ResearchPad - materials-physics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of purple sweet corn juice before and after boiling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7720 Sweet corn juice is becoming increasingly popular in China. In order to provide valuable health-related information to consumers, the nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of raw and boiled purple sweet corn juices were herein investigated. Sugars, antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed by conventional chemical methods. The viscosity and stability of juices were determined by Ubbelohde viscosity meter and centrifugation, respectively. Boiling process could elevate viscosity, stability and sugar content, and reduce antinutrients, total free phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity in corn juice. In addition, short time boiling efficiently reduced the degradation of anthocyanins during subsequent refrigeration. The content of amino acids, vitamin B1/B2 and E were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of fatty acids and aroma compounds. Several aroma compounds not previously reported in corn were identified, including 1-heptanol, 2-methyl-2-butenal, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. Interestingly, the boiling process had no apparent effect on the amino acids profile, but it caused a 45.8% loss of fatty acids in the juice by promoting the retention of fatty acids in the corn residue. These results provide detailed information that could be used for increasing consumers’ knowledge of sweet corn juice, further development of sweet corn juice by food producers, and maize breeding programs.

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<![CDATA[Trajectories of fatigue among stroke patients from the acute phase to 18 months post-injury: A latent class analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc2795b82-f9e4-46cc-9fc3-23c3f213e7d4

Introduction

Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common symptom affecting 23–75% of stroke survivors. It is associated with increased risk of institutionalization and death, and it is of many patients considered among the worst symptoms to cope with after stroke. Longitudinal studies focusing on trajectories of fatigue may contribute to understanding patients’ experience of fatigue over time and its associated factors, yet only a few have been conducted to date.

Objectives

To explore whether subgroups of stroke survivors with distinct trajectories of fatigue in the first 18 months post stroke could be identified and whether these subgroups differ regarding sociodemographic, medical and/or symptom-related characteristics.

Materials and methods

115 patients with first-ever stroke admitted to Oslo University Hospital or Buskerud Hospital were recruited and data was collected prospectively during the acute phase and at 6, 12 and 18 months post stroke. Data on fatigue (both pre- and post-stroke), sociodemographic, medical and symptom-related characteristics were collected through structured interviews, standardized questionnaires and from the patients’ medical records.

Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify latent classes, i.e., subgroups of patients, based on their Fatigue Severity Scales (FSS) scores at the four time points. Differences in sociodemographic, medical, and symptom-related characteristics between the latent classes were evaluated using univariate and multivariable ordinal regression analyses.

Results and their significance

Using GMM, three latent classes of fatigue trajectories over 18 months were identified, characterized by differing levels of fatigue: low, moderate and high. The mean FSS score for each class remained relatively stable across all four time points. In the univariate analyses, age <75, pre-stroke fatigue, multiple comorbidities, current depression, disturbed sleep and some ADL impairment were associated with higher fatigue trajectories. In the multivariable analyses, pre-stroke fatigue (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.84–13.2), multiple comorbidities (OR 4,52,95% CI 1.85–11.1) and not working (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.36–15,7) were the strongest predictor of higher fatigue trajectories The findings of this study may be helpful for clinicians in identifying patients at risk of developing chronic fatigue after stroke.

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<![CDATA[A simplistic approach of algal biofuels production from wastewater using a Hybrid Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and Photobioreactor (HABR-PBR) System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nef4e691d-a854-4652-b105-625011806151

The current technologies of algal biofuels production and wastewater treatment (e.g., aerobic) process are still in question, due to the significant amount of fresh water and nutrients requirements for microalgae cultivation, and negative energy balance in both processes, especially when considered in the context of developing counties around the world. In this research, a simplistic sustainable approach of algal biofuels production from wastewater was proposed using a Hybrid Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (HABR) and Photobioreactor (PBR) system. The study suggests that the HABR was capable of removing most of the organic and solid (>90% COD and TSS removal) from wastewater, and produced a healthy feedstock (high N: P = 3:1) for microalgae cultivation in PBRs for biofuels production. A co-culture of Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella sorokiniana, and Scenedesmus simris002 showed high lipid content up to 44.1%; and the dominant FAMEs composition (C16-C18) of 87.9% in produced biofuels. Perhaps, this proposed low-cost technological approach (e.g., HABR-PBR system) would connect the currently broken link of sustainable bioenergy generation and wastewater treatment pathway for developing countries.

