ResearchPad - memory-recall https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Choosing what we like vs liking what we choose: How choice-induced preference change might actually be instrumental to decision-making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15722 For more than 60 years, it has been known that people report higher (lower) subjective values for items after having selected (rejected) them during a choice task. This phenomenon is coined “choice-induced preference change” or CIPC, and its established interpretation is that of “cognitive dissonance” theory. In brief, if people feel uneasy about their choice, they later convince themselves, albeit not always consciously, that the chosen (rejected) item was actually better (worse) than they had originally estimated. While this might make sense from an intuitive psychological standpoint, it is challenging from a theoretical evolutionary perspective. This is because such a cognitive mechanism might yield irrational biases, whose adaptive fitness would be unclear. In this work, we consider an alternative possibility, namely that CIPC is -at least partially- due to the refinement of option value representations that occurs while people are pondering about choice options. For example, contemplating competing possibilities during a choice may highlight aspects of the alternative options that were not considered before. In the context of difficult decisions, this would enable people to reassess option values until they reach a satisfactory level of confidence. This makes CIPC the epiphenomenal outcome of a cognitive process that is instrumental to the decision. Critically, our hypothesis implies novel predictions about how observed CIPC should relate to two specific meta-cognitive processes, namely: choice confidence and subjective certainty regarding pre-choice value judgments. We test these predictions in a behavioral experiment where participants rate the subjective value of food items both before and after choosing between equally valued items; we augment this traditional design with both reports of choice confidence and subjective certainty about value judgments. The results confirm our predictions and provide evidence that many quantitative features of CIPC (in particular: its relationship with metacognitive judgments) may be explained without ever invoking post-choice cognitive dissonance reduction explanation. We then discuss the relevance of our work in the context of the existing debate regarding the putative cognitive mechanisms underlying CIPC.

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<![CDATA[Neural networks for open and closed Literature-based Discovery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14696 Literature-based Discovery (LBD) aims to discover new knowledge automatically from large collections of literature. Scientific literature is growing at an exponential rate, making it difficult for researchers to stay current in their discipline and easy to miss knowledge necessary to advance their research. LBD can facilitate hypothesis testing and generation and thus accelerate scientific progress. Neural networks have demonstrated improved performance on LBD-related tasks but are yet to be applied to it. We propose four graph-based, neural network methods to perform open and closed LBD. We compared our methods with those used by the state-of-the-art LION LBD system on the same evaluations to replicate recently published findings in cancer biology. We also applied them to a time-sliced dataset of human-curated peer-reviewed biological interactions. These evaluations and the metrics they employ represent performance on real-world knowledge advances and are thus robust indicators of approach efficacy. In the first experiments, our best methods performed 2-4 times better than the baselines in closed discovery and 2-3 times better in open discovery. In the second, our best methods performed almost 2 times better than the baselines in open discovery. These results are strong indications that neural LBD is potentially a very effective approach for generating new scientific discoveries from existing literature. The code for our models and other information can be found at: https://github.com/cambridgeltl/nn_for_LBD.

