ResearchPad - material-fatigue https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Order of same-day concurrent training influences some indices of power development, but not strength, lean mass, or aerobic fitness in healthy, moderately-active men after 9 weeks of training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14640 The importance of concurrent exercise order for improving endurance and resistance adaptations remains unclear, particularly when sessions are performed a few hours apart. We investigated the effects of concurrent training (in alternate orders, separated by ~3 hours) on endurance and resistance training adaptations, compared to resistance-only training.Materials and methodsTwenty-nine healthy, moderately-active men (mean ± SD; age 24.5 ± 4.7 y; body mass 74.9 ± 10.8 kg; height 179.7 ± 6.5 cm) performed either resistance-only training (RT, n = 9), or same-day concurrent training whereby high-intensity interval training was performed either 3 hours before (HIIT+RT, n = 10) or after resistance training (RT+HIIT, n = 10), for 3 d.wk-1 over 9 weeks. Training-induced changes in leg press 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, body composition, peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), aerobic power (W˙peak), and lactate threshold (W˙LT) were assessed before, and after both 5 and 9 weeks of training.ResultsAfter 9 weeks, all training groups increased leg press 1-RM (~24–28%) and total lean mass (~3-4%), with no clear differences between groups. Both concurrent groups elicited similar small-to-moderate improvements in all markers of aerobic fitness (V˙O2peak ~8–9%; W˙LT ~16-20%; W˙peak ~14-15%). RT improved CMJ displacement (mean ± SD, 5.3 ± 6.3%), velocity (2.2 ± 2.7%), force (absolute: 10.1 ± 10.1%), and power (absolute: 9.8 ± 7.6%; relative: 6.0 ± 6.6%). HIIT+RT elicited comparable improvements in CMJ velocity only (2.2 ± 2.7%). Compared to RT, RT+HIIT attenuated CMJ displacement (mean difference ± 90%CI, -5.1 ± 4.3%), force (absolute: -8.2 ± 7.1%) and power (absolute: -6.0 ± 4.7%). Only RT+HIIT reduced absolute fat mass (mean ± SD, -11.0 ± 11.7%).ConclusionsIn moderately-active males, concurrent training, regardless of the exercise order, presents a viable strategy to improve lower-body maximal strength and total lean mass comparably to resistance-only training, whilst also improving indices of aerobic fitness. However, improvements in CMJ displacement, force, and power were attenuated when RT was performed before HIIT, and as such, exercise order may be an important consideration when designing training programs in which the goal is to improve lower-body power. ]]> <![CDATA[Trajectories of fatigue among stroke patients from the acute phase to 18 months post-injury: A latent class analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc2795b82-f9e4-46cc-9fc3-23c3f213e7d4

Introduction

Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common symptom affecting 23–75% of stroke survivors. It is associated with increased risk of institutionalization and death, and it is of many patients considered among the worst symptoms to cope with after stroke. Longitudinal studies focusing on trajectories of fatigue may contribute to understanding patients’ experience of fatigue over time and its associated factors, yet only a few have been conducted to date.

Objectives

To explore whether subgroups of stroke survivors with distinct trajectories of fatigue in the first 18 months post stroke could be identified and whether these subgroups differ regarding sociodemographic, medical and/or symptom-related characteristics.

Materials and methods

115 patients with first-ever stroke admitted to Oslo University Hospital or Buskerud Hospital were recruited and data was collected prospectively during the acute phase and at 6, 12 and 18 months post stroke. Data on fatigue (both pre- and post-stroke), sociodemographic, medical and symptom-related characteristics were collected through structured interviews, standardized questionnaires and from the patients’ medical records.

Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify latent classes, i.e., subgroups of patients, based on their Fatigue Severity Scales (FSS) scores at the four time points. Differences in sociodemographic, medical, and symptom-related characteristics between the latent classes were evaluated using univariate and multivariable ordinal regression analyses.

Results and their significance

Using GMM, three latent classes of fatigue trajectories over 18 months were identified, characterized by differing levels of fatigue: low, moderate and high. The mean FSS score for each class remained relatively stable across all four time points. In the univariate analyses, age <75, pre-stroke fatigue, multiple comorbidities, current depression, disturbed sleep and some ADL impairment were associated with higher fatigue trajectories. In the multivariable analyses, pre-stroke fatigue (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.84–13.2), multiple comorbidities (OR 4,52,95% CI 1.85–11.1) and not working (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.36–15,7) were the strongest predictor of higher fatigue trajectories The findings of this study may be helpful for clinicians in identifying patients at risk of developing chronic fatigue after stroke.

