ResearchPad - mesoderm https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pulmonary ductal coarctation and left pulmonary artery interruption; pathology and role of neural crest and second heart field during development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14709 In congenital heart malformations with pulmonary stenosis to atresia an abnormal lateral ductus arteriosus to left pulmonary artery connection can lead to a localised narrowing (pulmonary ductal coarctation) or even interruption We investigated embryonic remodelling and pathogenesis of this area.Material and methodsNormal development was studied in WntCre reporter mice (E10.0–12.5) for neural crest cells and Nkx2.5 immunostaining for second heart field cells. Data were compared to stage matched human embryos and a VEGF120/120 mutant mouse strain developing pulmonary atresia.ResultsNormal mouse and human embryos showed that the mid-pharyngeal endothelial plexus, connected side-ways to the 6th pharyngeal arch artery. The ventral segment formed the proximal pulmonary artery. The dorsal segment (future DA) was solely surrounded by neural crest cells. The ventral segment had a dual outer lining with neural crest and second heart field cells, while the distal pulmonary artery was covered by none of these cells. The asymmetric contribution of second heart field to the future pulmonary trunk on the left side of the aortic sac (so-called pulmonary push) was evident. The ventral segment became incorporated into the pulmonary trunk leading to a separate connection of the left and right pulmonary arteries. The VEGF120/120 embryos showed a stunted pulmonary push and a variety of vascular anomalies.SummarySide-way connection of the DA to the left pulmonary artery is a congenital anomaly. The primary problem is a stunted development of the pulmonary push leading to pulmonary stenosis/atresia and a subsequent lack of proper incorporation of the ventral segment into the aortic sac. Clinically, the aberrant smooth muscle tissue of the ductus arteriosus should be addressed to prohibit development of severe pulmonary ductal coarctation or even interruption of the left pulmonary artery. ]]> <![CDATA[A Newly Defined and Xeno-Free Culture Medium Supports Every-Other-Day Medium Replacement in the Generation and Long-Term Cultivation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9bab0ee8fa60ba3bff

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) present an unprecedented opportunity to advance human health by offering an alternative and renewable cell resource for cellular therapeutics and regenerative medicine. The present demand for high quality hPSCs for use in both research and clinical studies underscores the need to develop technologies that will simplify the cultivation process and control variability. Here we describe the development of a robust, defined and xeno-free hPSC medium that supports reliable propagation of hPSCs and generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple somatic cell types; long-term serial subculturing of hPSCs with every-other-day (EOD) medium replacement; and banking fully characterized hPSCs. The hPSCs cultured in this medium for over 40 passages are genetically stable, retain high expression levels of the pluripotency markers TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Oct-3/4 and SSEA-4, and readily differentiate into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Importantly, the medium plays an integral role in establishing a cGMP-compliant process for the manufacturing of hiPSCs that can be used for generation of clinically relevant cell types for cell replacement therapy applications.

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<![CDATA[Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3eab0ee8fa60b88e23

Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms.

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<![CDATA[Expression Pattern of Axin2 During Chicken Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db27ab0ee8fa60bd06f2

Canonical Wnt-signalling is well understood and has been extensively described in many developmental processes. The regulation of this signalling pathway is of outstanding relevance for proper development of the vertebrate and invertebrate embryo. Axin2 provides a negative-feedback-loop in the canonical Wnt-pathway, being a target gene and a negative regulator. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the expression pattern in the development of the chicken embryo. By performing in-situ hybridization on chicken embryos from stage HH 04+ to HH 32 we detected a temporally and spatially restricted dynamic expression of Axin2. In particular, data about the expression of Axin2 mRNA in early embryogenesis, somites, neural tube, limbs, kidney and eyes was obtained.

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<![CDATA[Gastrulation EMT Is Independent of P-Cadherin Downregulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5bab0ee8fa60b8ff85

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an evolutionarily conserved process during which cells lose epithelial characteristics and gain a migratory phenotype. Although downregulation of epithelial cadherins by Snail and other transcriptional repressors is generally considered a prerequisite for EMT, recent studies have challenged this view. Here we investigate the relationship between E-cadherin and P-cadherin expression and localization, Snail function and EMT during gastrulation in chicken embryos. Expression analyses show that while E-cadherin transcripts are detected in the epiblast but not in the primitive streak or mesoderm, P-cadherin mRNA and protein are present in the epiblast, primitive and mesoderm. Antibodies that specifically recognize E-cadherin are not presently available. During EMT, P-cadherin relocalizes from the lateral surfaces of epithelial epiblast cells to a circumferential distribution in emerging mesodermal cells. Cells electroporated with an E-cadherin expression construct undergo EMT and migrate into the mesoderm. An examination of Snail function showed that reduction of Slug (SNAI2) protein levels using a morpholino fails to inhibit EMT, and expression of human or chicken Snail in epiblast cells fails to induce EMT. In contrast, cells expressing the Rho inhibitor peptide C3 rapidly exit the epiblast without activating Slug or the mesoderm marker N-cadherin. Together, these experiments show that epiblast cells undergo EMT while retaining P-cadherin, and raise questions about the mechanisms of EMT regulation during avian gastrulation.

