ResearchPad - mapk-signaling-cascades https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Genome-wide identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and expression profiling of <i>CmMAPKs</i> in melon (<i>Cucumis melo</i> L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14577 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a form of serine/threonine protein kinase that activated by extracellular stimulation acting through the MAPK cascade (MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK). The MAPK cascade gene family, an important family of protein kinases, plays a vital role in responding to various stresses and hormone signal transduction processes in plants. In this study, we identified 14 CmMAPKs, 6 CmMAPKKs and 64 CmMAPKKKs in melon genome. Based on structural characteristics and a comparison of phylogenetic relationships of MAPK gene families from Arabidopsis, cucumber and watermelon, CmMAPKs and CmMAPKKs were categorized into 4 groups, and CmMAPKKKs were categorized into 3 groups. Furthermore, chromosome location revealed an unevenly distribution on chromosomes of MAPK cascade genes in melon, respectively. Eventually, qRT-PCR analysis showed that all 14 CmMAPKs had different expression patterns under drought, salt, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), red light (RL), and Podosphaera xanthii (P. xanthii) treatments. Overall, the expression levels of CmMAPK3 and CmMAPK7 under different treatments were higher than those in control. Our study provides an important basis for future functional verification of MAPK genes in regulating responses to stress and signal substance in melon.

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<![CDATA[Immune-enhancing effects of anionic macromolecules extracted from Codium fragile on cyclophosphamide-treated mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac78d5eed0c484d08831

Immune-regulation and homeostasis are critical in cancer therapy and immunomodulatory biomaterials have been used to decrease side effects of immunosuppressant drugs. Anionic macromolecules (CFAMs) were isolated from the seaweed Codium fragile, and its immune-enhancing biological activities were examined in CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. CFAMs improved the splenic lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, and spleen index. The expression of immune-associated genes was highly upregulated in splenic lymphocytes, and gene expression was differently regulated according to mitogens such as T-cell (Con A) and B-cell (LPS) mitogens. Additionally, CFAMs boosted the proliferation, NO production, and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. CFAMs also considerably stimulated immune-associated gene expression in peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, our results showed CFAMs mediated its immune-enhancing effects via the MAPK pathway. These suggested CFAMs can be used as a potent immunomodulatory material under immune-suppressive condition. Furthermore, CFAMs may also be used as a bio-functional and pharmaceutical material for improving human health and immunity.

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<![CDATA[Exposure of Candida albicans β (1,3)-glucan is promoted by activation of the Cek1 pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca280d5eed0c48441e4da

Candida albicans is among the most common causes of human fungal infections and is an important source of mortality. C. albicans is able to diminish its detection by innate immune cells through masking of β (1,3)-glucan in the inner cell wall with an outer layer of heavily glycosylated mannoproteins (mannan). However, mutations or drugs that disrupt the cell wall can lead to exposure of β (1,3)-glucan (unmasking) and enhanced detection by innate immune cells through receptors like Dectin-1, the C-type signaling lectin. Previously, our lab showed that the pathway for synthesizing the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) plays a role in β (1,3)-glucan masking. The homozygous PS synthase knockout mutant, cho1Δ/Δ, exhibits increased exposure of β (1,3)-glucan. Several Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways and their upstream Rho-type small GTPases are important for regulating cell wall biogenesis and remodeling. In the cho1Δ/Δ mutant, both the Cek1 and Mkc1 MAPKs are constitutively activated, and they act downstream of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rho1, respectively. In addition, Cdc42 activity is up-regulated in cho1Δ/Δ. Thus, it was hypothesized that activation of Cdc42 or Rho1 and their downstream kinases cause unmasking. Disruption of MKC1 does not decrease unmasking in cho1Δ/Δ, and hyperactivation of Rho1 in wild-type cells increases unmasking and activation of both Cek1 and Mkc1. Moreover, independent hyperactivation of the MAP kinase kinase kinase Ste11 in wild-type cells leads to Cek1 activation and increased β (1,3)-glucan exposure. Thus, upregulation of the Cek1 MAPK pathway causes unmasking, and may be responsible for unmasking in cho1Δ/Δ.