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<![CDATA[Selective Efficacy of Static and Dynamic Imagery in Different States of Physical Fatigue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da05ab0ee8fa60b758ad

There is compelling evidence that motor imagery contributes to improved motor performance, and recent work showed that dynamic motor imagery (dMI) might provide additional benefits by comparison with traditional MI practice. However, the efficacy of motor imagery in different states of physical fatigue remains largely unknown, especially as imagery accuracy may be hampered by the physical fatigue states elicited by training. We investigated the effect of static motor imagery (sMI) and dMI on free-throw accuracy in 10 high-level basketball athletes, both in a non-fatigued state (Experiment 1) and immediately after an incremental running test completed until exhaustion (20m shuttle run-test–Experiment 2). We collected perceived exhaustion and heart rate to quantify the subjective experience of fatigue and energy expenditure. We found that dMI brought better shooting performance than sMI, except when athletes were physically exhausted. These findings shed light on the conditions eliciting optimal use of sMI and dMI. In particular, considering that the current physical state affects body representation, performing dMI under fatigue may result in mismatches between actual and predicted body states.

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<![CDATA[Disability and Fatigue Can Be Objectively Measured in Multiple Sclerosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ffab0ee8fa60b736a2

Background

The available clinical outcome measures of disability in multiple sclerosis are not adequately responsive or sensitive.

Objective

To investigate the feasibility of inertial sensor-based gait analysis in multiple sclerosis.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 80 multiple sclerosis patients and 50 healthy controls was performed. Lower-limb kinematics was evaluated by using a commercially available magnetic inertial measurement unit system. Mean and standard deviation of range of motion (mROM, sROM) for each joint of lower limbs were calculated in one minute walking test. A motor performance index (E) defined as the sum of sROMs was proposed.

Results

We established two novel observer-independent measures of disability. Hip mROM was extremely sensitive in measuring lower limb motor impairment, being correlated with muscle strength and also altered in patients without clinically detectable disability. On the other hand, E index discriminated patients according to disability, being altered only in patients with moderate and severe disability, regardless of walking speed. It was strongly correlated with fatigue and patient-perceived health status.

Conclusions

Inertial sensor-based gait analysis is feasible and can detect clinical and subclinical disability in multiple sclerosis.

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<![CDATA[Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da23ab0ee8fa60b7fc54

The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

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<![CDATA[Cortical Mechanisms of Central Fatigue and Sense of Effort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8dab0ee8fa60b9e8a6

The purpose of this study was to investigate cortical mechanisms upstream to the corticospinal motor neuron that may be associated with central fatigue and sense of effort during and after a fatigue task. We used two different isometric finger abduction protocols to examine the effects of muscle activation and fatigue the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of 12 participants. One protocol was intended to assess the effects of muscle activation with minimal fatigue (control) and the other was intended to elicit central fatigue (fatigue). We hypothesized that high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the supplementary motor area (SMA) would hasten recovery from central fatigue and offset a fatigue-induced increase in sense of effort by facilitating the primary motor cortex (M1). Constant force-sensation contractions were used to assess sense of effort associated with muscle contraction. Paired-pulse TMS was used to assess intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF) in the active M1 and interhemispheric inhibitory (IHI) was assessed to determine if compensation occurs via the resting M1. These measures were made during and after the muscle contraction protocols. Corticospinal excitability progressively declined with fatigue in the active hemisphere. ICF increased at task failure and ICI was also reduced at task failure with no changes in IHI found. Although fatigue is associated with progressive reductions in corticospinal excitability, compensatory changes in inhibition and facilitation may act within, but not between hemispheres of the M1. rTMS of the SMA following fatigue enhanced recovery of maximal voluntary force and higher levels of ICF were associated with lower sense of effort following stimulation. rTMS of the SMA may have reduced the amount of upstream drive required to maintain motor output, thus contributing to a lower sense of effort and increased rate of recovery of maximal force.