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<![CDATA[Qualitative Dynamical Modelling Can Formally Explain Mesoderm Specification and Predict Novel Developmental Phenotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da90ab0ee8fa60b9fc02

Given the complexity of developmental networks, it is often difficult to predict the effect of genetic perturbations, even within coding genes. Regulatory factors generally have pleiotropic effects, exhibit partially redundant roles, and regulate highly interconnected pathways with ample cross-talk. Here, we delineate a logical model encompassing 48 components and 82 regulatory interactions involved in mesoderm specification during Drosophila development, thereby providing a formal integration of all available genetic information from the literature. The four main tissues derived from mesoderm correspond to alternative stable states. We demonstrate that the model can predict known mutant phenotypes and use it to systematically predict the effects of over 300 new, often non-intuitive, loss- and gain-of-function mutations, and combinations thereof. We further validated several novel predictions experimentally, thereby demonstrating the robustness of model. Logical modelling can thus contribute to formally explain and predict regulatory outcomes underlying cell fate decisions.

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<![CDATA[The H3K27 demethylase, Utx, regulates adipogenesis in a differentiation stage-dependent manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf3a

Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx), in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes. Utx-deficient mESCs showed diminished potential to differentiate to adipocytes compared to that of controls. In contrast, Utx-deficient preadipocytes showed enhanced differentiation to adipocytes. Microarray analyses indicated that the β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway was differentially regulated in Utx-deficient cells during adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, our data suggest that Utx governs adipogenesis by regulating c-Myc in a differentiation stage-specific manner and that targeting the Utx signaling pathway could be beneficial for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and congenital utx-deficiency disorders.

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<![CDATA[An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da32ab0ee8fa60b84c11

During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is a major advance toward understanding how these tissue layers interact during axis extension with important implications in human disease.

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<![CDATA[Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da42ab0ee8fa60b8a836

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration

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<![CDATA[Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines with Lesions in FOXP3 and NF1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2aab0ee8fa60bd10a7

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst staged embryos. Spare blastocyst staged embryos were obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and donated for research purposes. hESCs carrying specific mutations can be used as a powerful cell system in modeling human genetic disorders. We obtained preimplantation genetic diagnosed (PGD) blastocyst staged embryos with genetic mutations that cause human disorders and derived hESCs from these embryos. We applied laser assisted micromanipulation to isolate the inner cell mass from the blastocysts and plated the ICM onto the mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Two hESC lines with lesions in FOXP3 and NF1 were established. Both lines maintain a typical undifferentiated hESCs phenotype and present a normal karyotype. The two lines express a panel of pluripotency markers and have the potential to differentiate to the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. The hESC lines with lesions in FOXP3 and NF1 are available for the scientific community and may serve as an important resource for research into these disease states.

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<![CDATA[Reduced dosage of β-catenin provides significant rescue of cardiac outflow tract anomalies in a Tbx1 conditional null mouse model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdcffb

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome; DiGeorge syndrome) is a congenital anomaly disorder in which haploinsufficiency of TBX1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, is the major candidate for cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malformations. Inactivation of Tbx1 in the anterior heart field (AHF) mesoderm in the mouse results in premature expression of pro-differentiation genes and a persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) in which septation does not form between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin has major roles in cardiac OFT development that may act upstream of Tbx1. Consistent with an antagonistic relationship, we found the opposite gene expression changes occurred in the AHF in β-catenin loss of function embryos compared to Tbx1 loss of function embryos, providing an opportunity to test for genetic rescue. When both alleles of Tbx1 and one allele of β-catenin were inactivated in the Mef2c-AHF-Cre domain, 61% of them (n = 34) showed partial or complete rescue of the PTA defect. Upregulated genes that were oppositely changed in expression in individual mutant embryos were normalized in significantly rescued embryos. Further, β-catenin was increased in expression when Tbx1 was inactivated, suggesting that there may be a negative feedback loop between canonical Wnt and Tbx1 in the AHF to allow the formation of the OFT. We suggest that alteration of this balance may contribute to variable expressivity in 22q11.2DS.

