ResearchPad - marketing https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Do negative emotions in social advertising really work? Confrontation of classic vs. EEG reaction toward advertising that promotes safe driving]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14714 Social campaigns are persuasive messages that attempt to communicate positive ideas and practices. One of the main challenges in designing effective social campaigns is the need to compete with other advertisements for viewers’ attention. One of the most widely used methods of drawing attention to social advertising is the use of negative emotions. However, the effectiveness of negative emotional appeals in social campaigns is still a topic of debates. The aim of the study was to use both declarative and neural (EEG) measures to examine whether increasing the intensity of negative emotions in a social campaign enhances its effectiveness linearly or only to a certain level (curvilinear relation). The experimental study was conducted (N = 62) with road safety campaign, using three different levels of negative emotional intensity. The results showed that even though advertising with the strongest negative stimuli evoked the strongest negative emotions, it had no significantly stronger influence on behavioral intention (driving less risky) than moderately negative stimuli. Moreover, neural reaction to the negative stimuli in advertising depended on driving style–people with risky driving style payed less attention to more threatening message (higher beta oscillations).

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<![CDATA[Information sources and adoption of vaccine during pandemics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naa1106a9-784f-4b62-84a7-f968c0c02890

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of different information sources on consumer health behavior during pandemics.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected survey data from 321 adults in a large western US city during November 2009 by mall and street intercepts. We analyzed their beliefs, attitudes and intentions with regard to adoption of the H1N1 (swine flu) vaccine. We developed and tested two alternative models on the role of mass media and personal information sources on the attitude towards the disease and the intention to get vaccinated.

Findings

Our study finds that mass media and personal sources of information simultaneously impact perceived threat from disease (attitude) and the intention to get vaccinated during a global pandemic. Personal information sources are more effective than mass media sources in impacting both attitude and intention. While the impact of mass media weakens from the attitude stage to the intention stage, the impact of personal information sources increases from the attitude stage to the intention stage.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper to health policy makers and marketers is to draw implications on how mass media and personal information sources could be better utilized to counter future global pandemics.

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<![CDATA[Withdrawn medicines included in the essential medicines lists of 136 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfc60a8e8-cffd-4562-8a11-e8128980c61b

Background

Essential medicines lists and related policies are intended to meet the priority health needs of populations and their implementation is associated with more appropriate use of medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries carefully select the medicines to be included in their national essential medicines lists. Lists that are used to prioritize access to important treatments should not include medicines that have been withdrawn elsewhere because of an unfavourable benefit-to-harm balance; however, countries still list and use medicines that have been withdrawn worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether the national essential medicines lists of 137 countries include medicines that have been withdrawn in other countries.

Methods and findings

We performed an audit of national essential medicines lists for medicines that had been withdrawn. Medicines withdrawn from worldwide markets between 1953 and 2014 were identified using a systematic review of published literature and regulatory documents. The reviewers used sources including the WHO’s database of drugs, PubMed, and the websites of regulatory agencies to obtain information regarding adverse effects associated with the medicines, the year of first withdrawal, markets of withdrawal, and the level of evidence supporting each withdrawal. We recorded the number of countries with a withdrawn medicine included in their national medicines list, the number of withdrawn medicines included in each nation’s list, and the number of national essential medicines including each withdrawn medicine. 97 medicines were withdrawn in at least one country but still included in one more national essential medicines list. Of 137 countries with a national essential medicines list, 136 lists included at least one withdrawn medicine, with 54% of the lists containing 5 or fewer withdrawn medicines, and 27% including 10 or more withdrawn medicines. 11 medicines were withdrawn worldwide but still included on at least one national essential medicines list. Countries with longer essential medicines lists had more withdrawn medicines included in their lists.

Conclusions

This study found that withdrawn medicines are included in all but one national essential medicines list, representing a need for more stringent processes for selecting and removing medicines on these lists. Countries may wish to apply special scrutiny to medicines withdrawn in other nations when selecting medicines to include on their lists.