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<![CDATA[Thermopneumatic suction integrated microfluidic blood analysis system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accd4d5eed0c4849900d3

Blood tests provide crucial diagnostic information regarding several diseases. A key factor that affects the precision and accuracy of blood tests is the interference of red blood cells; however, the conventional methods of blood separation are often complicated and time consuming. In this study, we devised a simple but high-efficiency blood separation system on a self-strained microfluidic device that separates 99.7 ± 0.3% of the plasma in only 6 min. Parameters, such as flow rate, design of the filter trench, and the relative positions of the filter trench and channel, were optimized through microscopic monitoring. Moreover, this air-difference-driven device uses a cost-effective and easy-to-use heater device that creates a low-pressure environment in the microchannel within minutes. With the aforementioned advantages, this blood separation device could be another platform choice for point-of-care testing.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of genetic control and QTL mapping of essential wheat grain quality traits in a recombinant inbred population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897730d5eed0c4847d2663

Wheat cultivars are genetically crossed to improve end-use quality for traits as per demands of baking industry and broad consumer preferences. The processing and baking qualities of bread wheat are influenced by a variety of genetic make-ups, environmental factors and their interactions. Two wheat cultivars, WL711 and C306, derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) with a population of 206, were used for phenotyping of quality-related traits. The genetic analysis of quality traits showed considerable variation for measurable quality traits, with normal distribution and transgressive segregation across the years. From the 206 RILs, few RILs were found to be superior to those of the parental cultivars for key quality traits, indicating their potential use for the improvement of end-use quality and suggesting the probability of finding new alleles and allelic combinations from the RIL population. Mapping analysis identified 38 putative QTLs for 13 quality-related traits, with QTLs explaining 7.9–16.8% phenotypic variation spanning over 14 chromosomes, i.e., 1A, 1B, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3B, 3D, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7B. In-silico analysis based on homology to the annotated wheat genes present in database, identified six putative candidate genes within QTL for total grain protein content, qGPC.1B.1 region. Major QTL regions for other quality traits such as TKW have been identified on 1B, 2A, and 7A chromosomes in the studied RIL population. This study revealed the importance of the combination of stable QTLs with region-specific QTLs for better phenotyping, and the QTLs presented in our study will be useful for the improvement of wheat grain and bread-making quality.

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<![CDATA[Population dynamics and socio-spatial organization of the Aurignacian: Scalable quantitative demographic data for western and central Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc991d5eed0c484529e40

Demographic estimates are presented for the Aurignacian techno-complex (~42,000 to 33,000 y calBP) and discussed in the context of socio-spatial organization of hunter-gatherer populations. Results of the analytical approach applied estimate a mean of 1,500 persons (upper limit: 3,300; lower limit: 800) for western and central Europe. The temporal and spatial analysis indicates an increase of the population during the Aurignacian as well as marked regional differences in population size and density. Demographic increase and patterns of socio-spatial organization continue during the subsequent early Gravettian period. We introduce the concept of Core Areas and Extended Areas as informed analytical spatial scales, which are evaluated against additional chronological and archaeological data. Lithic raw material transport and personal ornaments serve as correlates for human mobility and connectedness in the interpretative framework of this study. Observed regional differences are set in relation with the new demographic data. Our large-scale approach on Aurignacian population dynamics in Europe suggests that past socio-spatial organization followed socially inherent rules to establish and maintain a functioning social network of extremely low population densities. The data suggest that the network was fully established across Europe during the early phase of the Gravettian, when demographic as well as cultural developments peaked.

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<![CDATA[Targeted fluorescence lifetime probes reveal responsive organelle viscosity and membrane fluidity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f151fd5eed0c48467ae1c

The only way to visually observe cellular viscosity, which can greatly influence biological reactions and has been linked to several human diseases, is through viscosity imaging. Imaging cellular viscosity has allowed the mapping of viscosity in cells, and the next frontier is targeted viscosity imaging of organelles and their microenvironments. Here we present a fluorescent molecular rotor/FLIM framework to image both organellar viscosity and membrane fluidity, using a combination of chemical targeting and organelle extraction. For demonstration, we image matrix viscosity and membrane fluidity of mitochondria, which have been linked to human diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease and Leigh’s syndrome. We find that both are highly dynamic and responsive to small environmental and physiological changes, even under non-pathological conditions. This shows that neither viscosity nor fluidity can be assumed to be fixed and underlines the need for single-cell, and now even single-organelle, imaging.