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<![CDATA[Efficient and robust differentiation of endothelial cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells via lineage control with VEGF and cyclic AMP]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe22

Blood vessels are essential components for many tissues and organs. Thus, efficient induction of endothelial cells (ECs) from human pluripotent stem cells is a key method for generating higher tissue structures entirely from stem cells. We previously established an EC differentiation system with mouse pluripotent stem cells to show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential to induce ECs and that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synergistically enhances VEGF effects. Here we report an efficient and robust EC differentiation method from human pluripotent stem cell lines based on a 2D monolayer, serum-free culture. We controlled the direction of differentiation from mesoderm to ECs using stage-specific stimulation with VEGF and cAMP combined with the elimination of non-responder cells at early EC stage. This “stimulation-elimination” method robustly achieved very high efficiency (>99%) and yield (>10 ECs from 1 hiPSC input) of EC differentiation, with no purification of ECs after differentiation. We believe this method will be a valuable technological basis broadly for regenerative medicine and 3D tissue engineering.

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<![CDATA[An improved method with high sensitivity and low background in detecting low β-galactosidase expression in mouse embryos]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf527

LacZ is widely used as a reporter in studies of gene expression patterns. β-galactosidase, the product of LacZ gene, is usually detected by X-gal/FeCN staining. In X-gal/FeCN staining, β-galactosidase catalyzes X-gal to produce blue precipitates, which indicate the expression patterns of the gene of interest. A newer LacZ detection method using S-gal/TNBT is more sensitive but plagued by high background. Here, we describe an improved procedure that combines advantageous steps from the two methods. By comparing with X-gal/FeCN and S-gal/TNBT methods in detecting the expression patterns of miR-322/503 and miR-451 at a series of developmental stages, the improved method showed higher sensitivity and lower background. Thus, the improved method could be an alternative way of β-galactosidase staining in low gene expression situations.

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<![CDATA[Collinear Hox-Hox interactions are involved in patterning the vertebrate anteroposterior (A-P) axis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdccef

Investigating regulation and function of the Hox genes, key regulators of positional identity in the embryo, opened a new vista in developmental biology. One of their most striking features is collinearity: the temporal and spatial orders of expression of these clustered genes each match their 3’ to 5’ order on the chromosome. Despite recent progress, the mechanisms underlying collinearity are not understood. Here we show that ectopic expression of 4 different single Hox genes predictably induces and represses expression of others, leading to development of different predictable specific sections of the body axis. We use ectopic expression in wild-type and noggin—dorsalised (Hox-free) Xenopus embryos, to show that two Hox-Hox interactions are important. Posterior induction (induction of posterior Hox genes by anterior ones: PI), drives Hox temporal collinearity (Hox timer), which itself drives anteroposterior (A-P) patterning. Posterior prevalence (repression of anterior Hox genes by posterior ones: PP) is important in translating temporal to spatial collinearity. We thus demonstrate for the first time that two collinear Hox interactions are important for vertebrate axial patterning. These findings considerably extend and clarify earlier work suggesting the existence and importance of PP and PI, and provide a major new insight into genesis of the body axis.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Gain-Of-Function Mutation of the Proneural IRX1 and IRX2 Genes Disrupts Axis Elongation in the Araucana Rumpless Chicken]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafeab0ee8fa60bc5beb

Axis elongation of the vertebrate embryo involves the generation of cell lineages from posterior progenitor populations. We investigated the molecular mechanism governing axis elongation in vertebrates using the Araucana rumpless chicken. Araucana embryos exhibit a defect in axis elongation, failing to form the terminal somites and concomitant free caudal vertebrae, pygostyle, and associated tissues of the tail. Through whole genome sequencing of six Araucana we have identified a critical 130 kb region, containing two candidate causative SNPs. Both SNPs are proximal to the IRX1 and IRX2 genes, which are required for neural specification. We show that IRX1 and IRX2 are both misexpressed within the bipotential chordoneural hinge progenitor population of Araucana embryos. Expression analysis of BRA and TBX6, required for specification of mesoderm, shows that both are downregulated, whereas SOX2, required for neural patterning, is expressed in ectopic epithelial tissue. Finally, we show downregulation of genes required for the protection and maintenance of the tailbud progenitor population from the effects of retinoic acid. Our results support a model where the disruption in balance of mesoderm and neural fate results in early depletion of the progenitor population as excess neural tissue forms at the expense of mesoderm, leading to too few mesoderm cells to form the terminal somites. Together this cascade of events leads to axis truncation.

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