ResearchPad - mesenchymal-stem-cells https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Neurons from human mesenchymal stem cells display both spontaneous and stimuli responsive activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14593 Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to transdifferentiate into neurons and therefore one of the potential adult stem cell source for neuronal tissue regeneration applications and understanding neurodevelopmental processes. In many studies on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) derived neurons, success in neuronal differentiation was limited to neuronal protein expressions which is not statisfactory in terms of neuronal activity. Established neuronal networks seen in culture have to be investigated in terms of synaptic signal transmission ability to develop a culture model for human neurons and further studying the mechanism of neuronal differentiation and neurological pathologies. Accordingly, in this study, we analysed the functionality of bone marrow hMSCs differentiated into neurons by a single step cytokine-based induction protocol. Neurons from both primary hMSCs and hMSC cell line displayed spontaneous activity (≥75%) as demonstrated by Ca++ imaging. Furthermore, when electrically stimulated, hMSC derived neurons (hMd-Neurons) matched the response of a typical neuron in the process of maturation. Our results reveal that a combination of neuronal inducers enhance differentiation capacity of bone marrow hMSCs into high yielding functional neurons with spontaneous activity and mature into electrophysiologically active state. Conceptually, we suggest these functional hMd-Neurons to be used as a tool for disease modelling of neuropathologies and neuronal differentiation studies.

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<![CDATA[Regeneration of esophagus using a scaffold-free biomimetic structure created with bio-three-dimensional printing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1978d5eed0c484b4d71e

Various strategies have been attempted to replace esophageal defects with natural or artificial substitutes using tissue engineering. However, these methods have not yet reached clinical application because of the high risks related to their immunogenicity or insufficient biocompatibility. In this study, we developed a scaffold-free structure with a mixture of cell types using bio-three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and assessed its characteristics in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rats. Normal human dermal fibroblasts, human esophageal smooth muscle cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were purchased and used as a cell source. After the preparation of multicellular spheroids, esophageal-like tube structures were prepared by bio-3D printing. The structures were matured in a bioreactor and transplanted into 10-12-week-old F344 male rats as esophageal grafts under general anesthesia. Mechanical and histochemical assessment of the structures were performed. Among 4 types of structures evaluated, those with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells tended to show greater strength and expansion on mechanical testing and highly expressed α-smooth muscle actin and vascular endothelial growth factor on immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the structure with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells was selected for transplantation. The scaffold-free structures had sufficient strength for transplantation between the esophagus and stomach using silicon stents. The structures were maintained in vivo for 30 days after transplantation. Smooth muscle cells were maintained, and flat epithelium extended and covered the inner surface of the lumen. Food had also passed through the structure. These results suggested that the esophagus-like scaffold-free tubular structures created using bio-3D printing could hold promise as a substitute for the repair of esophageal defects.

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<![CDATA[miR-7977 inhibits the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823ead5eed0c4846392f6

We and others have demonstrated that various abnormalities of the bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) such as aberrant cytokine expression, abnormal hedgehog signaling, and impaired miRNA biogenesis are observed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, underlying mechanisms to induce the dysfunction of BM MSCs have not yet been clarified. We previously showed that AML cells release abundant exosomal miR-7977, which, in turn, enters BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the precise function of miR-7977 is not known. In this study, we performed transduction of a miR-7977 mimic into MSCs, compared transcriptomes between control-transduced (n = 3) and miR-7977-transduced MSCs (n = 3), and conducted pathway analysis. The array data revealed that the expression of 0.05% of genes was reduced 2-fold and the expression of 0.01% of genes was increased 2-fold. Interestingly, approximately half of these genes possessed a miR-7977 target site, while the other genes did not, suggesting that miR-7977 regulates the gene expression level directly and indirectly. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the gene sets of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) _up were significantly enriched (p<0.001, q<0.25), suggesting that miR-7977 modulates the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. Visualization of pathway and network showed that miR-7977 significantly reduced the expression of Hippo core kinase, STK4. miR-7977 inactivated the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway as proven by GFP-tagged YAP nuclear trans localization and TEAD reporter assay. The miR-7977-transduced MSC cell line, HTS-5, showed elevated saturation density and enhanced entry into the cell cycle. These results suggest that miR-7977 is a critical factor that regulates the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway in BM-MSCs and may be involved in the upregulation of leukemia-supporting stroma growth.