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<![CDATA[Personally relevant online advertisements: Effects of demographic targeting on visual attention and brand evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70677bd5eed0c4847c70da

Global investments in online advertising rise quickly but internet users often avoid looking at ads due to established banner blindness. Demographic targeting is expected to overcome this tendency by attracting users’ attention to more self-relevant ad content. However, little is known about the effect of demographically targeted versus non-targeted ads on users’ actual attention allocation during exposure to webpages. The present study aimed to further fill this empirical gap by clarifying whether demographic targeting attracts visual attention and to exploratively examine whether it also affects brand attitude and website evaluation, as suggested by previous studies. Eye tracking data revealed that demographic targeting can have medium- to large-sized effects on several eye movement parameters when internet users are in a free-viewing mode. In contrast, demographic targeting did not influence brand attitude and website evaluation. We conclude that attention for personally relevant advertisement can be strong. However, attention, although being a necessary condition for subsequent judgment formation according to the model of human information processing, is not sufficient to elicit positive effects at the level of subjective judgments.

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<![CDATA[Association between commercial funding of Canadian patient groups and their views about funding of medicines: An observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706777d5eed0c4847c7095

Background

Patient groups represent the interest of their members when it comes to drug funding. Many patient groups receive grants from pharmaceutical companies that make products being considered for funding. This research examines whether there is an association between the positions that Canadian groups take about the products and conflicts of interest with the companies.

Methods

The Common Drug Review (CDR) and panCanadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) make recommendations to Canadian provincial and federal drug plans about funding particular drug-indications. Both utilize input from patient groups in making their recommendations. Patient group submissions are available from both organizations and these submissions contain statements about conflicts of interest. Views of the patient groups, with and without a conflict with the company making the drug under consideration and without any conflicts at all, were assessed and then compared with the recommendations from CDR and pCODR.

Results

There was a total of 222 reports for drug-indications. There were 372 submissions from 93 different patient groups. Groups declared a total of 1896 conflicts with drug companies in 324 (87.1%) individual submissions. There were 268 submissions where groups declared a conflict with the company making the product or said they had no conflict. Irrespective of whether there was a conflict, the views of patient groups about the drug-indications under consideration were the same. There was no statistically significant difference between views of patient groups and the recommendations from CDR and/or pCODR.

Conclusions

The large majority of patient groups making submissions about funding of particular drug-indications had conflicts with the companies making the products and their views about the products were almost always positive. This association between funding and views needs to be further investigated to determine if a true cause and effect exists.

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<![CDATA[Correlated impulses: Using Facebook interests to improve predictions of crime rates in urban areas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e910d5eed0c48496f765

Much research has examined how crime rates vary across urban neighborhoods, focusing particularly on community-level demographic and social characteristics. A parallel line of work has treated crime at the individual level as an expression of certain behavioral patterns (e.g., impulsivity). Little work has considered, however, whether the prevalence of such behavioral patterns in a neighborhood might be predictive of local crime, in large part because such measures are hard to come by and often subjective. The Facebook Advertising API offers a special opportunity to examine this question as it provides an extensive list of “interests” that can be tabulated at various geographic scales. Here we conduct an analysis of the association between the prevalence of interests among the Facebook population of a ZIP code and the local rate of assaults, burglaries, and robberies across 9 highly populated cities in the US. We fit various regression models to predict crime rates as a function of the Facebook and census demographic variables. In general, models using the variables for the interests of the whole adult population on Facebook perform better than those using data on specific demographic groups (such as Males 18-34). In terms of predictive performance, models combining Facebook data with demographic data generally have lower error rates than models using only demographic data. We find that interests associated with media consumption and mating competition are predictive of crime rates above and beyond demographic factors. We discuss how this might integrate with existing criminological theory.

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<![CDATA[The interplay between endorser social status and normative appeals on the endorsement effectiveness of pro-environmental behaviors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c69d5eed0c484bd22e0

Employing message endorser is a popular strategy in encouraging consumers to protect the environment. This research explores how the social status of endorsers and the forms of normative messages can influence the effectiveness of endorsement for pro-environmental behaviors. Drawing on the focus theory of normative conduct and the match-up hypothesis, the authors propose that the effects of endorser social status on consumers’ responses to green advertising are contingent on whether the normative messages is framed as injunctive norms or descriptive norms. In three experiments, the results indicate that participants show more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and higher intentions to act environmentally friendly when endorsers with high social status are presented in combination with injunctive norm appeals. In contrast, ordinary consumer endorsers produce stronger impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions when descriptive norm appeals are used. These findings show that marketers using endorsers to promote pro-environmental behaviors should develop normative message accordingly.

