ResearchPad - medical-education https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Qualities Important in the Selection of Chief Residents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11611 Background

Chief resident selection occurs by numerous methods. Chief residents also fulfill multiple roles, requiring a broad skill set. However, there is little literature on which qualities various stakeholders value in chief resident selection. The objective of this study was to identify the qualities that residents and faculty believe are important for chief residents.

Methods

Following a literature review, educational experts conducted a multi-institutional survey that asked participants to name the qualities they felt were most important in chief residents and to rank-order a predefined list of 10 qualities. Associations were calculated between rank-order and participant age, gender, institutional position, and history of serving as a chief resident.

Results

The response rate for the survey was 43.9% (385/877). Leadership, organization, and communication skills were named by all participants among the most common responses. Residents additionally named approachability, advocacy, and listening skills among their most valued qualities, whereas faculty named strong clinical skills and integrity. Dependability and trustworthiness were the most valued qualities in the rank-order list, whereas strong clinical skills and self-reflection were the least valued. Females valued the ability to manage multiple demands more whereas males valued dependability more. The faculty valued strong clinical skills more than residents.

Conclusion

A variety of qualities are seen as being valuable in chief residents. Additional research is needed to understand what qualities are associated with effective chief resident performance.

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<![CDATA[Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery: A web-based survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11233 Global surgery is a growing field studying the determinants of safe and affordable surgical care and advocating to gain the global health community's attention. In Cameroon, little is known about the level of knowledge and attitudes of students. Our survey aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery.Materials and methodsWe performed an anonymous online survey of final-year Cameroonian medical students. Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation analysis were used for bivariate analysis, and the alpha value was set at 0.05. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results204 respondents with a mean age of 24.7 years (±2.0) participated in this study. 58.3% were male, 41.6% had previously heard or read about global surgery, 36.3% had taken part in a global surgery study, and 10.8% had attended a global surgery event. Mercy Ships was well known (46.5%), and most students believed that surgical interventions were more costly than medical treatments (75.0%). The mean score of the global surgery evaluation was 47.4% (±29.6%), and being able to recognize more global surgery organizations was correlated with having assumed multiple roles during global surgery studies (p = 0.008) and identifying more global surgery indicators (p = 0.04). Workforce, infrastructure, and funding were highlighted as the top priorities for the development of global surgery in Cameroon.ConclusionMedical students are conscious of the importance of surgical care. They lack the opportunities to nurture their interest and should be taught global surgery concepts and skills. ]]> <![CDATA[The Five Diaphragms in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: Myofascial Relationships, Part 2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10524 The article continues the anatomical review of the anterolateral myofascial connections of the five diaphragms in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM), with the most up-to-date scientific information. The postero-lateral myofascial relationships have been illustrated previously in the first part. The article emphasizes some key OMM concepts; the attention of the clinician must not stop at the symptom or local pain but, rather, verify where the cause that leads to the symptom arises, thanks to the myofascial systems. Furthermore, it is important to remember that the human body is a unity and we should observe the patient not as a series of disconnected segments but as multiple and different elements that work in unison; a dysfunction of tissue will adversely affect neighboring and distant tissues. The goal of the work is to lay solid foundations for the OMM and the five-diaphragm approach showing the myofascial continuity of the human body.

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<![CDATA[Unilateral Hydrocephalus Due to Lateral Ventricle Colloid Cyst Treated by Neuroendoscopic Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10514 Colloid cysts (CCs) are rare brain tumors that cause nonspecific neurological signs associated with acute or chronic increased intracranial pressure. They are usually located in the third ventricle and rarely in the lateral ventricle. This is a report of an unusual case of CC located in the lateral ventricle. A 36-year-old male patient presented a story of progressive holocranial headache that would get worse with head mobilization and cough. Radiological analysis demonstrated enlargement of the right lateral ventricle due to a cyst blocking the right foramen of Monro. The patient underwent endoscopic neurosurgery and the cyst was totally resected. Histological evaluation diagnosed a CC. Postoperative images showed no cyst remaining and normalized ventricular size. The patient evolved with total improvement of the symptoms. Literature review shows that it is a very uncommon entity. Lateral ventricle CCs as a cause for unilateral hydrocephalus is a very rare entity. Neuroendoscopic approach is a first-line treatment option for this condition.