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<![CDATA[Virtual supersampling as post-processing step preserves the trabecular bone morphometry in human peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9e5d5eed0c48452a446

In the clinical field of diagnosis and monitoring of bone diseases, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is an important imaging modality. It provides a resolution where quantitative bone morphometry can be extracted in vivo on patients. It is known that HR-pQCT provides slight differences in morphometric indices compared to the current standard approach micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The most obvious reason for this is the restriction of the radiation dose and with this a lower image resolution. With advances in micro-CT evaluation techniques such as patient-specific remodeling simulations or dynamic bone morphometry, a higher image resolution would potentially also allow the application of such novel evaluation techniques to clinical HR-pQCT measurements. Virtual supersampling as post-processing step was considered to increase the image resolution of HR-pQCT scans. The hypothesis was that this technique preserves the structural bone morphometry. Supersampling from 82 μm to virtual 41 μm by trilinear interpolation of the grayscale values of 42 human cadaveric forearms resulted in strong correlations of structural parameters (R2: 0.96–1.00). BV/TV was slightly overestimated (4.3%, R2: 1.00) compared to the HR-pQCT resolution. Tb.N was overestimated (7.47%; R2: 0.99) and Tb.Th was slightly underestimated (-4.20%; R2: 0.98). The technique was reproducible with PE%CV between 1.96% (SMI) and 7.88% (Conn.D). In a clinical setting with 205 human forearms with or without fracture measured at 82 μm resolution HR-pQCT, the technique was sensitive to changes between groups in all parameters (p < 0.05) except trabecular thickness. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supersampling preserves the bone morphometry from HR-pQCT scans and is reproducible and sensitive to changes between groups. Supersampling can be used to investigate on the resolution dependency of HR-pQCT images and gain more insight into this imaging modality.

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<![CDATA[High spatio-temporal variability in Acroporidae settlement to inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52e4d5eed0c4842bd212

Recovery of coral reefs after disturbance relies heavily on replenishment through successful larval settlement and their subsequent survival. As part of an integrated study to determine the potential effects of water quality changes on the resilience of inshore coral communities, scleractinian coral settlement was monitored between 2006 and 2012 at 12 reefs within the inshore Great Barrier Reef. Settlement patterns were only analysed for the family Acroporidae, which represented the majority (84%) of settled larvae. Settlement of Acroporidae to terracotta tiles averaged 0.11 cm-2, representing 34 ± 31.01 (mean ± SD) spat per tile, indicating an abundant supply of competent larvae to the study reefs. Settlement was highly variable among reefs and between years. Differences in settlement among locations partly corresponded to the local cover of adult Acroporidae, while substantial reductions in Acroporidae cover caused by tropical cyclones and floods resulted in a clear reduction in settlement. Much of the observed variability remained unexplained, although likely included variability in both connectivity to, and the fecundity of, adult Acroporidae. The responsiveness of settlement patterns to the decline in Acroporidae cover across all four regions indicates the importance of supply and connectivity, and the vulnerability towards region-wide disturbance. High spatial and temporal variability, in addition to the resource-intensive nature of sampling with settlement tiles, highlights the logistical difficulty of determining coral settlement over large spatial and temporal scales.

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<![CDATA[Variations in pulsatile flow around stenosed microchannel depending on viscosity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5369aed5eed0c484a463f8

In studying blood flow in the vessels, the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluid are important, considering the role of viscosity in rheology. Stenosis, which is an abnormal narrowing of the vessel, has an influence on flow behavior. Therefore, analysis of blood flow in stenosed vessels is essential. However, most of them exist as simulation outcomes. In this study, non-Newtonian fluid was observed in stenosed microchannels under the pulsatile flow condition. A polydimethylsiloxane channel with 60% stenosis was fabricated by combining an optic fiber and a petri dish, resembling a mold. Three types of samples were prepared by changing the concentrations of xanthan gum, which induces a shear thinning effect (phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution as the Newtonian fluid and two non-Newtonian fluids mimicking normal blood and highly viscous blood analog). The viscosity of the samples was measured using a Y-shaped microfluidic viscometer. Thereafter, velocity profiles were analyzed under the pulsatile flow condition using the micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. For the Newtonian fluid, the streamline was skewed more to the wall of the channel. The velocity profile of the non-Newtonian fluid was generally blunter than that of the Newtonian fluid. A highly oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) during the pulsatile phase may be attributed to such a bluntness of flow under the same wall shear rate condition with the Newtonian fluid. In addition, a highly viscous flow contributes to the variation in the WSS after passing through the stenosed structures. A similar tendency was observed in simulation results. Such a variation in the WSS was associated with plaque instability or rupture and damage of the tissue layer. These results, related to the influence on the damage to the endothelium or stenotic lesion, may help clinicians understand relevant mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[Tracing long-term demographic changes: The issue of spatial scales]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667edd5eed0c4841a6986

