ResearchPad - measurement https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Precision and reliability of tape measurements in the assessment of head and neck lymphedema]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15733 Tape measurement is a commonly used method in the clinical assessment of lymphedema. However, few studies have assessed the precision and reliability of tape measurement in assessing head and neck lymphedema. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and precision of using tape measurement, performed by different evaluators, for the assessment of head and neck lymphedema.MethodsThis study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer hospital. Between January and December 2019, 50 patients with head and neck cancers and 50 normal subjects were enrolled. Each subject was examined using tape measurements for 7 point-to-point distances of facial landmarks, 3 circumferences of the neck (upper, middle, and lower), and 2 circumferences of the face (vertical and oblique) by 3 random examiners. Test precision and reliability were assessed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively.ResultsOverall, the standard deviation of the tape measurements varied in the range of 4.6 mm to 18.3 mm. The measurement of distance between the tragus and mouth angle (Sw: 4.6 mm) yielded the highest precision, but the reliability (ICC: 0.66) was moderate. The reliabilities of neck circumference measurements (ICC: 0.90–0.95) were good to excellent, but the precisions (Sw: 8.3–12.3 mm) were lower than those of point-to-point facial measurements (Sw: 4.6–8.8 mm).ConclusionsThe different methods of tape measurements varied in precision and reliability. Thus, clinicians should not rely on a single measurement when evaluating head and neck lymphedema. ]]> <![CDATA[Emerging insights on internet gaming disorder: Conceptual and measurement issues]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10176 <![CDATA[FEASIBILITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF DETECTING COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND DEMENTIA IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICES]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd3705a81-4c76-4aed-873e-143b9060a401

Abstract

As the age of the US population increases, so does cognitive impairment (CI); therefore early detection of CI is critical for ensuring its appropriate management. As part of a NINDS Consortium to detect CI and dementia in primary care (DetectCID), we are implementing and evaluating a brief 2-step CI detection paradigm (MyCog), that can be delivered in clinics with diverse populations via the electronic health record (step 1) and iPad (step 2). We conducted focus groups with 25 clinicians and administrative leaders from academic and community primary care practices to 1) understand how CI is being assessed, and 2) evaluate the feasibility of implementing the MyCog paradigm into existing primary care workflows. Several key themes emerged from the discussions. No proactive detection strategy for CI was regularly used outside of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visits (AWV); variable assessments including the Minicog, MoCA, or MMSE were used to fulfill the AWV requirement. Regarding the feasibility of our MyCog Paradigm, our 2-step process was positively received, with the brief case-finding step 1 satisfying AWV requirements and replacing the longer assessments currently being used. Clinicians preferred that step 2 be self-administered due to limited clinician time for wellness visits, and highlighted logistical challenges such as room availability and storage and maintenance of the iPad. Overall, clinicians felt that the identification of CI was valuable and supported standardization, but indicated regular case finding was unlikely without clear guidance on clinical decision-making.

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<![CDATA[Self-monitoring of Blood Pressure in Patients With Hypertension-Related Multi-morbidity: Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncebf9595-8944-48ca-a43d-54d50d9a2feb

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Studies have shown that self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) is effective when combined with co-interventions, but its efficacy varies in the presence of some co-morbidities. This study examined whether self-monitoring can reduce clinic BP in patients with hypertension-related co-morbidity.

METHODS

A systematic review was conducted of articles published in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to January 2018. Randomized controlled trials of self-monitoring of BP were selected and individual patient data (IPD) were requested. Contributing studies were prospectively categorized by whether they examined a low/high-intensity co-intervention. Change in BP and likelihood of uncontrolled BP at 12 months were examined according to number and type of hypertension-related co-morbidity in a one-stage IPD meta-analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 22 trials were eligible, 16 of which were able to provide IPD for the primary outcome, including 6,522 (89%) participants with follow-up data. Self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic BP compared to usual care at 12-month follow-up, regardless of the number of hypertension-related co-morbidities (−3.12 mm Hg, [95% confidence intervals −4.78, −1.46 mm Hg]; P value for interaction with number of morbidities = 0.260). Intense interventions were more effective than low-intensity interventions in patients with obesity (P < 0.001 for all outcomes), and possibly stroke (P < 0.004 for BP control outcome only), but this effect was not observed in patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.

CONCLUSIONS

Self-monitoring lowers BP regardless of the number of hypertension-related co-morbidities, but may only be effective in conditions such obesity or stroke when combined with high-intensity co-interventions.