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<![CDATA[Tenogenic differentiation protocol in xenogenic-free media enhances tendon-related marker expression in ASCs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7580d5eed0c4843cfe25

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent and immune-privileged mesenchymal cells, making them ideal candidates for therapeutic purposes to manage tendon disorders. Providing safe and regulated cell therapy products to patients requires adherence to good manufacturing practices. To this aim we investigated the in vitro tenogenic differentiation potential of ASCs using a chemically defined serum-free medium (SF) or a xenogenic-free human pooled platelet lysate medium (hPL) suitable for cell therapy and both supplemented with CTGF, TGFβ-3, BMP-12 and ascorbic acid (AA) soluble factors. Human ASCs were isolated from 4 healthy donors and they were inducted to differentiate until 14 days in both hPL and SF tenogenic media (hPL-TENO and SF-TENO). Cell viability and immunophenotype profile were analysed to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics in both xenogenic-free media. Moreover, the expression of stemness and tendon-related markers upon cell differentiation by RT-PCR, protein staining and cytofluorimetric analysis were also performed. Our results showed the two xenogenic-free media well support cell viability of ASCs and maintain their MSC nature as demonstrated by their typical immunophenototype profile and by the expression of NANOG, OCT4 and Ki67 genes. Moreover, both hPL-TENO and SF-TENO expressed significant high levels of the tendon-related genes SCX, COL1A1, COL3A1, COMP, MMP3 and MMP13 already at early time points in comparison to the respective controls. Significant up-regulations in scleraxis, collagen and tenomodulin proteins were also demonstrated at in both differentiated SF and hPL ASCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated firstly the feasibility of both serum and xenogenic-free media tested to culture ASCs moving forward the GMP-compliant approaches for clinical scale expansion of human MSCs needed for therapeutical application of stem cells. Moreover, a combination of CTGF, BMP-12, TGFβ3 and AA factors strongly and rapidly induce human ASCs to differentiate into tenocyte-like cells.

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<![CDATA[Individual response to mTOR inhibition in delaying replicative senescence of mesenchymal stromal cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2eed5eed0c48441edbc

Background aims

Delaying replicative senescence and extending lifespan of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may enhance their potential for tissue engineering and cell based therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that inhibitors of the mTOR signaling pathway, such as rapamycin, constitute promising pharmacological agents to retard senescence and extend stemness properties of various progenitor cell types. Here, we investigated whether the ability of rapamycin to postpone replicative senescence varies among bone marrow MSC samples (BM-MSCs) derived from different healthy donors, and explored the molecular mechanisms that drive rapamycin-mediated lifespan increment.

Methods

BM-MSCs at early passages were serially passaged either in absence or continuous presence of rapamycin and the number of cell population doublings until growth arrest was measured. The inhibition of mTOR signaling was assessed by the phosphorylation status of the downstream target RPS6. The expression levels of several senescence and pluripotency markers at early and late/senescent passages were analyzed by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry and western blot.

Results

We found that the lifespan extension in response to the continuous rapamycin treatment was highly variable among samples, but effective in most BM-MSCs. Despite all rapamycin-treated cells secreted significantly reduced levels of IL6, a major SASP cytokine, and expressed significantly higher levels of the pluripotency marker NANOG, the expression patterns of these markers were not correlated with the rapamycin-mediated increase in lifespan. Interestingly, rapamycin-mediated life-span extension was significantly associated only with repression of p16INK4A protein accumulation.

Conclusions

Taken together, our results suggest that some, but not all, BM-MSC samples would benefit from using rapamycin to postpone replicative arrest and reinforce a critical role of p16INK4A protein downregulation in this process.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative analysis of F-actin alterations in adherent human mesenchymal stem cells: Influence of slow-freezing and vitrification-based cryopreservation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64490fd5eed0c484c2f524