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<![CDATA[The utility of simple questions to evaluate cognitive impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14607 As the population of patients with cognitive decline grows, physicians and caregivers need brief screening tools. Comprehensive neurocognitive batteries require special training and time for evaluation. We focused on accessibility and compared the diagnostic power of several easy questions.Design“Attended With” (AW) and “Head-Turning Sign” (HTS) factors and participants’ replies to following questions were recorded: “Do you feel that you have more difficulties in your daily life than you used to?”, [no consciousness (C-) or consciousness+ (C+)], “Could you tell me about your daily pleasures or pastimes?” [no pleasure (P-) or pleasure + (P+)], “What are notable current/recent news/topics?” [no news (N-) or news+ (N+)].SettingThis took place in our Memory Clinic between May 2016 and July 2019.ParticipantsWe enrolled 162 consecutive cases (44 cognitive normal (CN), 55 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 48 Alzheimer’s disease (AD)).MeasurementsThe sensitivity and specificity of each battery were calculated, and on account of those numbers, the population attributable risk percent % (PAR%) of (AW and HTS+), (C- and P-), (C- and N-), (P- and N-) as analysis of combination of questions, respectively, were calculated.ResultsAW had high sensitivity, 87.4, 95.8% (CN vs aMCI + AD, CN + aMCI vs AD) but the sensitivity of HTS was only 46.4, 57.7%, and HTS showed high specificity, 100.0, 71.8%. C- had high sensitivity, 80.6, 87.5%, whereas P- and N- had high specificity, both 83.9% in CN vs aMCI + AD, 88.1% and 75.9% in CN + aMCI vs AD, respectively. In combination analysis, the PAR% of (C- and N-) were as high as (AW and HTS+).ConclusionsThe combination of (C- and N-) is as powerful as (AW and HTS+) in screening AD. Our findings provide novel insights for screening utility of brief questions “Consciousness of Impairment” and “Recent News.” ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14549 Previous evidence has shown significant effects of exercise, cognitive and dual-task training for improving cognition in healthy cohorts. The effects of these types of interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. The aim of this research was to systematically review evidence, and estimate the effect, of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodElectronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and MEDLINE were searched for ongoing and completed interventional trials investigating the effect of either an exercise, cognitive or dual-task intervention on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus.ResultsNine trials met the inclusion criteria–one dual-task, two cognitive, and six exercise. Meta-analyses of exercise trials showed no significant effects of exercise on measures of executive function (Stroop task, SMD = -0.31, 95% CI -0.71–0.09, P = 0.13, trail making test part A SMD = 0.28, 95% CI -0.20–0.77 P = 0.25, trail making test part B SMD = -0.15, 95% CI -0.64–0.34 P = 0.54, digit symbol SMD = 0.09, 95% CI -0.39–0.57 P = 0.72), and memory (immediate memory SMD = 0.20, 95% CI -0.28–0.69, P = 0.41 and delayed memory SMD = -0.06, 95% CI -0.55–0.42, P = 0.80). A meta-analysis could not be conducted using cognitive or dual-task data, but individual trials did report a favourable effect of interventions on cognition. Risk of bias was considered moderate to high for the majority of included trials.ConclusionsMeta-analyses of exercise trials identified a small effect size (0.31), which whilst not significant warrants further investigation. Larger and more robust trials are needed that report evidence using appropriate reporting guidelines (e.g. CONSORT) to increase confidence in the validity of results.Trial registrationProtocol was registered (CRD42017058526) on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO). ]]> <![CDATA[Gaze direction reveals implicit item and source memory in older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6bd49f6-c3a2-422e-9a90-0c981119f651

This study looked at eye movements in relation to source memory in older adults. Participants first studied images of common objects appearing in different quadrants of a screen. After a delay, they were shown cues one at a time presented in all four quadrants. Participants stated whether or not the cue had been seen before and in which location. Participants also rated level of confidence in their responses. In trials where participants either claimed they have not seen a previously presented cue or placed it in an incorrect location, they looked significantly more at the correct quadrant. The proportion of time looking at the correct quadrants during incorrect responses was not related to confidence ratings. These results suggest that eye gaze during the memory task does not reflect memory retrieval below the threshold of verbal report. They instead point to an implicit form of source memory in humans that is accessible to eye movements but not to verbal responses.

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<![CDATA[Independent working memory resources for egocentric and allocentric spatial information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784ff1d5eed0c484007976

Visuospatial working memory enables us to maintain access to visual information for processing even when a stimulus is no longer present, due to occlusion, our own movements, or transience of the stimulus. Here we show that, when localizing remembered stimuli, the precision of spatial recall does not rely solely on memory for individual stimuli, but additionally depends on the relative distances between stimuli and visual landmarks in the surroundings. Across three separate experiments, we consistently observed a spatially selective improvement in the precision of recall for items located near a persistent landmark. While the results did not require that the landmark be visible throughout the memory delay period, it was essential that it was visible both during encoding and response. We present a simple model that can accurately capture human performance by considering relative (allocentric) spatial information as an independent localization estimate which degrades with distance and is optimally integrated with egocentric spatial information. Critically, allocentric information was encoded without cost to egocentric estimation, demonstrating independent storage of the two sources of information. Finally, when egocentric and allocentric estimates were put in conflict, the model successfully predicted the resulting localization errors. We suggest that the relative distance between stimuli represents an additional, independent spatial cue for memory recall. This cue information is likely to be critical for spatial localization in natural settings which contain an abundance of visual landmarks.