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<![CDATA[New approaches to determine fatigue in elite athletes during intensified training: Resting metabolic rate and pacing profile]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc693

Background

Elite rowers complete a high volume of training across a number of modalities to prepare for competition, including periods of intensified load, which may lead to fatigue and short-term performance decrements. As yet, the influence of substantial fatigue on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and exercise regulation (pacing), and their subsequent utility as monitoring parameters, has not been explicitly investigated in elite endurance athletes.

Method

Ten National-level rowers completed a four-week period of intensified training. RMR, body composition and energy intake were assessed PRE and POST the four-week period using indirect calorimetry, Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometry (DXA), and three-day food diary, respectively. On-water rowing performance and pacing strategy was evaluated from 5 km time trials. Wellness was assessed weekly using the Multicomponent Training Distress Scale (MTDS).

Results

Significant decreases in absolute (mean ± SD of difference, p-value: -466 ± 488 kJ.day-1, p = 0.01) and relative RMR (-8.0 ± 8.1 kJ.kg.FFM-1, p = 0.01) were observed. Significant reductions in body mass (-1.6 ± 1.3 kg, p = 0.003) and fat mass (-2.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.0001) were detected, while energy intake was unchanged. On-water 5 km rowing performance worsened (p < 0.05) and an altered pacing strategy was evident. Fatigue and total mood disturbance significantly increased across the cycle (p < 0.05), and trends were observed for reduced vigour and increased sleep disturbance (p < 0.1).

Conclusion

Four weeks of heavy training decreased RMR and body composition variables in elite rowers and induced substantial fatigue, likely related to an imbalance between energy intake and output. This study demonstrates that highly experienced athletes do not necessarily select the correct energy intake during periods of intensified training, and this can be assessed by reductions in RMR and body composition. The shortfall in energy availability likely affected recovery from training and altered 5 km time trial pacing strategy, resulting in reduced performance.

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<![CDATA[Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2bab0ee8fa60b82551

Background

Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.

Methods

Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.

Results

Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training, and (iv) biofeedback-assisted FES-exercise to promote selective recruitment of fatigue-resistant motor units.

Conclusion

Although the need for further in-depth clinical trials (especially RCTs) was clearly warranted to establish external validity of outcomes, current evidence was sufficient to support the validity of certain techniques for rapid fatigue-reduction in order to promote FES therapy as an integral part of SCI rehabilitation. It is anticipated that this information will be valuable to clinicians and other allied health professionals administering FES as a treatment option in rehabilitation and aid the development of effective rehabilitation interventions.

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<![CDATA[Diagnosing Depression in Chronic Pain Patients: DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder vs. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da88ab0ee8fa60b9cf3f

Background

Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are uncommon in chronic pain-related depression. The object of this study is to assess the relationship of the somatic and cognitive-emotional items of BDI with the diagnosis of depression, pain intensity, and disability.

Methods

One hundred consecutive chronic pain patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV. Two subscales of BDI (negative view of self and somatic-physical function) were created according to the factor model presented by Morley.

Results

In the regression analysis, the somatic-physical function factor associated with MDD, while the negative view of self factor did not. Patients with MDD had higher scores in several of the BDI items when analysed separately. Insomnia and weight loss were not dependent on the depression diagnosis.

Limitations

The relatively small sample size and the selected patient sample limit the generalisability of the results.

Conclusions

Somatic symptoms of depression are also common in chronic pain and should not be excluded when diagnosing depression in pain patients. Regardless of the assessment method, diagnosing depression in chronic pain remains a challenge and requires careful interpretation of symptoms.

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<![CDATA[A systematic review of surface electromyography analyses of the bench press movement task]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb87e

Background

The bench press exercise (BP) plays an important role in recreational and professional training, in which muscle activity is an important multifactorial phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to systematically review electromyography (EMG) studies performed on the barbell BP exercise to answer the following research questions: Which muscles show the greatest activity during the flat BP? Which changes in muscle activity are related to specific conditions under which the BP movement is performed?

Strategy

PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched through June 10, 2016. A combination of the following search terms was used: bench press, chest press, board press, test, measure, assessment, dynamometer, kinematics and biomechanics. Only original, full-text articles were considered.

Results

The search process resulted in 14 relevant studies that were included in the discussion. The triceps brachii (TB) and pectoralis major (PM) muscles were found to have similar activity during the BP, which was significantly higher than the activity of the anterior deltoid. During the BP movement, muscle activity changes with exercise intensity, velocity of movement, fatigue, mental focus, movement phase and stability conditions, such as bar vibration or unstable surfaces. Under these circumstances, TB is the most common object of activity change.