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<![CDATA[Cloud Masking for Landsat 8 and MODIS Terra Over Snow‐Covered Terrain: Error Analysis and Spectral Similarity Between Snow and Cloud]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc5196595-d5fc-4d27-ac3a-3f548f9e522c

Abstract

Automated, reliable cloud masks over snow‐covered terrain would improve the retrieval of snow properties from multispectral satellite sensors. The U.S. Geological Survey and NASA chose the currently operational cloud masks based on global performance across diverse land cover types. This study assesses errors in these cloud masks over snow‐covered, midlatitude mountains. We use 26 Landsat 8 scenes with manually delineated cloud, snow, and land cover to assess the performance of two cloud masks: CFMask for the Landsat 8 OLI and the cloud mask that ships with Moderate‐Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance products MOD09GA and MYD09GA. The overall precision and recall of CFMask over snow‐covered terrain are 0.70 and 0.86; the MOD09GA cloud mask precision and recall are 0.17 and 0.72. A plausible reason for poorer performance of cloud masks over snow lies in the potential similarity between multispectral signatures of snow and cloud pixels in three situations: (1) Snow at high elevation is bright enough in the “cirrus” bands (Landsat band 9 or MODIS band 26) to be classified as cirrus. (2) Reflectances of “dark” clouds in shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands are bracketed by snow spectra in those wavelengths. (3) Snow as part of a fractional mixture in a pixel with soils sometimes produces “bright SWIR” pixels that look like clouds. Improvement in snow‐cloud discrimination in these cases will require more information than just the spectrum of the sensor's bands or will require deployment of a spaceborne imaging spectrometer, which could discriminate between snow and cloud under conditions where a multispectral sensor might not.

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<![CDATA[Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men: A secondary analysis of energy expenditure and physical activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6924c77f-ef46-47bb-9a2b-08f320f77ea8

Background

A previously published pilot study assessed energy expenditure (EE) of participants with overweight and obesity after they were switched from a baseline high-carbohydrate diet (BD) to an isocaloric low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD). EE measured using metabolic chambers increased transiently by what was considered a relatively small extent after the switch to the KD, whereas EE measured using doubly labeled water (EEDLW) increased to a greater degree after the response in the chambers had waned. Using a publicly available dataset, we examined the effect of housing conditions on the magnitude of the increase in EEDLW after the switch to the KD and the role of physical activity in that response.

Methods

The 14-day EEDLW measurement period included 4 days when subjects were confined to chambers instead of living in wards. To determine the effect on EEDLW only for the days subjects were living in the wards, we calculated non-chamber EE (EEnonchamber). To assess the role of physical activity in the response to the KD, we analyzed chamber and non-chamber accelerometer data for the BD and KD EEDLW measurement periods.

Results

In comparison with the increase in average 14-day EEDLW of 151 kcal/d ± 63 (P = 0.03) after the switch to the KD, EEnonchamber increased by 203 ± 89 kcal/d (P = 0.04) or 283 ± 116 kcal/d (P = 0.03) depending on the analytical approach. Hip accelerometer counts decreased significantly (P = 0.01) after the switch to the KD, whereas wrist and ankle accelerometer counts did not change.

Conclusions

Switching from the BD to the KD substantially increased EEDLW, but apparently only on days subjects were living in the ward outside the metabolic chamber. Increased physical activity as measured by accelerometry did not appear to account for this effect.

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<![CDATA[Schedules for Self-monitoring Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9e598cd5eed0c4842431f4

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Self-monitoring of blood pressure better predicts prognosis than clinic measurement, is popular with patients, and endorsed in hypertension guidelines. However, there is uncertainty over the optimal self-monitoring schedule. We therefore aimed to determine the optimum schedule to predict future cardiovascular events and determine “true” underlying blood pressure.

METHODS

Six electronic databases were searched from November 2009 (updating a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE] systematic review) to April 2017. Studies that compared aspects of self-monitoring schedules to either prognosis or reliability/reproducibility in hypertensive adults were included. Data on study and population characteristics, self-monitoring regime, and outcomes were extracted by 2 reviewers independently.

RESULTS

From 5,164 unique articles identified, 25 met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies were included from the original NICE review, making a total of 37 studies. Increasing the number of days of measurement improved prognostic power: 72%–91% of the theoretical maximum predictive value (asymptotic maximum hazard ratio) was reached by 3 days and 86%–96% by 7 days. Increasing beyond 3 days of measurement did not result in better correlation with ambulatory monitoring. There was no convincing evidence that the timing or number of readings per day had an effect, or that ignoring the first day’s measurement was necessary.