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<![CDATA[Effects of frontal-executive dysfunction on self-perceived hearing handicap in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897757d5eed0c4847d2a69

It is increasingly agreed upon that cognitive and audiological factors are associated with self-perceived hearing handicap in old adults. This study aimed to compare self-perceived hearing handicap among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subgroups and a cognitively normal elderly (CNE) group and determine which factors (i.e., demographic, audiometric, or neuropsychological factors) are correlated with self-perceived hearing handicap in each group. A total of 46 MCI patients and 39 hearing threshold-matched CNE subjects participated in this study, and their age ranged from 55 to 80 years. The MCI patients were reclassified into two groups: 16 with frontal-executive dysfunction (FED) and 30 without FED. All subjects underwent audiometric, neuropsychological, and self-perceived hearing handicap assessments. The Korean version of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (K-HHIE) was administered to obtain the hearing handicap scores for each subject. After controlling for age, years of education, and depression levels, we found no significant differences in the K-HHIE scores between the MCI and the CNE groups. However, after we classified the MCI patients into the MCI with FED and MCI without FED groups, the MCI with FED group scored significantly higher than did both the MCI without FED and the CNE groups. In addition, after controlling for depression levels, significant partial correlations of hearing handicap scores with frontal-executive function scores and speech-in-noise perception performance were found in the MCI groups. In the CNE group, the hearing handicap scores were related to peripheral hearing sensitivity and years of education. In summary, MCI patients with FED are more likely to experience everyday hearing handicap than those without FED and cognitively normal old adults. Although educational level and peripheral hearing function are related to self-perceived hearing handicap in cognitively normal old adults, speech-in-noise perception and frontal-executive function are mainly associated with hearing handicap in patients with MCI.

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<![CDATA[The impact of individual differences on jurors’ note taking during trials and recall of trial evidence, and the association between the type of evidence recalled and verdicts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac61d5eed0c484d08683

Although note taking during trials is known to enhance jurors’ recall of trial evidence, little is known about whether individual differences in note taking underpin this effect. Individual differences in handwriting speed, working memory, and attention may influence juror’s note taking. This, in turn, may influence their recall. It may also be the case that if jurors note down and recall more incriminating than non-incriminating evidence (or vice versa), then this may predict their verdict. Three studies examined the associations between the aforementioned individual differences, the amount of critical evidence jurors noted down during a trial, the amount of critical evidence they recalled, and the verdicts they reached. Participants had their handwriting speed, short-term memory, working memory, and attention assessed. They then watched a trial video (some took notes), reached a verdict, and recalled as much trial information as possible. We found that jurors with faster handwriting speed (Study 1), higher short-term memory capacity (Study 2), and higher sustained attention capacity (Study 3) noted down, and later recalled, the most critical trial evidence. However, working memory storage capacity, information processing ability (Study 2) and divided attention (Study 3) were not associated with note taking or recall. Further, the type of critical evidence jurors predominantly recalled predicted their verdicts, such that jurors who recalled more incriminating evidence were more likely to reach a guilty verdict, and jurors who recalled more non-incriminating evidence were less likely to do so. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Nearest transfer effects of working memory training: A comparison of two programs focused on working memory updating]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca2cd5eed0c48452a883

This study analyzed the mechanisms involved in possible transfer effects for two different working memory updating (WMU) training programs administered to young adults and based on two updating paradigms: n-back and arithmetical updating. The influence of practice distribution on transfer effects was also explored by including two training regimens: massed and spaced practice. Performance on different WMU tasks more or less structurally similar to the tasks used in the training was assessed to analyze the nearest transfer effects. Near and far transfer effects were tested using complex working memory (WM) and fluid intelligence tasks. The results showed that the WMU training produced gains in only some of the WMU tasks structurally similar to those used in the training, not in those lacking the same structure, or in WM or fluid intelligence tasks. These limited nearest transfer effects suggest that gains could be due to the acquisition of a specific strategy appropriate for the task during the training rather than to any improvement in the updating process per se. Performance did not differ depending on the training regimen.