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<![CDATA[Lens differentiation is controlled by the balance between PDGF and FGF signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8e2d5eed0c48496f303

How multiple receptor tyrosine kinases coordinate cell fate determination is yet to be elucidated. We show here that the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling recruits the p85 subunit of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) to regulate mammalian lens development. Activation of PI3K signaling not only prevents B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-Associated X (Bax)- and BCL2 Antagonist/Killer (Bak)-mediated apoptosis but also promotes Notch signaling to prevent premature cell differentiation. Reducing PI3K activity destabilizes the Notch intracellular domain, while the constitutive activation of Notch reverses the PI3K deficiency phenotype. In contrast, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) recruit Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Substrate 2 (Frs2) and Rous sarcoma oncogene (Src) Homology Phosphatase 2 (Shp2) to activate Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling, which induces the Notch ligand Jagged 1 (Jag1) and promotes cell differentiation. Inactivation of Shp2 restored the proper timing of differentiation in the p85 mutant lens, demonstrating the antagonistic interaction between FGF-induced MAPK and PDGF-induced PI3K signaling. By selective activation of PI3K and MAPK, PDGF and FGF cooperate with and oppose each other to balance progenitor cell maintenance and differentiation.

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<![CDATA[On the influence of cannabinoids on cell morphology and motility of glioblastoma cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a3d5eed0c4843cff4f

The mechanisms behind the anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids by impacting the migratory activity of tumor cells are only partially understood. Previous studies demonstrated that cannabinoids altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types. As actin is one of the main contributors to cell motility and is postulated to be linked to tumor invasion, we tested the following hypothesizes: 1) Can cannabinoids alter cell motility in a cannabinoid receptor dependent manner? 2) Are these alterations associated with reorganizations in the actin cytoskeleton? 3) If so, what are the underlying molecular mechanisms? Three different glioblastoma cell lines were treated with specific cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonists and antagonists. Afterwards, we measured changes in cell motility using live cell imaging and alterations of the actin structure in fixed cells. Additionally, the protein amount of phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinases (FAK) and phosphorylated FAK (pFAK) over time were measured. Cannabinoids induced changes in cell motility, morphology and actin organization in a receptor and cell line dependent manner. No significant changes were observed in the analyzed signaling molecules. Cannabinoids can principally induce changes in the actin cytoskeleton and motility of glioblastoma cell lines. Additionally, single cell motility of glioblastoma is independent of their morphology. Furthermore, the observed effects seem to be independent of p44/42 MAPK and pFAK pathways.

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<![CDATA[Sensitivity analysis for reproducible candidate values of model parameters in signaling hub model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75bbd5eed0c4843d00a1

Mathematical models for signaling pathways are helpful for understanding molecular mechanism in the pathways and predicting dynamic behavior of the signal activity. To analyze the robustness of such models, local sensitivity analysis has been implemented. However, such analysis primarily focuses on only a certain parameter set, even though diverse parameter sets that can recapitulate experiments may exist. In this study, we performed sensitivity analysis that investigates the features in a system considering the reproducible and multiple candidate values of the model parameters to experiments. The results showed that although different reproducible model parameter values have absolute differences with respect to sensitivity strengths, specific trends of some relative sensitivity strengths exist between reactions regardless of parameter values. It is suggested that (i) network structure considerably influences the relative sensitivity strength and (ii) one might be able to predict relative sensitivity strengths specified in the parameter sets employing only one of the reproducible parameter sets.

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<![CDATA[Comparative transcriptome analysis of mammary epithelial cells at different stages of lactation reveals wide differences in gene expression and pathways regulating milk synthesis between Jersey and Kashmiri cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633941d5eed0c484ae633a