Conclusions

PM and TB EMG activity is more dominant and shows greater EMG amplitude than anterior deltoid during the BP. There are six factors that can influence muscle activity during the BP; however, the most important factor is exercise intensity, which interacts with all other factors. The research on muscle activity in the BP has several unresolved areas, such as clearly and strongly defined guidelines to perform EMG measurements (e.g., how to elaborate with surface EMG limits) or guidelines for the use of exact muscle models.

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<![CDATA[Validation of the revised piper fatigue scale in Koreans with chronic hepatitis B]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdffaf

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the Korean version of the revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) in Koreans with chronic hepatitis B.

Methods

A total of 146 chronic hepatitis B patients completed the Korean version of the revised PFS. A descriptive analysis was performed to determine the subjects’ demographic characteristics; the construct validity was examined using exploratory factor analysis; and internal consistency reliability of the scale was estimated for the meaningful total scale and factors.

Results

The factor analysis supported the original four-factor structure based on Kaiser Criterion and Minimum Average Partial (MAP): Behavioral/Severity, Affective meaning, Sensory, & Cognitive/Mood. In the 22 items in the original instrument, patient/impatient, relaxed/tense, and exhilarated/depressed were re-identified from the cognitive/mood subscale and sensory subscale. The Cronbach’s alpha of the 22-item Korean version of the revised PFS was 0.96 for the total scale, and the range of Cronbach’s alpha for subscales was 0.90 to 0.93.

Conclusions

The results of the study revealed that the 22-item Korean version of the revised PFS is valid and reliable in Koreans with chronic hepatitis B. Further studies ascertaining the psychometric properties of the revised PFS need to be performed in Korean patients.

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<![CDATA[Influence of Fatigue on Tackling Ability in Rugby League Players: Role of Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Aerobic Qualities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da93ab0ee8fa60ba0e44

This study investigated the influence of repeated high-intensity effort exercise on tackling ability in rugby league players, and determined the relationship between physical qualities and tackling ability under fatigued conditions in these athletes. Eleven semi-professional rugby league players underwent measurements of speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), upper-body strength (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press and weighted chin-up), upper-body muscular endurance (body mass maximum repetition chin-up, body mass maximum repetition dips), lower-body strength (4RM squat), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test). Tackling ability was assessed using a standardized one-on-one tackling test, before, during, and following four bouts of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) exercise. The relationship between physical qualities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability were determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Each cycle of the RHIE protocol induced progressive reductions in tackling ability. A moderate reduction (Effect Size = ~-1.17 ± 0.60, -34.1 ± 24.3%) in tackling ability occurred after the fourth cycle of the RHIE protocol. Players with greater relative lower-body strength (i.e. 4RM squat/kg) had the best tackling ability under fatigued conditions (r = 0.72, p = 0.013). There were no significant relationships between tackling ability under fatigued conditions and any other physical quality. These findings suggest that lower-body strength protects against fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability. The development of lower-body strength should be a priority to facilitate the development of robust tackling skills that are maintained under fatigue.

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<![CDATA[Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daccab0ee8fa60bb46ad

Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas). Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1) sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2) stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants’ ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05) and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05) than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512) significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

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<![CDATA[Adaptive Remodeling of Achilles Tendon: A Multi-scale Computational Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac0ab0ee8fa60bb0760

While it is known that musculotendon units adapt to their load environments, there is only a limited understanding of tendon adaptation in vivo. Here we develop a computational model of tendon remodeling based on the premise that mechanical damage and tenocyte-mediated tendon damage and repair processes modify the distribution of its collagen fiber lengths. We explain how these processes enable the tendon to geometrically adapt to its load conditions. Based on known biological processes, mechanical and strain-dependent proteolytic fiber damage are incorporated into our tendon model. Using a stochastic model of fiber repair, it is assumed that mechanically damaged fibers are repaired longer, whereas proteolytically damaged fibers are repaired shorter, relative to their pre-damage length. To study adaptation of tendon properties to applied load, our model musculotendon unit is a simplified three-component Hill-type model of the human Achilles-soleus unit. Our model results demonstrate that the geometric equilibrium state of the Achilles tendon can coincide with minimization of the total metabolic cost of muscle activation. The proposed tendon model independently predicts rates of collagen fiber turnover that are in general agreement with in vivo experimental measurements. While the computational model here only represents a first step in a new approach to understanding the complex process of tendon remodeling in vivo, given these findings, it appears likely that the proposed framework may itself provide a useful theoretical foundation for developing valuable qualitative and quantitative insights into tendon physiology and pathology.