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<![CDATA[Inhibitory control during selective retrieval may hinder subsequent analogical thinking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7579d5eed0c4843cfdec

Analogical reasoning is a complex cognitive activity that involves access and retrieval of pre-existing knowledge in order to find a suitable solution. Prior work has shown that analogical transfer and reasoning can be influenced by unconscious activation of relevant information. Based on this idea, we report two experiments that examine whether reduced access to relevant information in memory may further disrupt analogical reasoning unwittingly. In both experiments, we use an adaptation of the retrieval practice paradigm [1] to modulate memory accessibility of potential solutions to a subsequent set of analogy problems of the type ‘A is to B as C is to ?’. Experiment 1 showed a retrieval-induced impairment in analogical problem solving. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and demonstrated that it cannot be due to the deliberative episodic retrieval of the solutions to the analogies. These findings, predictable from an inhibitory framework of memory control, provide a new focus for theories of analogical transfer and highlight the importance of unconscious memory processes that may modulate problem solving.

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<![CDATA[Effort-aware and just-in-time defect prediction with neural network]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df316d5eed0c484580cec

Effort-aware just-in-time (JIT) defect prediction is to rank source code changes based on the likelihood of detects as well as the effort to inspect such changes. Accurate defect prediction algorithms help to find more defects with limited effort. To improve the accuracy of defect prediction, in this paper, we propose a deep learning based approach for effort-aware just-in-time defect prediction. The key idea of the proposed approach is that neural network and deep learning could be exploited to select useful features for defect prediction because they have been proved excellent at selecting useful features for classification and regression. First, we preprocess ten numerical metrics of code changes, and then feed them to a neural network whose output indicates how likely the code change under test contains bugs. Second, we compute the benefit cost ratio for each code change by dividing the likelihood by its size. Finally, we rank code changes according to their benefit cost ratio. Evaluation results on a well-known data set suggest that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on each of the subject projects. It improves the average recall and popt by 15.6% and 8.1%, respectively.

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<![CDATA[Health-related quality of life loss associated with first-time stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d61cd5eed0c484031668

Objectives

This study aimed to quantify health-related quality of life (HRQoL) loss associated with first episode of stroke by comparing patient-reported HRQoL before and after stroke onset. The impact of stroke in local population was also evaluated by comparing the pre- and post-stroke HRQoL with that of the general population.

Methods

The HRQoL of stroke survivors was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L index score at recruitment, for recalled pre-stroke HRQoL, and at 3 and 12 month post-stroke. Change in HRQoL from pre-stroke to 3 and 12 month was self-reported by 285 and 238 patients, respectively. Mean EQ index score at each time point (baseline: 464 patients; 3 month post-stroke: 306 patients; 12 month post-stroke: 258 patients) was compared with published population norms for EQ-5D-3L.

Results

There was a significant decrease in HRQoL at 3 (0.25) and 12 month (0.09) post-stroke when compared to the retrospectively recalled patients’ mean pre-stroke HRQoL level (0.87). The reduction at 3 month was associated with the reduction in all EQ-5D-3L health dimensions; reductions remaining at 12 month were limited to dimensions of mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression. Stroke patients had a lower mean EQ index than the general population by 0.07 points pre-stroke (0.87 vs. 0.94), 0.33 points at 3 month (0.61 vs. 0.94) and 0.18 points at 12 month (0.76 vs. 0.94) post-stroke.

Conclusions

Stroke has a substantial impact on HRQoL in Singapore, especially in the first three months post-stroke. Compared to the general population, stroke survivors have lower HRQoL even before stroke onset. This pre-stroke deficit in HRQoL should be taken into account when quantifying health burden of stroke or setting goals for stroke rehabilitation.

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<![CDATA[Impairments in cognitive performance in chronic fatigue syndrome are common, not related to co-morbid depression but do associate with autonomic dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633969d5eed0c484ae6694

Objectives

To explore cognitive performance in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) examining two cohorts. To establish findings associated with CFS and those related to co-morbid depression or autonomic dysfunction.

Methods

Identification and recruitment of participants was identical in both phases, all CFS patients fulfilled Fukuda criteria. In Phase 1 (n = 48) we explored cognitive function in a heterogeneous cohort of CFS patients, investigating links with depressive symptoms (HADS). In phase 2 (n = 51 CFS & n = 20 controls) participants with co-morbid major depression were excluded (SCID). Furthermore, we investigated relationships between cognitive performance and heart rate variability (HRV).