Jersey and Kashmiri cattle are important dairy breeds that contribute significantly to the total milk production of the Indian northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Kashmiri cattle germplasm has been extensively diluted through crossbreeding with Jersey cattle with the goal of enhancing its milk production ability. However, crossbred animals are prone to diseases resulting to unsustainable milk production. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profile of mammary gland epithelial cells at different stages of lactation and to find key differences in genes and pathways regulating milk traits between Jersey and Kashmiri cattle. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) isolated from milk obtained from six lactating cows (three Jersey and three Kashmiri cattle) on day 15 (D15), D90 and D250 in milk, representing early, mid and late lactation, respectively were used. RNA isolated from MEC was subjected to next-generation RNA sequencing and bioinformatics processing. Casein and whey protein genes were found to be highly expressed throughout the lactation stages in both breeds. Largest differences in differentially expressed genes (DEG) were between D15 vs D90 (1,805 genes) in Kashmiri cattle and, D15 vs D250 (3,392 genes) in Jersey cattle. A total of 1,103, 1,356 and 1,397 genes were differentially expressed between Kashmiri and Jersey cattle on D15, D90 and D250, respectively. Antioxidant genes like RPLPO and RPS28 were highly expressed in Kashmiri cattle. Differentially expressed genes in both Kashmiri and Jersey were enriched for multicellular organismal process, receptor activity, catalytic activity, signal transducer activity, macromolecular complex and developmental process gene ontology terms. Whereas, biological regulation, endopeptidase activity and response to stimulus were enriched in Kashmiri cattle and, reproduction and immune system process were enriched in Jersey cattle. Most of the pathways responsible for regulation of milk production like JAK-STAT, p38 MAPK pathway, PI3 kinase pathway were enriched by DEG in Jersey cattle only. Although Kashmiri has poor milk production efficiency, the present study suggests possible physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Kashmiri cattle milk that needs to be further explored.

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<![CDATA[Characterisation and validation of Mel38; A multi-tissue microRNA signature of cutaneous melanoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633964d5eed0c484ae65d3

Background

Histopathologic examination of melanocytic neoplasms can be challenging and subjective, with no specific circulating or tissue-based biomarkers currently available. Recently, a circulating 38-microRNA profile of melanoma (Mel38) was described. In this study, Mel38 expression and its impact on downstream mRNA regulation in solid tissue is examined.

Methods

Mel38 was applied to archival, clinically-annotated, solid-tissue genomic datasets representing benign naevi, primary and metastatic melanoma. Statistical analysis of the signature in relation to disease status, patient outcome and molecular pathways was performed.

Results

Mel38 is able to stratify genomic data from solid tissue biopsies on the basis of disease status and differences in melanoma-specific survival. Experimentally-verified messenger-RNA targets of Mel38 also exhibit prognostic expression patterns and represent key molecular pathways and events in melanoma development and progression.

Conclusion

The Mel38 microRNA profile may have diagnostic and prognostic utility in solid tissue as well as being a robust circulating biomarker of melanoma.

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<![CDATA[Interaction between the transmembrane domains of Sho1 and Opy2 enhances the signaling efficiency of the Hog1 MAP kinase cascade in Saccharomyces cerevisiae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e68cd5eed0c484ef36b5

To cope with increased extracellular osmolarity, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which controls a variety of adaptive responses. Hog1 is activated through the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which consists of a core MAPK cascade and two independent upstream branches (SHO1 and SLN1 branches) containing distinct osmosensing machineries. In the SHO1 branch, a homo-oligomer of Sho1, the four-transmembrane (TM) osmosensor, interacts with the transmembrane co-osmosensors, Hkr1 and Msb2, and the membrane anchor protein Opy2, through their TM domains, and activates the Ste20-Ste11-Pbs2-Hog1 kinase cascade. In this study, we isolated and analyzed hyperactive mutants of Sho1 and Opy2 that harbor mutations within their TM domains. Several hyperactive mutations enhanced the interaction between Sho1 and Opy2, indicating the importance of the TM-mediated interaction between Sho1 and Opy2 for facilitating effective signaling. The interaction between the TM domains of Sho1 and Opy2 will place their respective cytoplasmic binding partners Pbs2 and Ste11 in close proximity. Indeed, genetic analyses of the mutants showed that the Sho1-Opy2 interaction enhances the activation of Pbs2 by Ste11, but not Hog1 by Pbs2. Some of the hyperactive mutants had mutations at the extracellular ends of either Sho1 TM4 or Opy2 TM, and defined the Sho1-Opy2 binding site 1 (BS1). Chemical crosslinking and mutational analyses revealed that the cytoplasmic ends of Sho1 TM1 and Opy2 TM also interact with each other, defining the Sho1-Opy2 binding site 2 (BS2). A geometric consideration constrains that one Opy2 molecule must interact with two adjacent Sho1 molecules in Sho1 oligomer. These results raise a possibility that an alteration of the conformation of the Sho1-Opy2 complex might contributes to the osmotic activation of the Hog1 MAPK cascade.