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<![CDATA[Readmission Risk Factors and Complications in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9460 Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reactions that cause necrosis of the epidermis, often at multiple sites. This process is frequently caused by medications and is associated with significant complications and mortality during hospitalization. However, increasing attention has been drawn to the less studied area of post-hospitalization complications leading to multiple readmissions. We present a patient diagnosed with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced SJS/TEN, who was readmitted within one week with sepsis. We also discuss the readmission risk factors and post-hospitalization features and complications of SJS/TEN.

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<![CDATA[COVID-19 Awareness Among Healthcare Students and Professionals in Mumbai Metropolitan Region: A Questionnaire-Based Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne9aae5a7-1f7b-4bbd-890e-3ffca7be7622 Background and objectives

The rapid and extensive spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has become a major cause of concern for the healthcare profession. The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of COVID-19 disease and related infection control practices among healthcare professionals and students in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region.

Materials and methods

A total of 1562 responders from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region completed a questionnaire-based survey on the awareness, knowledge, and infection control practices related to COVID-19 infection in the healthcare setting. The questionnaire was adapted from the current interim guidance and information for healthcare workers published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Convenient sampling method was used for data collection and the distribution of responses was presented as frequencies and percentages. Descriptive statistics were performed for all groups and subgroups based on the percentage of correct responses. Individual pairwise comparisons were done using the median test for the percentage of correct responses.

Results

The overall awareness for all subgroups was adequate with 71.2% reporting correct answers. The highest percentage of correct responses were from undergraduate medical students and the lowest was from non-clinical/administrative staff. Less than half of the total respondents could correctly define “close contact.” More than three-fourths of the responders were aware of the various infection control measures like rapid triage, respiratory hygiene, and cough etiquette and having a separate, well ventilated waiting area for suspected COVID-19 patients. However, only 45.4% of the responders were aware of the correct sequence for the application of a mask/respirator, and only 52.5% of the responders were aware of the preferred hand hygiene method for visibly soiled hands.

Conclusion

There is a need for regular educational interventions and training programs on infection control practices for COVID-19 across all healthcare professions. Occupational health and safety are of paramount importance to minimize the risk of transmission to healthcare students and professionals and provide optimal care for patients.

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<![CDATA[A Rare Case of Angioleiomyoma of the Hand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ddaf196-a8b4-4bdc-9bd5-19281f1de755 Angioleiomyoma is a benign tumor of the vascular system that is often not considered in the differential diagnosis of a painless subcutaneous nodule of the body. In this report, we present a rare case of angioleiomyoma of the phalanx in the left hand in a middle aged man. He underwent surgical excision of the mass with no complications. Given the nonspecific and indolent presentation, our case had a broad differential diagnosis including ganglion cyst and histopathological examination was warranted for definite diagnosis. At 9-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with no signs of recurrence. 

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<![CDATA[Closure of Universities Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on Education and Mental Health of Students and Academic Staff]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na83395eb-233d-4efd-8381-b8544563e578 The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originated in Wuhan city of China, has spread rapidly around the world, sending billions of people into lockdown. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus epidemic a pandemic. In light of rising concern about the current COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of universities across the world have either postponed or canceled all campus events such as workshops, conferences, sports, and other activities. Universities are taking intensive measures to prevent and protect all students and staff members from the highly infectious disease. Faculty members are already in the process of transitioning to online teaching platforms. In this review, the author will highlight the potential impact of the terrible COVID-19 outbreak on the education and mental health of students and academic staff.

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<![CDATA[Correlation of Medical College Admission Test Scores and Self-assessment Materials with the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 Performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndfa78704-8a5e-4c47-9d9a-0489deac1e03 Purpose

Candidates' performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 examination had been correlated with the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). However, in 2015, a new MCAT format was released and its correlation with Step 1 remains to be fully analyzed. Preparation for Step 1 typically involves purchasing and perusing practice tests from the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and UWorld; however, their predictive value to performance on Step 1 remains to be ascertained, especially with the release of five new NBME practice tests. Additionally, there is a need for accurately predicting Step 1 scores to self-evaluate study progress and reduce student anxiety.