Cryopreservation is an essential tool to meet the increasing demand for stem cells in medical applications. To ensure maintenance of cell function upon thawing, the preservation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial, but so far there is little quantitative data on the influence of cryopreservation on cytoskeletal structures. For this reason, our study aims to quantitatively describe cryopreservation induced alterations to F-actin in adherent human mesenchymal stem cells, as a basic model for biomedical applications. Here we have characterised the actin cytoskeleton on single-cell level by calculating the circular standard deviation of filament orientation, F-actin content, and average filament length. Cryo-induced alterations of these parameters in identical cells pre and post cryopreservation provide the basis of our investigation. Differences between the impact of slow-freezing and vitrification are qualitatively analyzed and highlighted. Our analysis is supported by live cryo imaging of the actin cytoskeleton via two photon microscopy. We found similar actin alterations in slow-frozen and vitrified cells including buckling of actin filaments, reduction of F-actin content and filament shortening. These alterations indicate limited functionality of the respective cells. However, there are substantial differences in the frequency and time dependence of F-actin disruptions among the applied cryopreservation strategies; immediately after thawing, cytoskeletal structures show least disruption after slow freezing at a rate of 1°C/min. As post-thaw recovery progresses, the ratio of cells with actin disruptions increases, particularly in slow frozen cells. After 120 min of recovery the proportion of cells with an intact actin cytoskeleton is higher in vitrified than in slow frozen cells. Freezing at 10°C/min is associated with a high ratio of impaired cells throughout the post-thawing culture.

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<![CDATA[Liver regeneration therapy through the hepatic artery-infusion of cultured bone marrow cells in a canine liver fibrosis model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521890d5eed0c484798f50

Background

We previously reported regenerative therapies for decompensated cirrhosis based on peripheral venous drip infusion using non-cultured whole bone marrow (BM) cells, or the less invasive cultured BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Here, we assessed the efficacy and safety of hepatic arterial infusion using cultured autologous BMSCs, comparing it with peripheral infusion, using our established canine liver fibrosis model.

Methods

Canine BM cells were harvested and cultured, and the resultant BMSCs were returned to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver cirrhosis model canines via either a peripheral vein (Vein group) or hepatic artery (Artery group). A variety of assays were performed before and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after BMSC infusion, and liver fibrosis and indocyanine green (ICG) half-life (t1/2) were compared to those in a control group that received CCl4 but not BMSCs. The safety of this approach was evaluated by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and serial blood examinations after infusion.

Results

Four weeks after infusing BMSCs, a significant improvement was observed in the Vein group (n = 8) compared to outcome in the Control group (n = 10), along with a decrease in ICG t1/2. In the Artery group (n = 4), ICG t1/2 was significantly shorter than that in the Vein group at 8 weeks (Δt1/2: −3.8 ± 1.7 min vs. +0.4 ± 2.4 min; p < 0.01) and 12 weeks (Δt1/2: −4.2 ± 1.7 min vs. +0.4 ± 2.7 min; p < 0.01) after BMSC administration. Post-infusion contrast-enhanced CT showed no liver infarction, and blood tests showed no elevations in either serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations or hypercoagulability.

Conclusions

We confirmed the efficacy and safety of the hepatic arterial infusion of cultured autologous BMSCs using a canine model, thereby providing non-clinical proof-of-concept.

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<![CDATA[P38 MAPK inhibition prevents polybrene-induced senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells during viral transduction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2ec1d5eed0c484d9b70f

The unique capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to migrate to the sites of damage, following intravenous transplantation, along with their proliferation and differentiation abilities make them promising candidates for MSC-based gene therapy. This therapeutic approach requires high efficacy delivery of stable transgenes to ensure their adequate expression in MSCs. One of the methods to deliver transgenes is via the viral transduction of MSCs. However, due to low transduction efficiency of MSCs, various polications are used to promote the association of viral particles with membranes of target cells. Among these polications polybrene is the most widely used one. Unfortunately, viral infection in presence of polybrene was shown to negatively affect proliferation rate of stem cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this effect is not yet uncovered. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of this phenomenon as well as to develop an effective approach to overcome the negative impact of polybrene on the properties of human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) during lentiviral infection. We found that the negative effect on proliferation observed during the viral infection in presence of polybrene is mediated by the polycation itself. Furthermore, we revealed that the treatment with polybrene alone led to the p38 MAPK-dependent premature senescence of hMESCs. These findings allowed us to develop an effective strategy to attenuate the negative polybrene impact on the hMESCs properties during lentiviral infection by inhibiting the activity of p38 MAPK. Importantly, the proposed approach did not attenuate the transduction efficiency of hMESCs, yet prevented polybrene-induced senescence and thereby restored the proliferation of the infected cells. These results provide the plausible means to reduce side effects of polybrene during the viral infection of primary cells, particularly MSCs.