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<![CDATA[The nuclear hormone receptor NHR-86 controls anti-pathogen responses in C. elegans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c466d5eed0c4845e86e5

Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are ligand-gated transcription factors that control adaptive host responses following recognition of specific endogenous or exogenous ligands. Although NHRs have expanded dramatically in C. elegans compared to other metazoans, the biological function of only a few of these genes has been characterized in detail. Here, we demonstrate that an NHR can activate an anti-pathogen transcriptional program. Using genetic epistasis experiments, transcriptome profiling analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing, we show that, in the presence of an immunostimulatory small molecule, NHR-86 binds to the promoters of immune effectors to activate their transcription. NHR-86 is not required for resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa at baseline, but activation of NHR-86 by this compound drives a transcriptional program that provides protection against this pathogen. Interestingly, NHR-86 targets immune effectors whose basal regulation requires the canonical p38 MAPK PMK-1 immune pathway. However, NHR-86 functions independently of PMK-1 and modulates the transcription of these infection response genes directly. These findings characterize a new transcriptional regulator in C. elegans that can induce a protective host response towards a bacterial pathogen.

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<![CDATA[Phorbol ester-induced angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells: The role of NADPH oxidase-mediated, redox-related matrix metalloproteinase pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478cb0d5eed0c484bd3eb3

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may contribute to ischemia-induced angiogenesis in atherosclerotic diseases. The protein kinase C (PKC) family is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, however the role of PKCα in EPCs during angiogenesis is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PKCα in EPCs during angiogenesis. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a PKCα activator, significantly increased the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and -9 in human (late outgrowth) EPCs in vitro. The MMPs promoted the migratory function and vascular formation of EPCs, which then contributed to neovascularization in a mouse hindlimb-ischemia model. Reactive oxygen species derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enhanced the expression of MMPs to increase the bioactivity of EPCs during angiogenesis. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway was associated with the activation of NADPH oxidase. PMA extensively activated the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (Erk) signal pathway to increase the expression of MMP-9. PMA also activated the p38, Erk, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal pathways to increase the expression of MMP-2. PMA-stimulated EPCs enhanced neovascularization in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia via nuclear factor-κB translocation to up-regulation of the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. PMA could activate PKCα and promote the angiogenesis capacity of human EPCs via NADPH oxidase-mediated, redox-related, MMP-2 and MMP-9 pathways. The PKCα-activated, NADPH oxidase-mediated, redox-related MMP pathways could contribute to the function of human EPCs for ischemia-induced neovascularization, which may provide novel insights into the potential modification of EPCs for therapeutic angiogenesis.

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<![CDATA[LRRK2 kinase plays a critical role in manganese-induced inflammation and apoptosis in microglia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478ca0d5eed0c484bd3865

Long-term exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) causes manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder with Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like symptoms. Increasing evidence suggests that leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), which is highly expressed in microglia and macrophages, contributes to the inflammation and neurotoxicity seen in autosomal dominant and sporadic PD. As gene-environment interactions have emerged as important modulators of PD-associated toxicity, LRRK2 may also mediate Mn-induced inflammation and pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of LRRK2 in Mn-induced toxicity using human microglial cells (HMC3), LRRK2-wild-type (WT) and LRRK2-knockout (KO) RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Results showed that Mn activated LRRK2 kinase by phosphorylation of its serine residue at the 1292 position (S1292) as a marker of its kinase activity in macrophage and microglia, while inhibition with GSK2578215A (GSK) and MLi-2 abolished Mn-induced LRRK2 activation. LRRK2 deletion and its pharmacological inhibition attenuated Mn-induced apoptosis in macrophages and microglia, along with concomitant decreases in the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein. LRRK2 deletion also attenuated Mn-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Mn-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and ERK signaling proteins was significantly attenuated in LRRK2 KO cells and GSK-treated cells. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK p38 and ERK as well as LRRK2 attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity plays a critical role in Mn-induced toxicity via downstream activation of MAPK signaling in macrophage and microglia. Collectively, these results suggest that LRRK2 could be a potential molecular target for developing therapeutics to treat Mn-related neurodegenerative disorders.