Rationale

Program directors rank USMLE Step 1 scores as the number one criterion in selecting interviewees for residency. Step 1 scores are more important than Step 2 scores, Dean’s letter, or other letters of recommendation in determining the overall ranking of a candidate after interviews.

Hypotheses

The authors hypothesized that the new MCAT scores correlated positively with Step 1 scores and that the new NBME practice tests were more predictive of performance on Step 1 as compared to old NBME tests. 

Methods

Linear regression analysis followed by either analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Student's t-tests were used to analyze 399 responses. Data obtained was used to update an existing Step 1 score predictor, which was then validated.

Results

A positive correlation between the MCAT (average score: 510.1 ± 6.3) and Step 1 scores (average score: 246.1 ± 14.2) was observed. While new NBME practice tests were more predictive of Step 1 scores than old NBME tests, UWorld test scores were the most predictive. Students who practiced with the new NBME practice tests scored significantly higher than students who did not use them. However, students using any of the UWorld practice tests did significantly better than students who practiced using only NBME practice tests but not UWorld practice tests. Ironically, NBME16,the second-most correlativetest to Step 1 performance, is no longer available for purchase. Overall, taking six or more practice tests significantly enhanced Step 1 scores; the optimal number of tests was found to be between six and nine. The predicted score by an updated Step 1 score predictor was within 3.8 points or 1.6% of the actual Step 1 score.

Conclusions

We believe this study will aid in the selection and purchase of appropriate self-assessment tests as preparatory material for the USMLE Step 1 examination. It will also introduce them to an existing Step 1 score predictor that will help determine their readiness for Step 1.

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<![CDATA[Constructing a Multidisciplinary Network That Relies on Disruptive Technologies to Design, Test, and Implement Simulation Training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N45a2bbaf-94a5-45b5-adef-7e00fbb80c44 MaxSIMhealth is a multidisciplinary network of manufacturing, design, and simulation labs at Ontario Tech University combining expertise in health sciences, business and information technology (IT), and engineering while building community partnerships to advance simulation training. It discovers existing simulation gaps, provides innovative solutions that change systems, and leads to improved healthcare outcomes. Specifically, it utilizes disruptive technologies, including 3D printing, gaming, and extended reality, as innovative solutions that deliver cost-effective, portable, and realistic simulation, which is currently lacking. MaxSIMhealth is a novel collaborative innovation with aims to develop future cohorts of scholars with strong competencies ranging from technology application, to collaborating in new environments, communicating professionally, and problem-solving. Its work will transform current health professional education landscapes by providing novel, flexible, and inexpensive simulation environments. This editorial aims to showcase maxSIMhealth's innovative strategy focusing on collaborations of expertise in order to develop new simulation solutions that advance the health industry.

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<![CDATA[Orthopaedic Trainee Opinion on the Current Procedure-based Assessment Compared to its Predecessor: A UK Trauma Centre Perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6b87b54f-1326-4404-9628-9c3b5d816b7a Background

Procedure-based assessments (PBAs) were introduced as a formative assessment of surgical performance. UK trainees are currently expected to complete at least 20 PBAs each training year. A new PBA tool was introduced in August 2016 in order to address several criticisms with its predecessor. These included mandatory written feedback and increasing the number of global levels of assessment.

Objectives

Our study sought to identify the impact of these modifications to the PBA tool on its perceived utility as a formative assessment of surgical skill.

Study design & methods

Orthopaedic trainee registrars (ST3-ST8) holding a UK National Training Number (NTN) at a major UK trauma centre were invited to take part in the study. Each trainee completed an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to elicit the view of trainees towards the old and new PBA.

Results

Twelve trainees took part in the study. Most of them admitted receiving good quality feedback from their trainer using both tools (75% old PBA; 83% ew PBA). Most trainees (58%) felt that written feedback did not encourage verbal feedback from their trainer. Overall, trainees felt the new PBA global rating scale levels had made it a more accurate measure of surgical performance and allowed them to better appreciate the gradual improvement in their surgical skills throughout their training.