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<![CDATA[Dental Pulp Stem Cells Differentiation Reveals New Insights in Oct4A Dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf2ab0ee8fa60bc1a76

Although the role played by the core transcription factor network, which includes c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog, and Oct4, in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ES) pluripotency and in the reprogramming of adult cells is well established, its persistence and function in adult stem cells are still debated. To verify its persistence and clarify the role played by these molecules in adult stem cell function, we investigated the expression pattern of embryonic and adult stem cell markers in undifferentiated and fully differentiated dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). A particular attention was devoted to the expression pattern and intracellular localization of the stemness-associated isoform A of Oct4 (Oct4A). Our data demonstrate that: Oct4, Nanog, Klf4 and c-Myc are expressed in adult stem cells and, with the exception of c-Myc, they are significantly down-regulated following differentiation. Cell differentiation was also associated with a significant reduction in the fraction of DPSC expressing the stem cell markers CD10, CD29 and CD117. Moreover, a nuclear to cytoplasm shuttling of Oct4A was identified in differentiated cells, which was associated with Oct4A phosphorylation. The present study would highlight the importance of the post-translational modifications in DPSC stemness maintenance, by which stem cells balance self-renewal versus differentiation. Understanding and controlling these mechanisms may be of great importance for stemness maintenance and stem cells clinical use, as well as for cancer research.

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<![CDATA[Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Extra Ocular Muscle Harbor Neuroectodermal Differentiation Potential]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da81ab0ee8fa60b9a97f

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proposed as suitable candidates for cell therapy for neurological disorderssince they exhibit good neuronal differentiation capacity. However, for better therapeutic outcomes, it is necessary to isolate MSC from a suitable tissue sourcethat posses high neuronal differentiation. In this context, we isolated MSC from extra ocular muscle (EOM) tissue and tested the in vitro neuronal differentiation potential. In the current study, EOM tissue derived MSC were characterized and compared with bone marrow derived MSC. We found that EOM derived MSC proliferated as a monolayer and showed similarities in morphology, growth properties and cell surface marker expression with bone marrow derived MSC and expressed high levels of NES, OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 in its undifferentiated state. They also expressed embryonic cell surface marker SSEA4 and their intracellular mitochondrial distribution pattern was similar to that of multipotent stem cells. Although EOM derived MSC differentiated readily into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, they differentiated more efficiently into neuroectodermal cells. The differentiation into neuroectodermal cellswas confirmed by the expression of neuronal markers NGFR and MAP2B. Thus, EOM derived MSC might be good candidates for stem cell based therapies for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

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<![CDATA[RNA-Seq Analysis Reveals Different Dynamics of Differentiation of Human Dermis- and Adipose-Derived Stromal Stem Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadbab0ee8fa60bb9bb5

Background

Tissue regeneration and recovery in the adult body depends on self-renewal and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, have been isolated from the stromal fraction of virtually all tissues. However, little is known about the true identity of MSCs. MSC populations exhibit great tissue-, location- and patient-specific variation in gene expression and are heterogeneous in cell composition.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Our aim was to analyze the dynamics of differentiation of two closely related stromal cell types, adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AdMSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (FBs) along adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages using multiplex RNA-seq technology. We found that undifferentiated donor-matched AdMSCs and FBs are distinct populations that stay different upon differentiation into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The changes in lineage-specific gene expression occur early in differentiation and persist over time in both AdMSCs and FBs. Further, AdMSCs and FBs exhibit similar dynamics of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation but different dynamics of chondrogenic differentiation.

Conclusions/Significance

Our findings suggest that stromal stem cells including AdMSCs and dermal FBs exploit different molecular mechanisms of differentiation to reach a common cell fate. The early mechanisms of differentiation are lineage-specific and are similar for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation but are distinct for chondrogenic differentiation between AdMSCs and FBs.

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<![CDATA[Intramyocardial Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Seeded Hydrogel Preserves Cardiac Function and Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d2ab0ee8fa60b648b0

Background

To improve the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy targeted to infarcted myocardium, we investigated whether a self-setting silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel seeded with MSC (MSC+hydrogel) could preserve cardiac function and attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling during an 8-week follow-up study in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI).