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<![CDATA[GPI-anchor signal sequence influences PrPC sorting, shedding and signalling, and impacts on different pathomechanistic aspects of prion disease in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bf5d5eed0c48491f203

The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a cell surface glycoprotein attached to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor and plays a critical role in transmissible, neurodegenerative and fatal prion diseases. Alterations in membrane attachment influence PrPC-associated signaling, and the development of prion disease, yet our knowledge of the role of the GPI-anchor in localization, processing, and function of PrPC in vivo is limited We exchanged the PrPC GPI-anchor signal sequence of for that of Thy-1 (PrPCGPIThy-1) in cells and mice. We show that this modifies the GPI-anchor composition, which then lacks sialic acid, and that PrPCGPIThy-1 is preferentially localized in axons and is less prone to proteolytic shedding when compared to PrPC. Interestingly, after prion infection, mice expressing PrPCGPIThy-1 show a significant delay to terminal disease, a decrease of microglia/astrocyte activation, and altered MAPK signaling when compared to wild-type mice. Our results are the first to demonstrate in vivo, that the GPI-anchor signal sequence plays a fundamental role in the GPI-anchor composition, dictating the subcellular localization of a given protein and, in the case of PrPC, influencing the development of prion disease.

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<![CDATA[Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis induces inflammation in Graves’ orbital fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269778d5eed0c48470f9e8

Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), along with its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible (Fn)14, is associated with various biological activities including inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TWEAK regulates inflammatory signaling in orbital fibroblasts from GO patients. We found that TWEAK and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA) mRNA levels were upregulated in GO as compared to non-GO tissue samples. TWEAK, TNF receptor (TNFR)1, TNFR2, and TNFR superfamily member 12A mRNA, and TWEAK and Fn14 protein levels were increased by interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α treatment. Treatment with exogenous recombinant TWEAK increased the transcript and protein expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 to a greater extent in GO than in non-GO cells, while treatment with the anti-Fn14 antibody ITEM4 suppressed TWEAK-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release and hyaluronan production. Additionally, the serum level of TWEAK was higher in Graves’ disease patients with (341.86 ± 86.3 pg/ml) as compared to those without (294.09 ± 41.44 pg/ml) GO and healthy subjects (255.33 ± 39.38 pg/ml), and was positively correlated with clinical activity score (r = 0.629, P < 0.001) and thyroid binding immunoglobulin level (r = 0.659, P < 0.001). These results demonstrate that TWEAK/Fn14 signaling contributes to GO pathogenesis. Moreover, serum TWEAK level is a potential diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory GO, and modulating TWEAK activity may be an effective therapeutic strategy for suppressing inflammation and tissue remodeling in GO.

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<![CDATA[Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) reduces hepatocyte growth factor-induced migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via S1P receptor 2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ac7d5eed0c484426a8d

A bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), acts extracellularly as a potent mediator, and is implicated in the progression of various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). S1P exerts its functions by binding to five types of specific receptors, S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1), S1PR2, S1PR3, S1PR4 and S1PR5 on the plasma membrane. However, the exact roles of S1P and each S1PR in HCC cells remain to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S1P on the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration of human HCC-derived HuH7 cells, and the involvement of each S1PR. S1P dose-dependently reduced the HGF-induced migration of HuH7 cells. We found that all S1PRs exist in the HuH7 cells. Among each selective agonist for five S1PRs, CYM5520, a selective S1PR2 agonist, significantly suppressed the HGF-induced HuH7 cell migration whereas selective agonists for S1PR1, S1PR3, S1PR4 or S1PR5 failed to affect the migration. The reduction of the HGF-induced migration by S1P was markedly reversed by treatment of JTE013, a selective antagonist for S1PR2, and S1PR2- siRNA. These results strongly suggest that S1P reduces the HGF-induced HCC cell migration via S1PR2. Our findings may provide a novel potential of S1PR2 to therapeutic strategy for metastasis of HCC.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of the transcriptome data in Litopenaeus vannamei reveals the immune basis and predicts the hub regulation-genes in response to high-pH stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b33d5eed0c4846983c7