Conclusions

Fifty per cent of the trainees believed that the new PBA overall was a better formative assessment of surgical skill than its predecessor. A significant factor has been the introduction of a new global rating score rather than efforts to improve feedback. Further work should look to identify whether these views match those of other UK-based trainees on a larger scale.

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<![CDATA[A Post-operative Masquerade: Simulation-based Scenario Challenging Clinical Clerks to Recognize an Atypical Presentation of Myocardial Infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc3ce8615-483b-47ec-8ec0-99acf94eb142 Post-operative myocardial infarctions (MI) are a challenging diagnosis due to the alterations in the presenting complaint compared to an acute MI. Patients may be asymptomatic due to their anesthetics and sedatives from their operation which may create clinical confusion. As such, there is an increased risk for delayed administration of reperfusion therapies in this patient population which has shown to increase morbidity and mortality. It is anticipated that the difficulty of recognizing a post-operative MI would be exacerbated for clinical clerks due to their lack of clinical experience and overstimulation. Fortunately, the use of simulation-based learning has been proven to be a useful teaching tool to help clinical clerks manage medical problems in a controlled environment. This technical report describes a simulation case designed to enhance the recognition and response to a post-operative MI by a third-year clinical clerk. In this scenario, a 56-year-old male accountant presents with shortness of breath while recovering in the orthopaedic ward 12 hours following a total knee replacement (TKR). The clinical clerks are expected to conduct an independent follow-up prior to finishing their shift during which the patient begins complaining of shortness of breath. The clerk is required to order an electrocardiogram (ECG) for further analysis which reveals an anterior ST-segment elevation. Once recognized, a request for the crash cart and patient handover to the senior physician are expected.

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<![CDATA[A Rare ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Mimic or a True Event?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N46c3e4c8-4729-4ea7-aee9-281547783666 The etiology of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is either rupture or erosion of unstable plaque with subsequent thrombosis. With the widespread use of plaque-stabilizing lipid-lowering therapies (statins), plaque erosion, rather than rupture, now accounts for most cases of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In the spectrum of ACS, STEMI usually results from the total occlusion of the culprit epicardial coronary artery, leading to the occlusion of blood flow to the affected myocardium. The differential diagnosis of ST-elevations on electrocardiograms are broad. However, an elevated cardiac marker, evidence of wall motion abnormality on echocardiogram or positive stress testing makes an alternate diagnosis less likely. This prompts emergent coronary angiography with an intent to fix the underlying cause. In some cases like ours, when the clinical suspicion of STEMI is high, the coronary angiography may be unrevealing of the diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Assessing the growth in clinical skills using a progress clinical skills examination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22edf03e-1df8-490d-b170-d8364e3b4da2 This study evaluates the generalizability of an eight-station progress clinical skills examination and assesses the growth in performance for six clinical skills domains among first- and second-year medical students over four time points during the academic year.MethodsWe conducted a generalizability study for longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons and assessed growth in six clinical skill domains via repeated measures ANOVA over the first and second year of medical school.ResultsThe generalizability of the examination domain scores was low but consistent with previous studies of data gathering and communication skills. Variations in case difficulty across administrations of the examination made it difficult to assess longitudinal growth. It was possible to compare students at different training levels and the interaction of training level and growth. Second-year students outperformed first-year students, but first-year students’ clinical skills performance grew faster than second-year students narrowing the gap in clinical skills over the students’ first year of medical school.ConclusionsCase specificity limits the ability to assess longitudinal growth in clinical skills through progress testing. Providing students with early clinical skills training and authentic clinical experiences appears to result in the rapid growth of clinical skills during the first year of medical school. ]]> <![CDATA[Peer Observations: Enhancing Bedside Clinical Teaching Behaviors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N953e9653-b77d-486d-84dc-4170258b0e55

Background

Medical training relies on direct observations and formative feedback. After residency graduation, opportunities to receive feedback on clinical teaching diminish. Although feedback through learner evaluations is common, these evaluations can be untimely, non-specific, and potentially biased. On the other hand, peer feedback in a small group setting or lecture format has been shown to be beneficial to teaching behaviors, however, little is known if peer observation using a standardized tool followed by feedback results in improved teaching behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if feedback after peer observation results in improved inpatient teaching behaviors.