CONCLUSIONS

Home blood pressure should be measured for 3 days, increased to 7 only when mean blood pressure is close to a diagnostic or treatment threshold. Other aspects of a monitoring schedule can be flexible to facilitate patient uptake of and adherence with self-monitoring.

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<![CDATA[Lower plasma insulin levels during overnight closed-loop in school children with type 1 diabetes: Potential advantage? A randomized cross-over trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c197ad5eed0c484b4d740

Background

Studies have shown that overnight closed-loop insulin delivery can improve glucose control and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and hence may improve metabolic outcomes and reduce burden for children with type 1 diabetes and their families. However, research so far has not reported insulin levels while comparing closed-loop to open-loop insulin delivery in children. Therefore, in this study we obtained glucose levels as well as plasma insulin levels in children with type 1 diabetes to evaluate the efficacy of a model—based closed-loop algorithm compared to an open-loop administration.

Methods

Fifteen children with type 1 diabetes, 6–12 years, participated in this open-label single center study. We used a randomized cross over design in which we compared overnight closed-loop insulin delivery with sensor augmented pump therapy for two nights in both the hospital and at home (i.e., 1 night in-patient stay and at home per treatment condition). Only during the in-patient stay, hourly plasma insulin and blood glucose levels were assessed and are reported in this paper.

Results

Results of paired sample t-tests revealed that although plasma insulin levels were significantly lower during the closed-loop than in the open-loop (Mean difference 36.51 pmol/l; t(13) = 2.13, p = .03, effect size d = 0.57), blood glucose levels did not vary between conditions (mean difference 0.76 mmol/l; t(13) = 1.24, p = .12, d = 0.37). The administered dose of insulin was significantly lower during the closed-loop compared with the open-loop (mean difference 0.10 UI; t(12) = 2.45, p = .02, d = 0.68).

Conclusions

Lower insulin doses were delivered in the closed-loop, resulting in lower plasma insulin levels, whereby glucose levels were not affected negatively. This suggests that the closed-loop administration is better targeted and hence could be more effective.

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<![CDATA[An anatomical study on lumbar arteries related to the extrapedicular approach applied during lumbar PVP (PKP)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823e7d5eed0c48463929f

To observe the regional anatomy of the lumbar artery (LA) associated with the extrapedicular approach applied during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), we collected 78 samples of abdominal computed tomography angiography imaging data. We measured the nearest distance from the center of the vertebral body puncture point to the LA (distance VBPP-LA, DVBPP-LA). According to the DVBPP-LA, four zones, Zone I, Zone II, Zone III and Zone IV, were identified. LAs that passed through these zones were called Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV LAs, respectively. A portion of the lumbar vertebrae had an intersegmental branch that originated from the upper segmental LA and extended longitudinally across the lateral wall of the pedicle; it was called Type V LA. Compared with the DVBPP-LA in L1, L2, L3 and L4, the overall difference and between-group differences were significant (P < 0.05). In L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5, there were 8, 4, 4, 0 and 1 Type I LAs, respectively. There were no Type V LAs in L1 and L2, but there were 2, 16 and 26 Type V LAs in L3, L4 and L5, respectively. In L1-L5, the numbers of Type I LA plus Type V LA were 8, 4, 6, 16 and 27, and the presence ratios were 5.1%, 2.6%, 5.6%, 10.3% and 17.3%, respectively. In L4 and L5, the male presence ratios of Type I LA plus Type V LA were 7.1% and 10.7%, respectively, and the female presence ratios were 13.9% and 25.0%, respectively. Thus, extrapedicular PVP (PKP) in lumbar vertebrae had a risk of LA injury and was not suggested for use in L4 and L5, especially in female patients.