This paper deals with the analysis of long-term changes in population densities at the regional and macro-regional scale and in the density of metapopulations. The following issues concerning estimations are addressed: chronological resolution of demographic changes, estimation of the weight of values for population density in order to transform the initial values included in the sample into the values that may be compared with each other at the regional scale, calibration of the transformed values into real population densities, and the estimation of the weight of values for population density at the scales of macro-regions and for the density of metapopulations. The proposed methods are tested on demographic changes in Central Europe, Southern Scandinavia, Southeastern Europe, and the Near East. The obtained results represent major trends in demographic development, while the proposed methodology could also be applied in other wide-scale demographic analyses.

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<![CDATA[Preservation potential of keratin in deep time]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841b6d5eed0c484fca868

Multiple fossil discoveries and taphonomic experiments have established the durability of keratin. The utility and specificity of antibodies to identify keratin peptides has also been established, both in extant feathers under varying treatment conditions, and in feathers from extinct organisms. Here, we show localization of feather-keratin antibodies to control and heat-treated feathers, testifying to the repeatability of initial data supporting the preservation potential of keratin. We then show new data at higher resolution that demonstrates the specific response of these antibodies to the feather matrix, we support the presence of protein in heat-treated feathers using ToF-SIMS, and we apply these methods to a fossil feather preserved in the unusual environment of sinter hot springs. We stress the importance of employing realistic conditions such as sediment burial when designing experiments intended as proxies for taphonomic processes occurring in the fossil record. Our data support the hypothesis that keratin, particularly the β-keratin that comprises feathers, has potential to preserve in fossil remains.

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<![CDATA[The effect of complex intramural microstructure caused by structural remodeling on the stability of atrial fibrillation: Insights from a three-dimensional multi-layer modeling study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841fed5eed0c484fcb64c

Background

Recent researches have suggested that the complex three-dimensional structures caused by structural remodeling play a key role in atrial fibrillation (AF) substrates. Here we aimed to investigate this hypothesis using a multi-layer model representing intramural microstructural features.

Methods

The proposed multi-layer model was composed of the endocardium, connection wall, and epicardium. In the connection wall, intramural fibrosis was simulated using fibrotic patches randomly scattered in the myocardial tissue of fibrotic layers, while endo-epicardial dissociation was simulated using myocardial patches randomly scattered in the fibrotic tissue of isolation layers. Multiple simulation groups were generated to quantitatively analyze the effects of endo-epicardial dissociation and intramural fibrosis on AF stability, including a stochastic group, interrelated groups, fibrosis-degree-controlled groups, and dissociation-degree-controlled groups.

Results

1. Stable intramural re-entries were observed to move along complete re-entrant circuits inside the transmural wall in four of 65 simulations in the stochastic group. 2. About 21 of 23 stable simulations in the stochastic group were distributed in the areas with high endo-epicardial dissociation and intramural fibrosis. 3. The difference between fibrosis-degree-controlled groups and dissociation-degree-controlled groups suggested that some distributions of connection areas may affect AF episodes despite low intramural fibrosis and endo-epicardial dissociation. 4. The overview of tracking phase singularities revealed that endo-epicardial dissociation played a visible role in AF substrates.

Conclusion

The complex intramural microstructure is positively correlated with critical components of AF maintenance mechanisms. The occurrence of intramural re-entry further indicates the complexity of AF wave-dynamics.