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<![CDATA[Using physical contact heterogeneity and frequency to characterize dynamics of human exposure to nonhuman primate bodily fluids in central Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2e7fd9d5eed0c48451bb6f

Emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin constitute a recurrent threat to global health. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) occupy an important place in zoonotic spillovers (pathogenic transmissions from animals to humans), serving as reservoirs or amplifiers of multiple neglected tropical diseases, including viral hemorrhagic fevers and arboviruses, parasites and bacteria, as well as retroviruses (simian foamy virus, PTLV) that are pathogenic in human beings. Hunting and butchering studies in Africa characterize at-risk human social groups, but overlook critical factors of contact heterogeneity and frequency, NHP species differences, and meat processing practices. In southeastern Cameroon, a region with a history of zoonotic emergence and high risk of future spillovers, we conducted a novel mixed-method field study of human physical exposure to multiple NHP species, incorporating participant-based and ecological methodologies, and qualitative interviews (n = 25). We find frequent physical contact across adult human populations, greater physical contact with monkeys than apes, especially for meat handling practices, and positive correlation of human exposure with NHP species abundance and proximity to human settlement. These fine-grained results encourage reconsideration of the likely dynamics of human-NHP contact in past and future NTD emergence events. Multidisciplinary social science and ecological approaches should be mobilized to generate more effective human and animal surveillance and risk communications around neglected tropical diseases. At a moment when the WHO has included “Disease X”, a presumably zoonotic pathogen with pandemic potential, on its list of blueprint priority diseases as, new field-based tools for investigating zoonotic disease emergence, both known and unknown, are of critical importance.

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<![CDATA[PathFX provides mechanistic insights into drug efficacy and safety for regulatory review and therapeutic development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eabd5eed0c484d27adc

Failure to demonstrate efficacy and safety issues are important reasons that drugs do not reach the market. An incomplete understanding of how drugs exert their effects hinders regulatory and pharmaceutical industry projections of a drug’s benefits and risks. Signaling pathways mediate drug response and while many signaling molecules have been characterized for their contribution to disease or their role in drug side effects, our knowledge of these pathways is incomplete. To better understand all signaling molecules involved in drug response and the phenotype associations of these molecules, we created a novel method, PathFX, a non-commercial entity, to identify these pathways and drug-related phenotypes. We benchmarked PathFX by identifying drugs’ marketed disease indications and reported a sensitivity of 41%, a 2.7-fold improvement over similar approaches. We then used PathFX to strengthen signals for drug-adverse event pairs occurring in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and also identified opportunities for drug repurposing for new diseases based on interaction paths that associated a marketed drug to that disease. By discovering molecular interaction pathways, PathFX improved our understanding of drug associations to safety and efficacy phenotypes. The algorithm may provide a new means to improve regulatory and therapeutic development decisions.

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<![CDATA[An fNIRS-based investigation of visual merchandising displays for fashion stores]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966cbd5eed0c484b52e5c

This paper investigates a brain-based approach for visual merchandising display (VMD) in fashion stores. In marketing, VMD has become a research topic of interest. However, VMD research using brain activation information is rare. We examine the hemodynamic responses (HRs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while positive/negative displays of four stores (menswear, womenswear, underwear, and sportswear) are shown to 20 subjects. As features for classifying the HRs, the mean, variance, peak, skewness, kurtosis, t-value, and slope of the signals for a 20-sec time window for the activated channels are analyzed. Linear discriminant analysis is used for classifying two-class (positive and negative displays) and four-class (four fashion stores) models. PFC brain activation maps based on t-values depicting the data from the 16 channels are provided. In the two-class classification, the underwear store had the highest average classification result of 67.04%, whereas the menswear store had the lowest value of 64.15%. Men’s classification accuracy for the underwear stores with positive and negative displays was 71.38%, whereas the highest classification accuracy obtained by women for womenswear stores was 73%. The average accuracy over the 20 subjects for positive displays was 50.68%, while that of negative displays was 51.07%. Therefore, these findings suggest that human brain activation is involved in the evaluation of the fashion store displays. It is concluded that fNIRS can be used as a brain-based tool in the evaluation of fashion stores in a daily life environment.