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<![CDATA[Quantitation of 5-methyltetraydrofolic acid in plasma for determination of folate status and clinical studies by stable isotope dilution assays]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c785012d5eed0c484007c22

Folates play a key role in the prevention of neural tube defects in newborns. Thus, it is important to reliably determine the bioavailability of folates from various foods. Accurate analytical methods are essential for quantifying blood-folates, especially in human studies. Here, we present the development and validation of a sensitive method using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for determining various folates in plasma. Moreover, this study reports the applicability of the developed method to a human pilot study using strawberries as a test food. Validation of the assay revealed the precision, sensitivity, and accuracy of the method in determining the predominant 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in plasma. This method was also applicable for the screening of individual folate status using finger prick blood and for monitoring the post-absorptive plasma-concentration curve. Moreover, the human study revealed a high recovery of strawberry folates with a calculated relative bioavailability of 96.2%. Thus, the developed method enables prospective bioavailability studies. This work also confirmed, via human studies, that strawberries are a rich and natural source of folates that are available for human metabolism.

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<![CDATA[A novel polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene (Fads2): A possible role in the basal metabolic rate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e86d5eed0c484cc247a

Fatty acyl composition of cell membrane lipids, particularly the abundance of highly unsaturated docosahexaenoic fatty acid (22:6n-3, DHA), is likely to be an important predictor of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Our study was performed using two lines of laboratory mice divergently selected for either high or low BMR. We describe a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the Fads2 gene encoding Δ6-desaturase, a key enzyme in the metabolic pathways of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The allele frequencies of Fads2 were significantly different in both lines of mice. The analysis of genetic distances revealed that the genetic differentiation between the two studied lines developed significantly faster at the Fads2 locus than it did at neutral loci. Such a pattern suggests that the Fads2 polymorphism is related to the variation in BMR, i.e. the direct target of selection. The Fads2 polymorphism significantly affected abundance of several PUFAs; however, the differences in PUFA composition between lines were compatible with the difference in frequency of Fads2 alleles only for DHA. We hypothesize that the polymorphism in the Fads2 gene affects the BMR through modification of DHA abundance in cell membranes. This may be the first example of a significant link between a polymorphism in a gene responsible for fatty acyl composition and variation in BMR.

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<![CDATA[Preoperative estimation of distance between retinal break and limbus with wide-field fundus imaging: Potential clinical utility for conventional scleral buckling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75add5eed0c4843cffdf

Objective

Accurate scleral marking of retinal breaks is essential for successful scleral buckling. This study aimed to investigate the use of wide-field fundus images obtained with an Optos for preoperative estimation of the distance from the limbus to the retinal breaks.

Methods and analysis

This is a retrospective review of 29 eyes from 26 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who received scleral buckling with anatomically successful repair. They underwent wide-field fundus photography with Optos California. In the pre- and postoperative fundus images, we measured distances from the macula to the retinal tears (TM), to the center of the vortex veins (VM), to the optic disc (DM), and to the posterior edge of the scleral buckle (BM).

Results

(BM—VM) / DM was significantly correlated with the distance from the limbus to the posterior edge of the scleral buckle that had been determined intraoperatively. (r = 0.705; p<0.001) We applied a regression line derived from this correlation with the value of (TM -VM) / DM in order to calculate estimated distances between retinal breaks and the limbus. The calculated distances were all within the range of distances from the limbus to the anterior and posterior edges of the scleral buckles.

Conclusion

Preoperative analysis of Optos images may be useful for estimating the distance from the limbus to retinal breaks, which might aid scleral marking during scleral buckling surgery.

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<![CDATA[A unified framework for unconstrained and constrained ordination of microbiome read count data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9a3d5eed0c484529f4e

Explorative visualization techniques provide a first summary of microbiome read count datasets through dimension reduction. A plethora of dimension reduction methods exists, but many of them focus primarily on sample ordination, failing to elucidate the role of the bacterial species. Moreover, implicit but often unrealistic assumptions underlying these methods fail to account for overdispersion and differences in sequencing depth, which are two typical characteristics of sequencing data. We combine log-linear models with a dispersion estimation algorithm and flexible response function modelling into a framework for unconstrained and constrained ordination. The method is able to cope with differences in dispersion between taxa and varying sequencing depths, to yield meaningful biological patterns. Moreover, it can correct for observed technical confounders, whereas other methods are adversely affected by these artefacts. Unlike distance-based ordination methods, the assumptions underlying our method are stated explicitly and can be verified using simple diagnostics. The combination of unconstrained and constrained ordination in the same framework is unique in the field and facilitates microbiome data exploration. We illustrate the advantages of our method on simulated and real datasets, while pointing out flaws in existing methods. The algorithms for fitting and plotting are available in the R-package RCM.

