ResearchPad - messenger-rna https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The impact of rumen-protected amino acids on the expression of key- genes involved in the innate immunity of dairy sheep]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14615 Rumen protected amino acids inclusion in ewes’ diets has been proposed to enhance their innate immunity. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine or lysine, as well as with a combination of these amino acids in two different ratios, on the expression of selected key-genes (NLRs, MyD88, TRIF, MAPK-1, IRF-3, JunD, TRAF-3, IRF-5, IL-1α, IL-10, IKK-α, STAT-3 and HO-1). Thus, sixty Chios dairy ewes (Ovis aries) were assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments (12 animals/ treatment): A: basal diet consist of concentrates, wheat straw and alfalfa hay (control group); B: basal diet +6.0 g/head rumen-protected methionine; C: basal diet + 5.0 g/head rumen-protected lysine; D: basal diet +6.0 g/head rumen-protected methionine + 5.0 g/head rumen-protected lysine and E: basal diet +12.0 g/head rumen-protected methionine + 5.0 g/head rumen-protected lysine. The results revealed a significant downregulation of relative transcript level of the IL-1α gene in the neutrophils of C and in monocytes of D ewes compared with the control. Significantly lower mRNA transcript accumulation was also observed for the MyD88 gene in the neutrophils of ewes fed with lysine only (C). The mRNA relative expression levels of JunD gene were highly induced in the monocytes, while those of IL-10 and HO-1 genes were declined in the neutrophils of ewes fed with the C and D diets compared with the control. Lower transcript levels of STAT-3 gene were observed in the neutrophils of ewes fed with either C or with E diets in comparison with the control. In conclusion, our results suggest that the dietary supplementation of ewes with rumen-protected amino acids, down regulate the expression of some genes involved in the pro-inflammatory signalling.

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<![CDATA[OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc164

An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1), which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05). The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05), whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05). The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein HNRNPU using optimized HITS-CLIP method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5a6160c-8969-498c-b6ff-671487ce7810

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control many types of post-transcriptional regulation, including mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, and translational efficiency, by directly binding to their target RNAs and their mutation and dysfunction are often associated with several human neurological diseases and tumorigenesis. Crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP), coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP), is a powerful technique for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis by comprehensive identification of RBP target sequences at the transcriptome level. However, HITS-CLIP protocol is still required for some optimization due to experimental complication, low efficiency and time-consuming, whose library has to be generated from very small amounts of RNAs. Here we improved a more efficient, rapid, and reproducible CLIP method by optimizing BrdU-CLIP. Our protocol produced a 10-fold greater yield of pre-amplified CLIP library, which resulted in a low duplicate rate of CLIP-tag reads because the number of PCR cycles required for library amplification was reduced. Variance of the yields was also reduced, and the experimental period was shortened by 2 days. Using this, we validated IL-6 expression by a nuclear RBP, HNRNPU, which directly binds the 3’-UTR of IL-6 mRNA in HeLa cells. Importantly, this interaction was only observed in the cytoplasmic fraction, suggesting a role of cytoplasmic HNRNPU in mRNA stability control. This optimized method enables us to accurately identify target genes and provides a snapshot of the protein-RNA interactions of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RBPs.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of mammalian Lipocalin UTRs in silico: Predictions for their role in post-transcriptional regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897780d5eed0c4847d2e76

The Lipocalin family is a group of homologous proteins characterized by its big array of functional capabilities. As extracellular proteins, they can bind small hydrophobic ligands through a well-conserved β-barrel folding. Lipocalins evolutionary history sprawls across many different taxa and shows great divergence even within chordates. This variability is also found in their heterogeneous tissue expression pattern. Although a handful of promoter regions have been previously described, studies on UTR regulatory roles in Lipocalin gene expression are scarce. Here we report a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis showing that complex post-transcriptional regulation exists in Lipocalin genes, as suggested by the presence of alternative UTRs with substantial sequence conservation in mammals, alongside a high diversity of transcription start sites and alternative promoters. Strong selective pressure could have operated upon Lipocalins UTRs, leading to an enrichment in particular sequence motifs that limit the choice of secondary structures. Mapping these regulatory features to the expression pattern of early and late diverging Lipocalins suggests that UTRs represent an additional phylogenetic signal, which may help to uncover how functional pleiotropy originated within the Lipocalin family.