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<![CDATA[Changes over time in Lithuanian schoolchildren’s attitudes toward addictive behaviors: Promoting and preventing factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b39d5eed0c48469853d

Background

Concern is growing about the high prevalence of traditional and new forms of addictive behaviors among young people due to the health risks and a better understanding of the factors causing these behaviors is needed.

Aim

To evaluate tendencies in the attitudes of Lithuanian schoolchildren toward addictive behaviors over a three year period and to ascertain the promoting and preventing factors of such behaviors.

Methods

The researchers developed a survey which was conducted twice over a three year period. The sample consisted of pupils in the 5th, 9th and 12th grades (N = 1590, age range 11–19 years) from both urban and rural areas.

Results

Both the recognition of and involvement in addictive behaviors significantly increased with age. Motivation to abstain due to internal factors decreased with age and increased among pupils already involved in addictive behaviors. Time- and age-related differences were found regarding substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Whilst betting adverts were increasingly noticed over time, smoking adverts were decreasingly noticed over the three year period and it was concomitant with inconsistent changes in self-reported involvement in these behaviors.

Conclusions

Most significant changes in the attitudes of Lithuanian pupils toward addictive behaviors occur between the ages of 11 and 15 years. However, age-related changes differ for the pupils’ attitudes toward substance abuse and behavioral addictions. Increasing awareness of the potential risk of addictive behaviors does not prevent their increasing prevalence with age. Increased risk of involvement in addictive behavior correlates with decreased internal motivation to abstain from addictive behavior and decreased recognition of its potential risks. No clear correlation was found between significant changes in noticing adverts and involvement in addictive behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Spatial transmission of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza between Minnesota poultry premises during the 2015 outbreak]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98f940307c0c23a1c154

The spatial spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 during the 2015 outbreak in the U.S. state of Minnesota was analyzed through the estimation of a spatial transmission kernel, which quantifies the infection hazard an infectious premises poses to an uninfected premises some given distance away. Parameters were estimated using a maximum likelihood method for the entire outbreak as well as for two phases defined by the daily number of newly detected HPAI-positive premises. The results indicate both a strong dependence of the likelihood of transmission on distance and a significant distance-independent component of outbreak spread for the overall outbreak. The results further suggest that HPAI spread differed during the later phase of the outbreak. The estimated spatial transmission kernel was used to compare the Minnesota outbreak with previous HPAI outbreaks in the Netherlands and Italy to contextualize the Minnesota transmission kernel results and make additional inferences about HPAI transmission during the Minnesota outbreak. Lastly, the spatial transmission kernel was used to identify high risk areas for HPAI spread in Minnesota. Risk maps were also used to evaluate the potential impact of an early marketing strategy implemented by poultry producers in a county in Minnesota during the outbreak, with results providing evidence that the strategy was successful in reducing the potential for HPAI spread.

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<![CDATA[Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults’ interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc307

Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on “digital native” young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults’ consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18–24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands’ websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising.

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<![CDATA[Impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the wheat market: A global dynamic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be0468

Although the widespread influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurrences on crop yields of the main agricultural commodities is well known, the global socio-economic consequences of ENSO still remain uncertain. Given the global importance of wheat for global consumption by providing 20% of global calories and nourishment, the monitoring and prediction of ENSO-induced variations in the worldwide wheat market are essential for allowing national governments to manage the associated risks and to ensure the supplies of wheat for consumers, including the underprivileged. To this end, we propose a global dynamic model for the analysis of ENSO impacts on wheat yield anomalies, export prices, exports and stock-to-use ratios. Our framework focuses on seven countries/regions: the six main wheat-exporting countries—the United States, Argentina, Australia, Canada, the EU, and the group of the main Black Sea export countries, i.e. Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan—plus the rest of the world. The study shows that La Niña exerts, on average, a stronger and negative impact on wheat yield anomalies, exports and stock-to-use ratios than El Niño. In contrast, wheat export prices are positively related to La Niña occurrences evidencing, once again, its steady impact in both the short and long run. Our findings emphasize the importance of the two ENSO extreme phases for the worldwide wheat market.