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<![CDATA[Sour grapes and sweet victories: How actions shape preferences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d00fad5eed0c4840373bf

Classical decision theory postulates that choices proceed from subjective values assigned to the probable outcomes of alternative actions. Some authors have argued that opposite causality should also be envisaged, with choices influencing subsequent values expressed in desirability ratings. The idea is that agents may increase their ratings of items that they have chosen in the first place, which has been typically explained by the need to reduce cognitive dissonance. However, evidence in favor of this reverse causality has been the topic of intense debates that have not reached consensus so far. Here, we take a novel approach using Bayesian techniques to compare models in which choices arise from stable (but noisy) underlying values (one-way causality) versus models in which values are in turn influenced by choices (two-way causality). Moreover, we examined whether in addition to choices, other components of previous actions, such as the effort invested and the eventual action outcome (success or failure), could also impact subsequent values. Finally, we assessed whether the putative changes in values were only expressed in explicit ratings, or whether they would also affect other value-related behaviors such as subsequent choices. Behavioral data were obtained from healthy participants in a rating-choice-rating-choice-rating paradigm, where the choice task involves deciding whether or not to exert a given physical effort to obtain a particular food item. Bayesian selection favored two-way causality models, where changes in value due to previous actions affected subsequent ratings, choices and action outcomes. Altogether, these findings may help explain how values and actions drift when several decisions are made successively, hence highlighting some shortcomings of classical decision theory.

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<![CDATA[Agreement between a single-item measure of anxiety and depression and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bd6d5eed0c48491e9ab

Anxiety and depression can be heightened among individuals living with chronic diseases. Identifying these individuals is necessary for ensuring they are provided with adequate support. Traditional tools such as clinical interviews or symptom checklists are not always feasible to implement in practice. Robust single-item questions may be a useful alternative. This study aimed to measure agreement, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of a single-item question about anxiety and depression compared to the widely used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A cross-sectional survey of 2,811 people with cancer attending 19 treatment centres in Australia. Patients were approached in the waiting room prior to an outpatient clinic appointment and invited to complete a pen and paper survey. Participants completed the HADS as well as 2 single-items asking if they have felt anxious or depressed in the last week. The single-items for anxiety and depression each demonstrated moderate levels of sensitivity (0.78 for anxiety; 0.63 for depression) and specificity (0.75 for anxiety; 0.84 for depression) against the relevant HADS subscale. Positive predictive values were moderate (0.53 for anxiety and 0.52 for depression) while negative predictive values were high for both single-item questions (0.90 for anxiety and 0.89 for depression). The single-item measures of anxiety and depression may be useful to rule out individuals who do not require further psychological assessment or intervention for anxiety and depression. Further research is needed to explore whether these findings generalise to other chronic diseases.

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<![CDATA[The validity of two commercially-available sleep trackers and actigraphy for assessment of sleep parameters in obstructive sleep apnea patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa560d5eed0c484ca3a0a

Objective

The use of activity and sleep trackers that operate through dedicated smartphone applications has become popular in the general population. However, the validity of the data they provide has been disappointing and only Total Sleep Time (TST) is reliably recorded in healthy individuals for any of the devices tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of two sleep trackers (Withings pulse 02 (W) and Jawbone Up (U)) to measure sleep parameters in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Methods

All patients evaluated for OSA in our sleep laboratory underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG). PSG was conducted simultaneously with three other devices: two consumer-level sleep monitors (U and W) and one actigraph (Bodymedia SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA)).

Results

Of 36 patients evaluated, 22 (17 men) were diagnosed with OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index of 37+ 23/h). Single comparisons of sleep trackers (U and W) and actigraph (SWA) were performed. Compared to PSG, SWA correctly assessed TST and Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), and U and W correctly assessed Time In Bed (TIB) and light sleep. Intraclass correlations (ICC) revealed poor validity for all parameters and devices, except for WASO assessed by SWA.

Conclusions

This is the first study assessing the validity of sleep trackers in OSA patients. In this series, we have confirmed the limited performance of wearable sleep monitors that has been previously observed in healthy subjects. In OSA patients, wearable app-based health technologies provide a good estimation of TIB and light sleep but with very poor ICC.