Results

Cognitive performance in unselected CFS patients is in average range on most measures. However, 0–23% of the CFS sample fell below the 5th percentile. Negative correlations occurred between depressive symptoms (HAD-S) with Digit-Symbol-Coding (r = -.507, p = .006) and TMT-A (r = -.382, p = .049). In CFS without depression, impairments of cognitive performance remained with significant differences in indices of psychomotor speed (TMT-A: p = 0.027; digit-symbol substitution: p = 0.004; digit-symbol copy: p = 0.007; scanning: p = .034) Stroop test suggested differences due to processing speed rather than inhibition.

Both cohorts confirmed relationships between cognitive performance and HRV (digit-symbol copy (r = .330, p = .018), digit-symbol substitution (r = .313, p = .025), colour-naming trials Stroop task (r = .279, p = .050).

Conclusion

Cognitive difficulties in CFS may not be as broad as suggested and may be restricted to slowing in basic processing speed. While depressive symptoms can be associated with impairments, co-morbidity with major depression is not itself responsible for reductions in cognitive performance. Impaired autonomic control of heart-rate associates with reductions in basic processing speed.

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<![CDATA[Can self-referential information improve directed forgetting? Evidence from a multinomial processing tree model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d645d5eed0c484031a4c

A large body of research has shown that self-referential processing can enhance an individual’s memory of information. However, there are many arguments about how self-referential processing affects directed forgetting (DF). In this study, two experiments were designed to investigate the DF effect and its internal psychological mechanism under explicit and implicit referential conditions using the item-method DF paradigm combined with the storage-retrieval MPT model. We compare the difference in the DF effect between self-referential and other-referential conditions and explain the reasons for the difference. Our results suggest that the item-method DF effect is the result of a selective rehearsal mechanism and a retrieval inhibition mechanism working together. Both self-reference and other-reference can cause DF in explicit referential processing or implicit referential processing, although the DF effect is stronger under the self-referential condition. Furthermore, the memory advantage effect of implicit self-referential processing is stronger than that of explicit self-referential processing.

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<![CDATA[Inducing resistance to the misinformation effect by means of reinforced self-affirmation: The importance of positive feedback]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c471d5eed0c4845e876c

The misinformation effect is one of the major threats for the quality of witness testimony. It involves including of information that is inconsistent with the course of an event, and which originates from sources other than the event itself, into a witness's report of the event. In the present article research is presented aiming at reducing the tendency to rely on misinformation. After viewing a video clip, participants received a post-event narrative describing the events in the film which in the misled group included some incorrect information about the clip. They were then administered reinforced self-affirmation (RSA), a technique aiming at boosting self-confidence in order to increase the tendency to rely on own memory instead of external cues. This technique consists of self-affirmation by means of writing down one’s greatest achievements in life and manipulated positive feedback. Feedback about memory, perception and independence of judgements was analyzed. All types of feedback effectively reduced the misinformation effect. Mediation analyzes confirmed that RSA operates via increased self-confidence or self-independence.

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<![CDATA[Thinking about negative life events as a mediator between depression and fading affect bias]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e66cd5eed0c484ef3118

The current research examined the links between depressive symptomology and anxiety on the fading of affect associated with positive and negative autobiographical memories. Participants (N = 296) recalled and rated positive and negative events in terms of how pleasant or unpleasant they were at the time they occurred and at the time of event recollection. Multilevel mediation analyses identified evidence that higher levels of depressive symptoms were directly associated with lower affect fade for both negative and positive memories. Tests of indirect effects indicated that depressive symptoms were indirectly related to lower affect fade for negative (but not positive) autobiographical memories via the heightened tendency to think about negative (but not positive) memories. Anxiety was unrelated to affect fade both directly and indirectly. These results suggest that people higher in depressive symptoms retain more negative affect due to an increased likelihood of thinking about negative autobiographical events.