Methods

This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. Academic hospitalists in the Division of Hospital Medicine developed a standardized 28-item peer observation tool based on the Stanford Faculty Development Program to observe their peers during bedside teaching rounds and provide timely feedback after observation. The tool focused on five teaching domains (learning climate, control of session, promotion of understanding and retention, evaluation, and feedback) relevant to the inpatient teaching environment. Teaching hospitalists were observed at the beginning of a two-week teaching rotation, given feedback, and then observed at the end of the rotation. Furthermore, we utilized a post-observation survey to assess the teaching and observing hospitalists’ comfort with observation and the usefulness of the feedback. We used mixed linear models with crossed design to account for correlations between the observations. Models were adjusted for gender, age, and years of experience. We tested the internal validity of the instrument with Cronbach’s alpha.

Results

Seventy (range: one to four observations per faculty) observations were performed involving 27 teaching attendings. A high proportion of teachers were comfortable with the observation (79%) and found the feedback helpful (92%), and useful for their own teaching (88%). Mean scores in teaching behavior domains ranged from 2.1 to 2.7. In unadjusted and adjusted analysis, each teaching observation was followed by higher scores in learning climate (adjusted improvement = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.02-0.15; p = 0.007) and promotion of understanding and retention (adjusted improvement = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.02-0.17; p = 0.01). The standardized observation tool had Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81 showing high internal validity.

Conclusions

Peer observation of bedside teaching followed by feedback using a standardized tool is feasible and results in measured improvements in desirable teaching behaviors. The success of this approach resulted in the expansion of peer observation to other Divisions within the Department of Internal Medicine at our Institution.

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<![CDATA[Three-dimensional Virtual Reality as an Innovative Teaching and Learning Tool for Human Anatomy Courses in Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf14bb39b-e280-4c15-95db-d8cbd9ad90ef

Introduction

Poor knowledge retention is one reason for medical student attrition in learning and has been a huge concern in medical education. Three-dimensional virtual reality (3D-VR)-based teaching and learning in medical education has been promoted to improve student learning outcomes. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of 3D-VR in knowledge retention in human anatomy courses as compared to traditional teaching methods among medical students.

Methods

A convergent mixed methods design was utilized to evaluate learning outcomes in terms of short- and long-term knowledge retention scores among students using 3D-VR and those using traditional models and to describe students’ experiences and views of the use of 3D-VR as a teaching and learning tool.

Results

Male students who used the 3D-VR tool had significantly higher short- and long-term knowledge scores than males who used the traditional methods. Meanwhile, females who used traditional methods showed significantly higher short-term knowledge scores than females who used 3D-VR.

Conclusion

Medical students described 3D-VR as a learning tool with a great deal to offer for learning human anatomy as compared to traditional methods. Therefore, we recommend adding the use of 3D-VR in the anatomy curriculum. However, several 3D-VR limitations were also identified, which may hinder its utilization for teaching and learning. These concerns must be addressed before 3D-VR tools are considered for implementation in medical education human anatomy courses.

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<![CDATA[Orientation Planning in the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printing of Anatomical Spine Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4625f7a3-fdbb-4711-980e-71a4b648c733

Three‐dimensional (3D) printing has revolutionized medical training and patient care. Clinically it is used for patient‐specific anatomical modeling with respect to surgical procedures. 3D printing is heavily implemented for simulation to provide a useful tool for anatomical knowledge and surgical techniques. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a commonly utilized method of 3D printing anatomical models due to its cost-effectiveness. A potential disadvantage of FDM 3D printing complex anatomical shapes is the limitations of the modeling system in providing accurate representations of multifaceted ultrastructure, such as the facets of the lumbar spine. In order to utilize FDM 3D printing methods in an efficient manner, the pre-printing G-code assembly must be oriented according to the anatomical nature of the print. This article describes the approach that our institution's 3D printing laboratory has used to manipulate models’ printing angles in regard to the print bed and nozzle, according to anatomical properties, thus creating quality and cost-effective anatomical spine models for education and procedural simulation. 