Methodology/Principal Finding

Si-HPMC hydrogel alone, MSC alone or MSC+hydrogel were injected into the myocardium immediately after coronary artery ligation in female Lewis rats. Animals in the MSC+hydrogel group showed an increase in cardiac function up to 28 days after MI and a mid-term prevention of cardiac function alteration at day 56. Histological analyses indicated that the injection of MSC+hydrogel induced a decrease in MI size and an increase in scar thickness and ultimately limited the transmural extent of MI. These findings show that intramyocardial injection of MSC+hydrogel induced short-term recovery of ventricular function and mid-term attenuation of remodeling after MI.

Conclusion/Significance

These beneficial effects may be related to the specific scaffolding properties of the Si-HPMC hydrogel that may provide the ability to support MSC injection and engraftment within myocardium.

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<![CDATA[Macromolecular Crowding Directs Extracellular Matrix Organization and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75e08

Microenvironments of biological cells are dominated in vivo by macromolecular crowding and resultant excluded volume effects. This feature is absent in dilute in vitro cell culture. Here, we induced macromolecular crowding in vitro by using synthetic macromolecular globules of nm-scale radius at physiological levels of fractional volume occupancy. We quantified the impact of induced crowding on the extracellular and intracellular protein organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via immunocytochemistry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and AFM-enabled nanoindentation. Macromolecular crowding in extracellular culture media directly induced supramolecular assembly and alignment of extracellular matrix proteins deposited by cells, which in turn increased alignment of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. The resulting cell-matrix reciprocity further affected adhesion, proliferation, and migration behavior of MSCs. Macromolecular crowding can thus aid the design of more physiologically relevant in vitro studies and devices for MSCs and other cells, by increasing the fidelity between materials synthesized by cells in vivo and in vitro.

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<![CDATA[Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Frataxin Expression and Increase Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Enzymes in Friedreich Ataxia Fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9efab0ee8fa60b6dd87

Dramatic advances in recent decades in understanding the genetics of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA)—a GAA triplet expansion causing greatly reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin—have thus far yielded no therapeutic dividend, since there remain no effective treatments that prevent or even slow the inevitable progressive disability in affected individuals. Clinical interventions that restore frataxin expression are attractive therapeutic approaches, as, in theory, it may be possible to re-establish normal function in frataxin deficient cells if frataxin levels are increased above a specific threshold. With this in mind several drugs and cytokines have been tested for their ability to increase frataxin levels. Cell transplantation strategies may provide an alternative approach to this therapeutic aim, and may also offer more widespread cellular protective roles in FRDA. Here we show a direct link between frataxin expression in fibroblasts derived from FRDA patients with both decreased expression of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes and increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. We demonstrate that normal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induce both an increase in frataxin gene and protein expression in FRDA fibroblasts via secretion of soluble factors. Finally, we show that exposure to factors produced by human MSCs increases resistance to hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity in FRDA fibroblasts through, at least in part, restoring the expression of the hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1. These findings suggest, for the first time, that stem cells may increase frataxin levels in FRDA and transplantation of MSCs may offer an effective treatment for these patients.

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<![CDATA[A Comparative Study of Growth Kinetics, In Vitro Differentiation Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fetal Adnexa Derived Caprine Mesenchymal Stem Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daedab0ee8fa60bbfeb6

The present study was conducted with an objective of isolation, in vitro expansion, growth kinetics, molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation of fetal adnexa derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Mid-gestation gravid caprine uteri (2–3 months) were collected from abattoir to derive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa {amniotic fluid (cAF), amniotic sac (cAS), Wharton’s jelly (cWJ) and cord blood (cCB)} and expanded in vitro. These cultured MSCs were used at the 3rd passage (P3) to study growth kinetics, localization as well as molecular expression of specific surface antigens, pluripotency markers and mesenchymal tri-lineage differentiation. In comparison to cAF and cAS MSCs, cWJ and cCB MSCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher clonogenic potency, faster growth rate and low population doubling (PDT) time. All the four types of MSCs were positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP) and differentiated into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. These stem cells expressed MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) and pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, KLF, cMyc, FoxD3) but did not express CD34, a hematopoietic stem cell marker (HSC) as confirmed by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The relative mRNA expression of MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ MSCs compared to the other cell lines. The mRNA expression of Oct4 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ, whereas mRNA expression of KLF and cMyc was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ and cAF than that of cAS and cCB. The comparative assessment revealed that cWJ MSCs outperformed MSCs from other sources of fetal adnexa in terms of growth kinetics, relative mRNA expression of surface antigens, pluripotency markers and tri-lineage differentiation potential, hence, these MSCs could be used as a preferred source for regenerative medicine.