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<![CDATA[Reduced muscle activity variability in lumbar extensor muscles during sustained sitting in individuals with chronic low back pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9405c5d5eed0c4845391be

The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity variability within and between the right and left side of lumbar muscles in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) compared to healthy controls (HCs) during sustained quiet sitting. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were collected bilaterally from the lumbar muscles with 2 high density surface EMG grids of 9x14 electrodes. Root mean square values (RMS) over 1-sec epochs of all bipolar EMG leadings were obtained. Between-sides alternating activation was computed, as well as temporal- and spatial variability within the electrode grids through the coefficient of variation and correlations between RMS distributions. The subjective influence of sitting was evaluated by the rating of perceived exertion and the amount of LBP on a numeric pain rating scale. Compared to HCs, the patients with cLBP had lower temporal (p = 0.03) and similar spatial muscle activity variability during sitting, despite a more variable sitting position. This did not result in increased muscle fatigue indicated by EMG, but the patients with cLBP reported higher levels of RPE during- and more LBP after the sitting and as a consequence ended the sitting earlier than HCs (p < 0.01). Present findings lend support to the presence of less tolerance for low-level static muscle load in patients with cLBP.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Groove Surface Texture on Tribological Characteristics and Energy Consumption under High Temperature Friction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db35ab0ee8fa60bd2b81

Energy consumption and tribological properties could be improved by proper design of surface texture in friction. However, some literature focused on investigating their performance under high temperature. In the study, different groove surface textures were fabricated on steels by a laser machine, and their tribological behaviors were experimentally studied with the employment of the friction and wear tester under distinct high temperature and other working conditions. The friction coefficient was recorded, and wear performance were characterized by double light interference microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then, the performances of energy consumptions were carefully estimated. Results showed that friction coefficient, wear, and energy consumption could almost all be reduced by most textures under high temperature conditions, but to a different extent which depends on the experimental conditions and texture parameters. The main improvement mechanisms were analyzed, such as the hardness change, wear debris storage, thermal stress release and friction induced temperature reduction by the textures. Finally, a scattergram of the relatively reduced ratio of the energy consumption was drawn for different surface textures under four distinctive experimental conditions to illustrate the comprehensive energy consumption improving ability of textures, which was of benefit for the application of texture design.

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<![CDATA[Cyclic Fatigue Resistance and Force Generated by OneShape Instruments during Curved Canal Preparation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db10ab0ee8fa60bcc022

Objectives

To evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance and the force generated by OneShape files during preparation of simulated curved canals.

Methods

Six OneShape files (the test) and six ProTaper F2 files (the control) were subject to the bending ability test. Another thirty files of each type were used to prepare artificial canals (n = 60), which were divided into 3 groups according to respective curvatures of the canals (30°, 60°, and 90°). The numbers of cycles to fatigue (NCF) as well as the positive and negative forces that were generated by files during canal preparation were recorded. The scanning electron microscopy was applied to detect the fracture surfaces.

Results

Compared with ProTaper F2 files, the bending loads of OneShape files were significantly lower at deflections of 45°(P < .05), 60° (P < .05) and 75° (P < .01). No significant difference was found at 30°. OneShape files presented a higher NCF in both 60° and 90° canals than the control (P < .01). No significant difference of NCF was found between OneShape and ProTaper files in 30° canals. During the preparation of 30° canals by both files, the negative forces were dominant. With the increase of the curvature, more positive forces were observed. When the OneShape Files were compared with the control, significant different forces were found at D3 and D2 (P < .05) in 30° canals, at D2 (P < .05), D1 (P < .01) and D0 (P < .01) in 60° canals, and at D4 and D3 (P < .01) in 90° canals.

Conclusions

OneShape files possessed a reliable flexibility and cyclic fatigue resistance. According to the assessments of the forces generated by files, OneShape instruments performed in a more fatigue-resistant way during curved canal preparation, compared with the ProTaper F2 files.