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<![CDATA[Validation of the single-items Spanish-School Science Attitude Survey (S-SSAS) for elementary education]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667dcd5eed0c4841a66fe

The development of positive attitudes toward science is one of the main priorities in science education. However, there is a lack of reliable and valid instruments to measure Spanish-speaking elementary students’ attitudes towards school science. In this study, the translation and validation of the Spanish School-Science Attitude Survey (S-SSAS) is reported. The instrument was administered to 643 students enrolled in 3rd to 6th elementary grades. Psychometric evaluation of the S-SSAS provided sound evidence for validity (face, content, construct and criterion) and reliability (internal consistency and temporal stability). Content validity was confirmed through a panel of experts who reached great consensus in linking items to attitudinal constructs, with an ICC = .956. Think-aloud interviews confirmed that students have easily understood and correctly interpreted all items included, thus providing face validity for the S-SSAS. Consistent with theoretical expectations, predictive validity ranged between -.334 to 543 and concurrent validity was examined through S-SSAS correlation with two external measures of conceptual convergence that ranged from.301 to .560, thus confirming criterion validity. Construct validity was assessed by obtaining consistent results with the original scale in terms of reporting no statistically significant differences in attitudinal profiles towards school science between girls and boys and between students from urban and rural schools. Cronbach αfor the entire scale was .704, with item-total correlation ranging from .243 to .560, which reports acceptable internal consistency. Temporal stability with a 10-days span was good, with ICC = .873 and r = .464–790. Taken together, these results indicate that the Spanish single-items School-Science Attitude Survey is easy to administer and equally interpreted by both girls and boys enrolled in rural and urban elementary schools, thus being a valid and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes towards school science.

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<![CDATA[Towards a conceptual model for the use of home healthcare medical devices: The multi-parameter monitor case]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e93d5eed0c484d2740f

In the last decade there has been an increase in the use of medical devices in the home environment. These devices are commonly the same as those used in hospitals by healthcare professionals. The use of these these devices by lay users outside of a clinical environment may become unsafe. This study presents a methodology that allows decision makers to identify potential risk situations that may arise when lay users operate healthcare medical devices at home. Through a usability study based on the Grounded Theory methodology, we create a conceptual model in which we identified problems and errors related to the use of a multi-parameter monitor in a home environment by a group of lay users. The conceptual model is reified as a graphical representation, which allows stakeholders to identify (i) the weaknesses of the device, (ii) unsafe operation modes, and (iii) the most suitable device for a specific user.

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<![CDATA[Geo-spatial analysis of individual-level needle and syringe coverage in Melbourne, Australia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b53d5eed0c4846eb5c8

Distance to health services is known to be negatively associated with usage and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) for people who inject drugs (PWID) are no different. Australia has a mixture of NSP modalities (primary or secondary fixed-site NSPs), which may present unique barriers to access. In this study, we explore 1) the effect of distance to NSPs on individual-level needle and syringe coverage, and 2) differences in coverage dependent on NSP modality. Using data from 219 PWID in an ongoing cohort study in Melbourne, Australia, we measured the straight-line distance from participants’ residence to their nearest primary or secondary fixed-site NSP. We analysed the relationship between geographical distance and coverage via regression analysis. The median distance to any type of NSP was 1872 metres. Regardless of service type, 52% of participants lived within 2 kms of a fixed-site NSP and 87% lived within 5 kms. We found no association between distance to NSPs and syringe coverage or a significant difference in coverage by nearest service type. Our findings suggest that the number and distribution of NSPs in Melbourne, Australia caters adequately for the population of PWID.

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<![CDATA[Validity and reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) in family caregivers of children with chronic diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841cdd5eed0c484fcac70

Background

Information on the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) in family caregivers of children with chronic diseases is currently unavailable, indicating a significant gap in the literature. Therefore, we investigated 1) which of the five evaluated measurement models had the best fit, 2) the scale’s reliability, and 3) the scale’s convergent validity.

MethodS

In 2018, a cross-sectional ex post facto study with non-probability convenience sampling was conducted in 446 family caregivers of children with chronic diseases at the National Institute of Health in Mexico City; the family caregivers responded to the BDI-II and a battery of instruments measuring anxiety, caregiver burden, parental stress, well-being, and quality of life. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to determine the fit of the five models. Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability were calculated to assess the scale’s reliability, and Spearman´s rank correlation was used to investigate the scale’s convergent validity.

Results

This study provided evidence that the two-factor somatic-affective and cognitive model had the best fit. The BDI-II demonstrated adequate reliability and evidence of convergent validity, as the BDI-II factors were positively correlated with anxiety, caregiver burden, and parental stress and negatively correlated with well-being and quality of life.

Conclusions

The findings reveal that the BDI-II is a valid, reliable, and culturally relevant instrument to measure depression in family caregivers of children with chronic diseases.

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