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<![CDATA[Viscoelastic parameters as discriminators of breast masses: Initial human study results]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bca48d540307c0516656413

Shear wave elastography is emerging as a clinically valuable diagnostic tool to differentiate between benign and malignant breast masses. Elastography techniques assume that soft tissue can be modelled as a purely elastic medium. However, this assumption is often violated as soft tissue exhibits viscoelastic properties. In order to explore the role of viscoelastic parameters in suspicious breast masses, a study was conducted on a group of patients using shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry in the frequency range of 50–400 Hz. A total of 43 female patients with suspicious breast masses were recruited before their scheduled biopsy. Of those, 15 patients did not meet the data selection criteria. Voigt model based shear elasticity showed a significantly (p = 7.88x10-6) higher median value for the 13 malignant masses (16.76±13.10 kPa) compared to 15 benign masses (1.40±1.12 kPa). Voigt model based shear viscosity was significantly different (p = 4.13x10-5) between malignant (8.22±3.36 Pa-s) and benign masses (2.83±1.47 Pa-s). Moreover, the estimated time constant from the Voigt model, which is dependent on both shear elasticity and viscosity, differed significantly (p = 6.13x10-5) between malignant (0.68±0.33 ms) and benign masses (3.05±1.95 ms). Results suggest that besides elasticity, viscosity based parameters like shear viscosity and time constant can also be used to differentiate between malignant and benign breast masses.

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<![CDATA[The importance of mechanical constraints for proper polarization and psuedo-cleavage furrow generation in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4f2cd2463d7e25bffba872

Intracellular polarization, where a cell specifies a spatial axis by segregation of specific factors, is a fundamental biological process. In the early embryo of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), polarization is often accompanied by deformations of the cortex, a highly contractile structure consisting of actin filaments cross-linked by the motor protein myosin (actomyosin). It has been suggested that the eggshell surrounding the early embryo plays a role in polarization although its function is not understood. Here we develop a mathematical model which couples a reaction-diffusion model of actomyosin dynamics with a phase field model of the cell cortex to implicitly track cell shape changes in the early C. elegans embryo. We investigate the potential rigidity effect of the geometric constraint imposed by the presence and size of the eggshell on polarization dynamics. Our model suggests that the geometric constraint of the eggshell is essential for proper polarization and the size of the eggshell also affects the dynamics of polarization. Therefore, we conclude that geometric constraint on a cell might affect the dynamics of a biochemical process.

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<![CDATA[Microfluidic viscometry using magnetically actuated micropost arrays]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b600f82463d7e3af00e5a88

Here we describe development of a microfluidic viscometer based on arrays of magnetically actuated micro-posts. Quantitative viscosities over a range of three orders of magnitude were determined for samples of less than 20 μL. This represents the first demonstration of quantitative viscometry using driven flexible micropost arrays. Critical to the success of our system is a comprehensive analytical model that includes the mechanical and magnetic properties of the actuating posts, the optical readout, and fluid-structure interactions. We found that alterations of the actuator beat shape as parameterized by the dimensionless “sperm number” must be taken into account to determine the fluid properties from the measured actuator dynamics. Beyond our particular system, the model described here can provide dynamics predictions for a broad class of flexible microactuator designs. We also show how the model can guide the design of new arrays that expand the accessible range of measurements.

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<![CDATA[Nonmechanistic forecasts of seasonal influenza with iterative one-week-ahead distributions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b30b251463d7e0b2827fd22

Accurate and reliable forecasts of seasonal epidemics of infectious disease can assist in the design of countermeasures and increase public awareness and preparedness. This article describes two main contributions we made recently toward this goal: a novel approach to probabilistic modeling of surveillance time series based on “delta densities”, and an optimization scheme for combining output from multiple forecasting methods into an adaptively weighted ensemble. Delta densities describe the probability distribution of the change between one observation and the next, conditioned on available data; chaining together nonparametric estimates of these distributions yields a model for an entire trajectory. Corresponding distributional forecasts cover more observed events than alternatives that treat the whole season as a unit, and improve upon multiple evaluation metrics when extracting key targets of interest to public health officials. Adaptively weighted ensembles integrate the results of multiple forecasting methods, such as delta density, using weights that can change from situation to situation. We treat selection of optimal weightings across forecasting methods as a separate estimation task, and describe an estimation procedure based on optimizing cross-validation performance. We consider some details of the data generation process, including data revisions and holiday effects, both in the construction of these forecasting methods and when performing retrospective evaluation. The delta density method and an adaptively weighted ensemble of other forecasting methods each improve significantly on the next best ensemble component when applied separately, and achieve even better cross-validated performance when used in conjunction. We submitted real-time forecasts based on these contributions as part of CDC’s 2015/2016 FluSight Collaborative Comparison. Among the fourteen submissions that season, this system was ranked by CDC as the most accurate.