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<![CDATA[A new highly sensitive real-time quantitative-PCR method for detection of BCR-ABL1 to monitor minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia after discontinuation of imatinib]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823f1d5eed0c4846393bf

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome, have drastically improved the outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although several real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) kits for the detection of BCR-ABL1 transcripts are commercially available, their accuracy and efficiency in laboratory practice require reevaluation. We have developed a new in-house RQ-PCR method to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) in CML cases. MRD was analyzed in 102 patients with CML from the DOMEST study, a clinical trial to study the rationale for imatinib mesylate discontinuation in Japan. The BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio was evaluated using the international standard (IS) ratio, where IS < 0.1% was defined as a major molecular response. At enrollment, BCR-ABL1 transcripts were undetectable in all samples using a widely-applied RQ-PCR method performed in the commercial laboratory, BML (BML Inc., Tokyo, Japan); however, the in-house method detected the BCR-ABL1 transcripts in five samples (5%) (mean IS ratio: 0.0062 ± 0.0010%). After discontinuation of imatinib, BCR-ABL1 transcripts were detected using the in-house RQ-PCR in 21 patients (21%) that were not positive using the BML method. Nineteen samples were also tested using a commercially available RQ-PCR assay kit with a detection limit of IS ratio, 0.0032 (ODK-1201, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Tokyo, Japan). This method detected low levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in 14 samples (74%), but scored negative for five samples (26%) that were positive using the in-house method. From the perspective of the in-house RQ-PCR method, number of patients confirmed loss of MMR was 4. These data suggest that our new in-house RQ-PCR method is effective for monitoring MRD in CML.

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<![CDATA[miR-7977 inhibits the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823ead5eed0c4846392f6

We and others have demonstrated that various abnormalities of the bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) such as aberrant cytokine expression, abnormal hedgehog signaling, and impaired miRNA biogenesis are observed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, underlying mechanisms to induce the dysfunction of BM MSCs have not yet been clarified. We previously showed that AML cells release abundant exosomal miR-7977, which, in turn, enters BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the precise function of miR-7977 is not known. In this study, we performed transduction of a miR-7977 mimic into MSCs, compared transcriptomes between control-transduced (n = 3) and miR-7977-transduced MSCs (n = 3), and conducted pathway analysis. The array data revealed that the expression of 0.05% of genes was reduced 2-fold and the expression of 0.01% of genes was increased 2-fold. Interestingly, approximately half of these genes possessed a miR-7977 target site, while the other genes did not, suggesting that miR-7977 regulates the gene expression level directly and indirectly. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the gene sets of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) _up were significantly enriched (p<0.001, q<0.25), suggesting that miR-7977 modulates the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. Visualization of pathway and network showed that miR-7977 significantly reduced the expression of Hippo core kinase, STK4. miR-7977 inactivated the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway as proven by GFP-tagged YAP nuclear trans localization and TEAD reporter assay. The miR-7977-transduced MSC cell line, HTS-5, showed elevated saturation density and enhanced entry into the cell cycle. These results suggest that miR-7977 is a critical factor that regulates the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway in BM-MSCs and may be involved in the upregulation of leukemia-supporting stroma growth.

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<![CDATA[Enhanced in vivo-imaging in medaka by optimized anaesthesia, fluorescent protein selection and removal of pigmentation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902e5d5eed0c484b98849

Fish are ideally suited for in vivo-imaging due to their transparency at early stages combined with a large genetic toolbox. Key challenges to further advance imaging are fluorophore selection, immobilization of the specimen and approaches to eliminate pigmentation. We addressed all three and identified the fluorophores and anaesthesia of choice by high throughput time-lapse imaging. Our results indicate that eGFP and mCherry are the best conservative choices for in vivo-fluorescence experiments, when availability of well-established antibodies and nanobodies matters. Still, mVenusNB and mGFPmut2 delivered highest absolute fluorescence intensities in vivo. Immobilization is of key importance during extended in vivo imaging. Here, traditional approaches are outperformed by mRNA injection of α-Bungarotoxin which allows a complete and reversible, transient immobilization. In combination with fully transparent juvenile and adult fish established by the targeted inactivation of both, oca2 and pnp4a via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in medaka we could dramatically improve the state-of-the art imaging conditions in post-embryonic fish, now enabling light-sheet microscopy of the growing retina, brain, gills and inner organs in the absence of side effects caused by anaesthetic drugs or pigmentation.

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<![CDATA[Multiplexing polysome profiling experiments to study translation in Escherichia coli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac71d5eed0c484d087b8

Polysome profiling is a widely used method to monitor the translation status of mRNAs. Although it is theoretically a simple technique, it is labor intensive. Repetitive polysome fractionation rapidly generates a large number of samples to be handled in the downstream processes of protein elimination, RNA extraction and quantification. Here, we propose a multiplex polysome profiling experiment in which distinct cellular extracts are pooled before loading on the sucrose gradient for fractionation. We used the multiplexing method to study translation in E. coli. Multiplexing polysome profiling experiments provided similar mRNA translation status to that obtained with the non-multiplex method with comparable distribution of mRNA copies between the polysome profiling fractions, similar ribosome occupancy and ribosome density. The multiplexing method was used for parallel characterization of gene translational responses to changing mRNA levels. When the mRNA level of two native genes, cysZ and lacZ was increased by transcription induction, their global translational response was similar, with a higher ribosome load leading to increased ribosome occupancy and ribosome densities. However the pattern and the magnitude of the translational response were gene specific. By reducing the number of polysome profiling experiments, the multiplexing method saved time and effort and reduced cost and technical bias. This method would be useful to study the translational effect of mRNA sequence-dependent parameters that often require testing multiple samples and conditions in parallel.