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<![CDATA[Evidence for Mesenchymal−Epithelial Transition Associated with Mouse Hepatic Stem Cell Differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc5f3f

Mesenchymal−epithelial transition events are related to embryonic development, tissue construction, and wound healing. Stem cells are involved in all of these processes, at least in part. However, the direct evidence of mesenchymal−epithelial transition associated with stem cells is unclear. To determine whether mesenchymal−epithelial transition occurs in liver development and/or the differentiation process of hepatic stem cells in vitro, we analyzed a variety of murine liver tissues from embryonic day 11.5 to adults and the colonies derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells isolated with flow cytometry. The results of gene expression, immunohistochemistry and Western blot showed that as liver develops, the expression of epithelial markers such as Cytokeratin18 and E-cadherin increase, while expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and N-cadherin decreased. On the other hand, in freshly isolated hepatic stem cells, the majority of cells (65.0%) co-express epithelial and mesenchymal markers; this proportion is significantly higher than observed in hematopoietic cells, non-hematopoietic cells and non-stem cell fractions. Likewise, in stem cell-derived colonies cultured over time, upregulation of epithelial genes (Cytokeratin-18 and E-cadherin) occurred simultaneously with downregulation of mesenchymal genes (vimentin and Snail1). Furthermore, in the fetal liver, vimentin-positive cells in the non-hematopoietic fraction had distinct proliferative activity and expressed early the hepatic lineage marker alpha-fetoprotein.

Conclusion

Hepatic stem cells co-express mesenchymal and epithelial markers; the mesenchymal−epithelial transition occurred in both liver development and differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells in vitro. Besides as a mesenchymal marker, vimentin is a novel indicator for cell proliferative activity and undifferentiated status in liver cells.

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<![CDATA[Degenerate Wave and Capacitive Coupling Increase Human MSC Invasion and Proliferation While Reducing Cytotoxicity in an In Vitro Wound Healing Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daedab0ee8fa60bbff92

Non-unions pose complications in fracture management that can be treated using electrical stimulation (ES). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are essential in fracture healing; however, the effect of different clinical ES waveforms on BMMSCs cellular activities remains unknown. We compared the effects of direct current (DC), capacitive coupling (CC), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and degenerate wave (DW) on cellular activities including cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell-kinetics and apoptosis by stimulating human-BMMSCs 3 hours a day, up to 5 days. In addition, migration and invasion were assessed using fluorescence microscopy and by quantifying gene and protein expression. We found that DW had the greatest proliferative and least apoptotic and cytotoxic effects compared to other waveforms. DC, DW and CC stimulations resulted in a higher number of cells in S phase and G2/M phase as shown by cell cycle analysis. CC and DW caused more cells to invade collagen and showed increased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. DC increased cellular migration in a scratch-wound assay and all ES waveforms enhanced expression of migratory genes with DC having the greatest effect. All ES treated cells showed similar progenitor potential as determined by MSC differentiation assay. All above findings were shown to be statistically significant (p<0.05). We conclude that ES can influence BMMSCs activities, especially DW and CC, which show greater invasion and higher cell proliferation compared to other types of ES. Application of DW or CC to the fracture site may help in the recruitment of BMMSCs to the wound that may enhance rate of bone healing at the fracture site.

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<![CDATA[Efficient Generation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Umbilical Cord Blood in Stroma-Free Liquid Culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db08ab0ee8fa60bc91da

Background

Haematopoiesis is sustained by haematopoietic (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). HSC are the precursors for blood cells, whereas marrow, stroma, bone, cartilage, muscle and connective tissues derive from MSC. The generation of MSC from umbilical cord blood (UCB) is possible, but with low and unpredictable success. Here we describe a novel, robust stroma-free dual cell culture system for long-term expansion of primitive UCB-derived MSC.