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<![CDATA[Imaging of Scleral Collagen Deformation Using Combined Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy and Polarized Light Microscopy Techniques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e7ab0ee8fa60b6bb88

This work presents an optospectroscopic characterization technique for soft tissue microstructure using site-matched confocal Raman microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. Using the technique, the microstructure of soft tissue samples is directly observed by polarized light microscopy during loading while spatially correlated spectroscopic information is extracted from the same plane, verifying the orientation and arrangement of the collagen fibers. Results show the response and orientation of the collagen fiber arrangement in its native state as well as during tensile and compressive loadings in a porcine sclera model. An example is also given showing how the data can be used with a finite element program to estimate the strain in individual collagen fibers. The measurements demonstrate features that indicate microstructural reorganization and damage of the sclera’s collagen fiber arrangement under loading. The site-matched confocal Raman microspectroscopic characterization of the tissue provides a qualitative measure to relate the change in fibrillar arrangement with possible chemical damage to the collagen microstructure. Tests and analyses presented here can potentially be used to determine the stress-strain behavior, and fiber reorganization of the collagen microstructure in soft tissue during viscoelastic response.

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<![CDATA[Nanoscale modifications in the early heating stages of bone are heterogeneous at the microstructural scale]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdc9f1

Nanoscale studies of bone provide key indicators to evidence subtle structural changes that may occur in the biomedical, forensic and archaeological contexts. One specific problem encountered in all those disciplines, for which the identification of nanostructural cues could prove useful, is to properly monitor the effect of heating on bone tissue. In particular, the mechanisms at work at the onset of heating are still relatively unclear. Using a multiscale approach combining Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron quantitative scanning small-angle X-ray scattering imaging (qsSAXSI) and polarized light (PL) microscopy, we investigate the ultrastructure of cortical bovine bone heated at temperatures < 300°C, from the molecular to the macroscopic scale. We show that, despite limited changes in crystal structure, the mineral nanoparticles increase in thickness and become strongly disorganized upon heating. Furthermore, while the nanostructure in distinct anatomical quadrants appears to be statistically different, our results demonstrate this stems from the tissue histology, i.e. from the high degree of heterogeneity of the microstructure induced by the complex cellular processes involved in bone tissue formation. From this study, we conclude that the analysis of bone samples based on the structure and organization of the mineral nanocrystals requires performing measurements at the histological level, which is an advantageous feature of qsSAXSI. This is a critical aspect that extends to a much broader range of questions relating to nanoscale investigations of bone, which could also be extended to other classes of nanostructured heterogeneous materials.

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<![CDATA[A Finite Element Model for Mixed Porohyperelasticity with Transport, Swelling, and Growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd40e9

The purpose of this manuscript is to establish a unified theory of porohyperelasticity with transport and growth and to demonstrate the capability of this theory using a finite element model developed in MATLAB. We combine the theories of volumetric growth and mixed porohyperelasticity with transport and swelling (MPHETS) to derive a new method that models growth of biological soft tissues. The conservation equations and constitutive equations are developed for both solid-only growth and solid/fluid growth. An axisymmetric finite element framework is introduced for the new theory of growing MPHETS (GMPHETS). To illustrate the capabilities of this model, several example finite element test problems are considered using model geometry and material parameters based on experimental data from a porcine coronary artery. Multiple growth laws are considered, including time-driven, concentration-driven, and stress-driven growth. Time-driven growth is compared against an exact analytical solution to validate the model. For concentration-dependent growth, changing the diffusivity (representing a change in drug) fundamentally changes growth behavior. We further demonstrate that for stress-dependent, solid-only growth of an artery, growth of an MPHETS model results in a more uniform hoop stress than growth in a hyperelastic model for the same amount of growth time using the same growth law. This may have implications in the context of developing residual stresses in soft tissues under intraluminal pressure. To our knowledge, this manuscript provides the first full description of an MPHETS model with growth. The developed computational framework can be used in concert with novel in-vitro and in-vivo experimental approaches to identify the governing growth laws for various soft tissues.

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