Soil salinization erodes the farmlands and poses a serious threat to human life, reuse of the saline-alkali lands as cultivated resources becomes increasingly prominent. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important farmed aquatic species for the development and utilization of the saline-alkali areas. However, little is known about the adaptation mechanism of this species in terms of high-pH stress. In the present study, a transcriptome analysis on the gill tissues of L. vannamei in response to high-pH stress (pH 9.3 ± 0.1) was conducted. After analyzing, the cyclic nucleotide gated channel-Ca2+ (CNGC-Ca2+) and patched 1 (Ptc1) were detected as the majority annotated components in the cAMP signaling pathway (KO04024), indicating that the CNGC-Ca2+ and Ptc1 might be the candidate components for transducing and maintaining the high-pH stress signals, respectively. The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), heat shock protein (HSP), glutathione s-transferase (GST), prophenoloxidase/phenoloxidase (proPO/PO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) and lipoprotein were discovered as the major transcribed immune factors in response to high-pH stress. To further detect hub regulation-genes, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed; the genes/proteins “Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A” (POLR2A), “Histone acetyltransferase p300” (EP300) and “Heat shock 70kDa protein 8” (HSPA8) were suggested as the top three hub regulation-genes in response to acute high-pH stress; the genes/proteins “Heat shock 70kDa protein 4” (HSPA4), “FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog” (FOS) and “Nucleoporin 54kDa” (NUP54) were proposed as the top three hub regulation-genes involved in adapting endurance high-pH stress; the protein-interactions of “EP300-HSPA8” and “HSPA4-NUP54” were detected as the most important biological interactions in response to the high-pH stress; and the HSP70 family genes might play essential roles in the adaptation of the high-pH stress environment in L. vannamei. These findings provide the first insight into the molecular and immune basis of L. vannamei in terms of high-pH environments, and the construction of a PPI network might improve our understanding in revealing the hub regulation-genes in response to abiotic stress in shrimp species and might be beneficial for further studies.

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<![CDATA[The small molecule rhodomyrtone suppresses TNF-α and IL-17A-induced keratinocyte inflammatory responses: A potential new therapeutic for psoriasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bce3d3840307c69b197f508

Psoriasis is a common skin disease pathogenically driven by TNF and IL-17A-induced epidermal hyperproliferation and inflammatory responses. The ongoing need for new therapeutic agents for psoriasis has highlighted medicinal plants as sources of phytochemicals useful for treating psoriatic disease. Rhodomyrtone, a bioactive phytochemical from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, has well-established anti-proliferative activities. This study assessed the potential of rhodomyrtone for curtailing TNF/IL-17A-driven inflammation. Stimulating human skin organ cultures with TNF+IL-17A to model the skin inflammation in psoriasis, we found that rhodomyrtone significantly decreased inflammatory gene expression and the expression and secretion of inflammatory proteins, assessed by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and ELISA assays respectively. RNA-seq analysis of monolayer primary keratinocytes treated with IL-17A/TNF showed that rhodomyrtone inhibited 724/1587 transcripts >2-fold altered by IL-17A/TNF (p<0.01), a number of which were confirmed at the mRNA and protein level. Suggesting that rhodomyrtone acts by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways, rhodomyrtone inhibited TNF-induced ERK, JNK, p38, and NF-κBp65 phosphorylation. Finally, assessing the in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of rhodomyrtone, we examined its effects on imiquimod-induced skin inflammation in mice, finding rhodomyrtone reversed imiquimod-induced skin hyperplasia and epidermal thickening (p< 0.001). Taken together, these results suggest that rhodomyrtone may be useful in preventing or slowing the progression of inflammatory skin disease.