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<![CDATA[Multi-Target Drugs: The Trend of Drug Research and Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc4920

Summarizing the status of drugs in the market and examining the trend of drug research and development is important in drug discovery. In this study, we compared the drug targets and the market sales of the new molecular entities approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from January 2000 to December 2009. Two networks, namely, the target–target and drug–drug networks, have been set up using the network analysis tools. The multi-target drugs have much more potential, as shown by the network visualization and the market trends. We discussed the possible reasons and proposed the rational strategies for drug research and development in the future.

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<![CDATA[Turkish Final Year Medical Students’ Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd4403

Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company–medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company–medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164). Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154) of students, and 68.8% (106/154) reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153) of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153) of students agreed that interactions influence physicians’ prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154) thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154) agreed with the proposition that “drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties”. Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement “I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions” than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I), p -3.7(1.2–11.5), p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that “A physician should not accept any gift from a drug company.” (0.3[0.1–0.9], p = 0.030). In summary, exposure to drug companies was widespread among our final year medical students who, like students in both Western and non-Western societies, hold permissive attitudes concerning accepting gifts, and drug advertising brochures may relax those permissive attitudes still further. Rational prescription training was useful in generating rational attitudes. Policies concerning drug company–medical student relationships should be developed in Turkey as well as internationally.

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<![CDATA[Research and Development of Hepatitis B Drugs: An Analysis Based on Technology Flows Measured by Patent Citations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db27ab0ee8fa60bd0787

Despite the existence of available therapies, the Hepatitis B virus infection continues to be one of the most serious threats to human health, especially in developing countries such as China and India. To shed light on the improvement of current therapies and development of novel anti-HBV drugs, we thoroughly investigated 212 US patents of anti-HBV drugs and analyzed the technology flow in research and development of anti-HBV drugs based on data from IMS LifeCycle databases. Moreover, utilizing the patent citation method, which is an effective indicator of technology flow, we constructed patent citation network models and performed network analysis in order to reveal the features of different technology clusters. As a result, we identified the stagnant status of anti-HBV drug development and pointed the way for development of domestic pharmaceuticals in developing countries. We also discussed about therapeutic vaccines as the potential next generation therapy for HBV infection. Lastly, we depicted the cooperation between entities and found that novel forms of cooperation added diversity to the conventional form of cooperation within the pharmaceutical industry. In summary, our study provides inspiring insights for investors, policy makers, researchers, and other readers interested in anti-HBV drug development.

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<![CDATA[Trans-Pacific Partnership Provisions in Intellectual Property, Transparency, and Investment Chapters Threaten Access to Medicines in the US and Elsewhere]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf1ab0ee8fa60bc1425

Brook Baker describes the potential harms to global health from the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement and its failure to balance the interests of patients and the public with those of industry.

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<![CDATA[Community Pharmacists’ Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db21ab0ee8fa60bcf597

Background

Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are “front-line” health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied.

Methods

Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies.

Results

The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist’s Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.

Conclusions

The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists’ practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we found some involvement in problematic practices that necessitate further research and potential policy scrutiny. The study also uncovered patterns of recommendations, including sources relied on in recommending NHPs and in providing counselling to patients, that raise concerns about the quality and credibility of NHP-related care provided to pharmacy patrons.

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<![CDATA[The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3dab0ee8fa60b88891

Background

Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA’s social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents. Building on this literature, including systematic reviews, we develop a critically informed conceptual model of tobacco industry political activity.

Methods and Findings

We thematically analysed published papers included in two systematic reviews examining tobacco industry influence on taxation and marketing of tobacco; we included 45 of 46 papers in the former category and 20 of 48 papers in the latter (n = 65). We used a grounded theory approach to build taxonomies of “discursive” (argument-based) and “instrumental” (action-based) industry strategies and from these devised the Policy Dystopia Model, which shows that the industry, working through different constituencies, constructs a metanarrative to argue that proposed policies will lead to a dysfunctional future of policy failure and widely dispersed adverse social and economic consequences. Simultaneously, it uses diverse, interlocking insider and outsider instrumental strategies to disseminate this narrative and enhance its persuasiveness in order to secure its preferred policy outcomes. Limitations are that many papers were historical (some dating back to the 1970s) and focused on high-income regions.

Conclusions

The model provides an evidence-based, accessible way of understanding diverse corporate political strategies. It should enable public health actors and officials to preempt these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry’s claims.

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