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<![CDATA[Computational translation of genomic responses from experimental model systems to humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f785d5eed0c4843862d5

The high failure rate of therapeutics showing promise in mouse models to translate to patients is a pressing challenge in biomedical science. Though retrospective studies have examined the fidelity of mouse models to their respective human conditions, approaches for prospective translation of insights from mouse models to patients remain relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a semi-supervised learning approach for inference of disease-associated human differentially expressed genes and pathways from mouse model experiments. We examined 36 transcriptomic case studies where comparable phenotypes were available for mouse and human inflammatory diseases and assessed multiple computational approaches for inferring human biology from mouse datasets. We found that semi-supervised training of a neural network identified significantly more true human biological associations than interpreting mouse experiments directly. Evaluating the experimental design of mouse experiments where our model was most successful revealed principles of experimental design that may improve translational performance. Our study shows that when prospectively evaluating biological associations in mouse studies, semi-supervised learning approaches, combining mouse and human data for biological inference, provide the most accurate assessment of human in vivo disease processes. Finally, we proffer a delineation of four categories of model system-to-human “Translation Problems” defined by the resolution and coverage of the datasets available for molecular insight translation and suggest that the task of translating insights from model systems to human disease contexts may be better accomplished by a combination of translation-minded experimental design and computational approaches.

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<![CDATA[Sequential effects of reappraisal and rumination on anger during recall of an anger-provoking event]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667b8d5eed0c4841a6198

In everyday life, people often combine strategies to regulate their emotions. However, to date, most research has investigated emotion regulation strategies as if they occur independently from one another. The current study aims to better understand the sequential interplay between strategies by investigating how reappraisal and rumination interact to affect anger experience. After participants (N = 156) recalled a recent anger-provoking event, they were instructed to either a) reappraise the event twice, b) reappraise the event, and then ruminate about the event, c) ruminate about the event, and then reappraise the event, or d) ruminate twice about the event. The effects of the first strategy used replicated a large body of research: reappraisal was associated with a decrease in anger, but rumination was associated with no change in anger. There was a small interactive effect of the combination of the two strategies, such that those who ruminated and then reappraised showed a larger decrease in anger than those who reappraised and then ruminated. There were no other differences between groups. This suggests that the second strategy does have an effect over and beyond the first strategy, but this effect is small in size, highlighting the importance of the initial emotion regulation strategy used.

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<![CDATA[The subjective metric of remembered colors: A Fisher-information analysis of the geometry of human chromatic memory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667c6d5eed0c4841a63c1

In order to explore the metric structure of the space of remembered colors, a computer game was designed, where players with normal color vision had to store a color in memory, and later retrieve it by selecting the best match out of a continuum of alternatives. All tested subjects exhibited evidence of focal colors in their mnemonic strategy. We found no concluding evidence that the focal colors of different players tended to cluster around universal prototypes. Based on the Fisher metric, for each subject we defined a notion of distance in color space that captured the accuracy with which similar colors where discriminated or confounded when stored and retrieved from memory. The notions of distance obtained for different players were remarkably similar. Finally, for each player, we constructed a new color scale, in which colors are memorized and retrieved with uniform accuracy.

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<![CDATA[Psychometric and diagnostic properties of the Taiwan version of the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment screen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed775d5eed0c484f141bd

There is a need for a screening tool with capacities of accurate detection of early mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia and is suitable for use in a range of languages and cultural contexts. This research aims to evaluate the psychometric and diagnostic properties of the Taiwan version of Qmci (Qmci-TW) screen and to explore the discriminating ability of the Qmci-TW in differentiating among normal controls (NCs), MCI and dementia. Thirty-one participants with dementia and 36 with MCI and 35 NCs were recruited from a neurology department of regional hospital in Taiwan. Their results on the Qmci-TW, Taiwanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Traditional Chinese version of the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared. For analysis, we used Cronbach’s α, intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman’s ρ, Kruskal–Wallis test, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and multivariate analysis, as appropriate. The Qmci-TW exhibited satisfactory test–retest reliability, internal consistency, and interrater reliability as well as a strong positive correlation with results from the MoCA and MMSE. The optimal cut-off score on the Qmci-TW for differentiating MCI from NC was ≤ 51.5/100 and dementia from MCI was ≤ 31/100. The MoCA exhibited the highest accuracy in differentiating MCI from NC, followed by the Qmci-TW and then MMSE; whereas, the Qmci-TW and MMSE exhibited the same accuracy in differentiating dementia from MCI, followed by the MoCA. The Qmci-TW may be a useful clinical screening tool for a spectrum of cognitive impairments.

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