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<![CDATA[Prions activate a p38 MAPK synaptotoxic signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0e98bed5eed0c484eab06c

Synaptic degeneration is one of the earliest pathological correlates of prion disease, and it is a major determinant of the progression of clinical symptoms. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying prion synaptotoxicity are poorly understood. Previously, we described an experimental system in which treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with purified PrPSc, the infectious form of the prion protein, induces rapid retraction of dendritic spines, an effect that is entirely dependent on expression of endogenous PrPC by the target neurons. Here, we use this system to dissect pharmacologically the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. We show that PrPSc initiates a stepwise synaptotoxic signaling cascade that includes activation of NMDA receptors, calcium influx, stimulation of p38 MAPK and several downstream kinases, and collapse of the actin cytoskeleton within dendritic spines. Synaptic degeneration is restricted to excitatory synapses, spares presynaptic structures, and results in decrements in functional synaptic transmission. Pharmacological inhibition of any one of the steps in the signaling cascade, as well as expression of a dominant-negative form of p38 MAPK, block PrPSc-induced spine degeneration. Moreover, p38 MAPK inhibitors actually reverse the degenerative process after it has already begun. We also show that, while PrPC mediates the synaptotoxic effects of both PrPSc and the Alzheimer’s Aβ peptide in this system, the two species activate distinct signaling pathways. Taken together, our results provide powerful insights into the biology of prion neurotoxicity, they identify new, druggable therapeutic targets, and they allow comparison of prion synaptotoxic pathways with those involved in other neurodegenerative diseases.

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<![CDATA[Autophagic cell death associated to Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma is mediated through Akt inhibition in an ERK1/2 independent fashion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b694661463d7e3867f4ad07

Objectives

To fully clarify the role of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase in the therapeutic response to Sorafenib in Renal Cell Carcinoma as well as the cell death mechanism associated to this kinase inhibitor, we have evaluated the implication of several Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases in Renal Cell Carcinoma-derived cell lines.

Materials and methods

An experimental model of Renal Cell Carcinoma-derived cell lines (ACHN and 786-O cells) was evaluated in terms of viability by MTT assay, induction of apoptosis by caspase 3/7 activity, autophagy induction by LC3 lipidation, and p62 degradation and kinase activity using phospho-targeted antibodies. Knock down of ATG5 and ERK5 was performed using lentiviral vector coding specific shRNA

Results

Our data discard Extracellular Regulated Kinase 1/2 and 5 as well as p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase pathways as mediators of Sorafenib toxic effect but instead indicate that the inhibitory effect is exerted through the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inhibition of Akt mediates cell death associated to Sorafenib without caspase activation, and this is consistent with the induction of autophagy, as indicated by the use of pharmacological and genetic approaches.

Conclusion

The present report demonstrates that Sorafenib exerts its toxic effect through the induction of autophagy in an Akt-dependent fashion without the implication of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase. Therefore, our data discard the use of inhibitors of the RAF-MEK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway in RCC and support the use of pro-autophagic compounds, opening new therapeutic opportunities for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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<![CDATA[Low-dose ionizing radiation exposure represses the cell cycle and protein synthesis pathways in in vitro human primary keratinocytes and U937 cell lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fb0463d7e0897c6e01f

The effects of the high-dose ionizing radiation used in radiotherapy have been thoroughly demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) such as computed tomography-guided biopsies and X-ray fluoroscopy on skin cells remain controversial. This study investigated the molecular effects of LDIR on the human primary keratinocytes (HPKs) and U937 cells, monocytes-like cell lines. These cells were exposed to 0.1 Gray (Gy) X-ray as LDIR. The modulation of transcription was assessed using a cDNA array, and the protein expression after LDIR exposure was investigated using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis at 24 hours. These effects were confirmed by immunoblotting analysis. The direct effects of LDIR on the U937 cells and HPKs and the bystander effects of irradiated HPKs on U937 cells were also investigated. LDIR downregulated c-Myc in both U937 cells and HPKs, and upregulated the p21WAF1/CIP1 protein expression in U937 cells along with the activation of TGFβ and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). In HPKs, LDIR downregulated the mTOR signaling with repression of S6 and 4EBP1 activation. Similar changes were observed as bystander effects of LDIR. Our findings suggest that LDIR inhibits protein synthesis and induces the cytokines activation associated with inflammation via direct and bystander effects, which might recapitulate the effects of LDIR in inflammated skin structures.

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