra Leone, and describe the main parameters associated with maternal and early neonatal mortality.

Methods

Women undergoing Cesarean section from August 1 2010 to January 31 2011 were included in this prospective study. Logistic regression was used to model determinants of maternal and early neonatal mortality.

Results

1276 women underwent a Cesarean section, giving a frequency of 6.2% (range 4.1–16.8%). The most common indications were obstructed labor (399, 31%), poor presentation (233, 18%), previous Cesarean section (184, 14%), and fetal distress (128, 10%), uterine rupture (117, 9%) and antepartum hemorrhage (101, 8%). Parity >6 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.6, P = 0.015), uterine rupture (aOR = 20.5; P = .010), antepartum hemorrhage (aOR = 13.1; P = .045), and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (aOR = 42.9; P = .017) were associated with maternal death. Uterine rupture (aOR = 6.6, P<0.001), anterpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 3.6, P<0.001), and cord prolapse (aOR = 2.7, P = 0.017) were associated with early neonatal death.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that target Cesarean section rates can be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the common indications for Cesarean section and associations with mortality can target improvements in antenatal services and emergency obstetric care.

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<![CDATA[Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India – A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf2ab0ee8fa60bc19cc

Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication and low compliance, is likely to contribute to gaps and delays in the provision of emergency obstetric care.

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<![CDATA[Predictors of Poor Perinatal Outcome following Maternal Perception of Reduced Fetal Movements – A Prospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da60ab0ee8fa60b90c4d

Background

Maternal perception of reduced fetal movement (RFM) is associated with increased risk of stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). RFM is thought to represent fetal compensation to conserve energy due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient transfer resulting from placental insufficiency.

Objective

To identify predictors of poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM).

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Methods

305 women presenting with RFM after 28 weeks of gestation were recruited. Demographic factors and clinical history were recorded and ultrasound performed to assess fetal biometry, liquor volume and umbilical artery Doppler. A maternal serum sample was obtained for measurement of placentally-derived or modified proteins including: alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and progesterone. Factors related to poor perinatal outcome were determined by logistic regression.

Results

22.1% of pregnancies ended in a poor perinatal outcome after RFM. The most common complication was small-for-gestational age infants. Pregnancy outcome after maternal perception of RFM was related to amount of fetal activity while being monitored, abnormal fetal heart rate trace, diastolic blood pressure, estimated fetal weight, liquor volume, serum hCG and hPL. Following multiple logistic regression abnormal fetal heart rate trace (Odds ratio 7.08, 95% Confidence Interval 1.31–38.18), (OR) diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.09), estimated fetal weight centile (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.97) and log maternal serum hPL (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02–0.99) were independently related to pregnancy outcome. hPL was related to placental mass.

Conclusion

Poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of RFM is closely related to factors which are connected to placental dysfunction. Novel tests of placental function and associated fetal response may provide improved means to detect fetuses at greatest risk of poor perinatal outcome after RFM.

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