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<![CDATA[Development and evaluation of a soft wearable weight support device for reducing muscle fatigue on shoulder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe0c

Compensating the weight of human limbs is important in reducing muscle fatigue experienced by manual laborers. In this study, a compact and lightweight soft wearable weight support device was developed and evaluated. The device supports gravitational force on the shoulder at any arm posture, although there are some limitations in its assistive performance. The device actuator consists of a cam-rod structure, a tendon-driven mechanism, and a rubber band. The desired assistive torque is translated to the shoulder joint along a tendon routing structure. Device performance was evaluated by measuring muscle activation in with-assist and without-assist conditions. Muscle activation on the deltoid was measured by surface electromyography. An experimental protocol consisting of a series of exercises was executed with six healthy subjects. The subjects raised and lowered their arm from 0 to 100 degrees for 30 times under eight conditions, which were combined with-assist and without-assist conditions, and holding the horizontal angle of the arm at 0, 30, 60, or 90 degrees against the sagittal plane. Surface electromyography data were pre-processed and analyzed using a root mean square method. When muscle fatigue occurs, the root mean square of the surface electromyography increases nonlinearly. This was calculated using the standard deviation of the root mean square. Three of six subjects showed decreased variation of the root mean square between the exercises in the with-assist condition. One subject’s result was significantly reduced (by about 57.6%) in the with-assist condition. In contrast, two subjects did not show significant difference between measurements taken in the with-assist and without-assist conditions. One subject was dropped from the experiment because the device did not fit the subject’s body. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the soft wearable weight support device in supporting shoulder movements was verified through the decreased variation of muscle activation.

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<![CDATA[Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Assessing Pontine Involvement Using Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f9ab0ee8fa60b71243

Background/Objective

The underlying mechanism of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood. Our study investigates the involvement of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), originating in the pontine brainstem, in MS patients with symptoms of fatigue.

Methods

Female relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 17) and controls (n = 15) underwent a magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging protocol at 1.5T. Fatigue was assessed in every subject using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Using an FSS cut-off of 36, patients were categorized into a low (n = 9, 22 ± 10) or high (n = 10, 52 ± 6) fatigue group. The brain metabolites N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and total creatine (tCr) were measured from sixteen 5x5x10 mm3 spectroscopic imaging voxels in the rostral pons.

Results

MS patients with high fatigue had lower NAA/tCr concentration in the tegmental pons compared to control subjects. By using NAA and Cr values in the cerebellum for comparison, these NAA/tCr changes in the pons were driven by higher tCr concentration, and that these changes were focused in the WM regions.

Discussion/Conclusion

Since there were no changes in NAA concentration, the increase in tCr may be suggestive of gliosis, or an imbalanced equilibrium of the creatine and phosphocreatine ratio in the pons of relapsing-remitting MS patients with fatigue.

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<![CDATA[Reference Values for Inspiratory Muscle Endurance in Healthy Children and Adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc963

Aims

To generate reference values for two inspiratory muscle endurance (IME) protocols in healthy children and adolescents.

Materials and methods

This is an observational, cross-sectional study, in healthy children and adolescents from 4 to 18 years of age. Weight, height, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and IME were measured using two protocols. A fixed load of 30% of MIP with a 10% increment every 2 minutes was used in the incremental threshold loading protocol. As for the maximal loading protocol, a fixed load of 70% of MIP was used and the time limit (Tlim) achieved until fatigue was measured.

Results

A total of 462 participants were included, 281 corresponding to the incremental loading protocol and 181 to maximal loading. There were moderate and positive correlations between IME and age, MIP, weight and height in the incremental threshold loading. However, the regression model demonstrated that MIP and age were the best variables to predict the IME. Otherwise, weak and positive correlations with age, weight and height were found in the maximal loading. Only age and height influenced endurance in the regression model. The predictive power (r2) of the incremental threshold loading protocol was 0.65, while the maximal loading was 0.15. The reproducibility measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was higher in the incremental loading (0.96) compared to the maximal loading test (0.69).

Conclusion

IME in healthy children and adolescents can be explained by age, height and MIP. The incremental threshold loading protocol showed more reliable results and should be the model of choice to evaluate IME in the pediatric age group.

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