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<![CDATA[Poll Everywhere to Encourage Learner Satisfaction and Participation in Internal Medicine Fellowship Didactics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3dc5c6c7-95d5-4b66-a91c-a7b7f60d293b

Active learning improves self-reported engagement and satisfaction in medical education. Audience response systems are one mechanism of encouraging participation, especially in a setting in which learners in varying educational levels are present. Three fellowships participated in this educational quality improvement project where Poll Everywhere® was incorporated into didactics. Attendees were invited to complete a 4-question retrospective pre-post satisfaction survey. Incorporation of the Poll Everywhere® audience response system resulted in a shift in more favorable satisfaction scores and self-perceived attentiveness compared to the pre-intervention responses.

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<![CDATA[Clinical applicability of the Feline Grimace Scale: real-time versus image scoring and the influence of sedation and surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2856c4d5-d500-4a4f-95c9-9bc743f8a422

Background

The Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) is a facial expression-based scoring system for acute pain assessment in cats with reported validity using image assessment. The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical applicability of the FGS in real-time when compared with image assessment, and to evaluate the influence of sedation and surgery on FGS scores in cats.

Methods

Sixty-five female cats (age: 1.37 ± 0.9 years and body weight: 2.85 ± 0.76 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Cats were sedated with intramuscular acepromazine and buprenorphine. Following induction with propofol, anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and cats underwent ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Pain was evaluated at baseline, 15 min after sedation, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after extubation using the FGS in real-time (FGS-RT). Cats were video-recorded simultaneously at baseline, 15 min after sedation, and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after extubation for subsequent image assessment (FGS-IMG), which was performed six months later by the same observer. The agreement between FGS-RT and FGS-IMG scores was calculated using the Bland & Altman method for repeated measures. The effects of sedation (baseline versus 15 min) and OVH (baseline versus 24 h) were assessed using linear mixed models. Responsiveness to the administration of rescue analgesia (FGS scores before versus one hour after) was assessed using paired t-tests.

Results

Minimal bias (−0.057) and narrow limits of agreement (−0.351 to 0.237) were observed between the FGS-IMG and FGS-RT. Scores at baseline (FGS-RT: 0.16 ± 0.13 and FGS-IMG: 0.14 ± 0.13) were not different after sedation (FGS-RT: 0.2 ± 0.15, p = 0.39 and FGS-IMG: 0.16 ± 0.15, p = 0.99) nor at 24 h after extubation (FGS-RT: 0.16 ± 0.12, p = 0.99 and FGS-IMG: 0.12 ± 0.12, p = 0.96). Thirteen cats required rescue analgesia; their FGS scores were lower one hour after analgesic administration (FGS-RT: 0.21 ± 0.18 and FGS-IMG: 0.18 ± 0.17) than before (FGS-RT: 0.47 ± 0.24, p = 0.0005 and FGS-IMG: 0.45 ± 0.19, p = 0.015).

Conclusions

Real-time assessment slightly overestimates image scoring; however, with minimal clinical impact. Sedation with acepromazine-buprenorphine and ovariohysterectomy using a balanced anesthetic protocol did not influence the FGS scores. Responsiveness to analgesic administration was observed with both the FGS-RT and FGS-IMG.

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<![CDATA[Catalyzing rapid discovery of gold-precipitating bacterial lineages with university students]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1a44b6bf-58da-4441-b695-6e6e3f9e006c

Intriguing and potentially commercially useful microorganisms are found in our surroundings and new tools allow us to learn about their genetic potential and evolutionary history. Engaging students from different disciplines and courses in the search for microbes requires an exciting project with innovative but straightforward procedures and goals. Here we describe an interdisciplinary program to engage students from different courses in the sampling, identification and analysis of the DNA sequences of a unique yet common microbe, Delftia spp. A campus-wide challenge was created to identify the prevalence of this genus, able to precipitate gold, involving introductory level environmental and life science courses, upper-level advanced laboratory modules taken by undergraduate students (juniors and seniors), graduate students and staff from the campus. The number of participants involved allowed for extensive sampling while undergraduate researchers and students in lab-based courses participated in the sample processing and analyses, helping contextualize and solidify their learning of the molecular biology techniques. The results were shared at each step through publicly accessible websites and workshops. This model allows for the rapid discovery of Delftia presence and prevalence and is adaptable to different campuses and experimental questions.

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