Methods and Findings

UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC) or selected CD34+ cells were grown in liquid culture in the presence of serum and cytokines. Out of 32 different culture conditions that have been tested for the efficient expansion of HSC, we identified one condition (DMEM, pooled human AB serum, Flt-3 ligand, SCF, MGDF and IL-6; further denoted as D7) which, besides supporting HSC expansion, successfully enabled long-term expansion of stromal/MSC from 8 out of 8 UCB units (5 MNC-derived and 3 CD34+ selected cells). Expanded MSC displayed a fibroblast-like morphology, expressed several stromal/MSC-related antigens (CD105, CD73, CD29, CD44, CD133 and Nestin) but were negative for haematopoietic cell markers (CD45, CD34 and CD14). MSC stemness phenotype and their differentiation capacity in vitro before and after high dilution were preserved throughout long-term culture. Even at passage 24 cells remained Nestin+, CD133+ and >95% were positive for CD105, CD73, CD29 and CD44 with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. Similarly we show that UCB derived MSC express pluripotency stem cell markers despite differences in cell confluency and culture passages.

Further, we generated MSC from peripheral blood (PB) MNC of 8 healthy volunteers. In all cases, the resulting MSC expressed MSC-related antigens and showed the capacity to form CFU-F colonies.

Conclusions

This novel stroma-free liquid culture overcomes the existing limitation in obtaining MSC from UCB and PB enabling so far unmet therapeutic applications, which might substantially affect clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Dasatinib as a Bone-Modifying Agent: Anabolic and Anti-Resorptive Effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab5ab0ee8fa60bacb22

Background

Bone loss, in malignant or non-malignant diseases, is caused by increased osteoclast resorption and/or reduced osteoblast bone formation, and is commonly associated with skeletal complications. Thus, there is a need to identify new agents capable of influencing bone remodeling. We aimed to further pre-clinically evaluate the effects of dasatinib (BMS-354825), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function.

Methods

For studies on osteoblasts, primary human bone marrow mensenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) together with the hMSC-TERT and the MG-63 cell lines were employed. Osteoclasts were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy volunteers. Skeletally-immature CD1 mice were used in the in vivo model.

Results

Dasatinib inhibited the platelet derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), c-Src and c-Kit phosphorylation in hMSC-TERT and MG-63 cell lines, which was associated with decreased cell proliferation and activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Treatment of MSCs from healthy donors, but also from multiple myeloma patients with low doses of dasatinib (2–5 nM), promoted its osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization. The bone anabolic effect of dasatinib was also observed in vivo by targeting endogenous osteoprogenitors, as assessed by elevated serum levels of bone formation markers, and increased trabecular microarchitecture and number of osteoblast-like cells. By in vitro exposure of hemopoietic progenitors to a similar range of dasatinib concentrations (1–2 nM), novel biological sequelae relative to inhibition of osteoclast formation and resorptive function were identified, including F-actin ring disruption, reduced levels of c-Fos and of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) in the nucleus, together with lowered cathepsin K, αVβ3 integrin and CCR1 expression.

Conclusions

Low dasatinib concentrations show convergent bone anabolic and reduced bone resorption effects, which suggests its potential use for the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteolytic bone metastasis and myeloma bone disease.

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<![CDATA[The Mutual Interactions between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Myoblasts in an Autologous Co-Culture Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daccab0ee8fa60bb4a79

Both myoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) take part in the muscle tissue regeneration and have been used as experimental cellular therapy in muscular disorders treatment. It is possible that co-transplantation approach could improve the efficacy of this treatment. However, the relations between those two cell types are not clearly defined. The aim of this study was to determine the reciprocal interactions between myoblasts and MSC in vitro in terms of the features important for the muscle regeneration process. Primary caprine muscle-derived cells (MDC) and bone marrow-derived MSC were analysed in autologous settings. We found that MSC contribute to myotubes formation by fusion with MDC when co-cultured directly, but do not acquire myogenic phenotype if exposed to MDC-derived soluble factors only. Experiments with exposure to hydrogen peroxide showed that MSC are significantly more resistant to oxidative stress than MDC, but a direct co-culture with MSC does not diminish the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 on MDC. Cell migration assay demonstrated that MSC possess significantly greater migration ability than MDC which is further enhanced by MDC-derived soluble factors, whereas the opposite effect was not found. MSC-derived soluble factors significantly enhanced the proliferation of MDC, whereas MDC inhibited the division rate of MSC. To conclude, presented results suggest that myogenic precursors and MSC support each other during muscle regeneration and therefore myoblasts-MSC co-transplantation could be an attractive approach in the treatment of muscular disorders.

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