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<![CDATA[Mammalian Hbs1L deficiency causes congenital anomalies and developmental delay associated with Pelota depletion and 80S monosome accumulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df303d5eed0c484580b31

Hbs1 has been established as a central component of the cell’s translational quality control pathways in both yeast and prokaryotic models; however, the functional characteristics of its human ortholog (Hbs1L) have not been well-defined. We recently reported a novel human phenotype resulting from a mutation in the critical coding region of the HBS1L gene characterized by facial dysmorphism, severe growth restriction, axial hypotonia, global developmental delay and retinal pigmentary deposits. Here we further characterize downstream effects of the human HBS1L mutation. HBS1L has three transcripts in humans, and RT-PCR demonstrated reduced mRNA levels corresponding with transcripts V1 and V2 whereas V3 expression was unchanged. Western blot analyses revealed Hbs1L protein was absent in the patient cells. Additionally, polysome profiling revealed an abnormal aggregation of 80S monosomes in patient cells under baseline conditions. RNA and ribosomal sequencing demonstrated an increased translation efficiency of ribosomal RNA in Hbs1L-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting that there may be a compensatory increase in ribosome translation to accommodate the increased 80S monosome levels. This enhanced translation was accompanied by upregulation of mTOR and 4-EBP protein expression, suggesting an mTOR-dependent phenomenon. Furthermore, lack of Hbs1L caused depletion of Pelota protein in both patient cells and mouse tissues, while PELO mRNA levels were unaffected. Inhibition of proteasomal function partially restored Pelota expression in human Hbs1L-deficient cells. We also describe a mouse model harboring a knockdown mutation in the murine Hbs1l gene that shared several of the phenotypic elements observed in the Hbs1L-deficient human including facial dysmorphism, growth restriction and retinal deposits. The Hbs1lKO mice similarly demonstrate diminished Pelota levels that were rescued by proteasome inhibition.

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<![CDATA[Insulin resistance disrupts epithelial repair and niche-progenitor Fgf signaling during chronic liver injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feedd5eed0c4841357ce

Insulin provides important information to tissues about feeding behavior and energy status. Defective insulin signaling is associated with ageing, tissue dysfunction, and impaired wound healing. In the liver, insulin resistance leads to chronic damage and fibrosis, but it is unclear how tissue-repair mechanisms integrate insulin signals to coordinate an appropriate injury response or how they are affected by insulin resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that insulin resistance impairs local cellular crosstalk between the fibrotic stroma and bipotent adult liver progenitor cells (LPCs), whose paracrine interactions promote epithelial repair and tissue remodeling. Using insulin-resistant mice deficient for insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2), we highlight dramatic impairment of proregenerative fibroblast growth factor 7 (Fgf7) signaling between stromal niche cells and LPCs during chronic injury. We provide a detailed account of the role played by IRS2 in promoting Fgf7 ligand and receptor (Fgfr2-IIIb) expression by the two cell compartments, and we describe an insulin/IRS2-dependent feed-forward loop capable of sustaining hepatic re-epithelialization by driving FGFR2-IIIb expression. Finally, we shed light on the regulation of IRS2 and FGF7 within the fibrotic stroma and show—using a human coculture system—that IRS2 silencing shifts the equilibrium away from paracrine epithelial repair in favor of fibrogenesis. Hence, we offer a compelling insight into the contribution of insulin resistance to the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease and propose IRS2 as a positive regulator of communication between cell types and the transition between phases of stromal to epithelial repair.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of a novel microRNA, miR-188, elevated in serum of muscular dystrophy dog model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b525dd5eed0c4842bc6ee

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several miRNAs are exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle and participate in the regulation of muscle differentiation by interacting with myogenic factors. These miRNAs can be found at high levels in the serum of patients and animal models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which is expected to be useful as biomarkers for their clinical conditions. By miRNA microarray analysis, we identified miR-188 as a novel miRNA that is elevated in the serum of the muscular dystrophy dog model, CXMDJ. miR-188 was not muscle-specific miRNA, but its expression was up-regulated in skeletal muscles associated with muscle regeneration induced by cardiotoxin-injection in normal dogs and mice. Manipulation of miR-188 expression using antisense oligo and mimic oligo RNAs alters the mRNA expression of the myogenic regulatory factors, MRF4 and MEF2C. Our results suggest that miR-188 is a new player that participates in the gene regulation process of muscle differentiation and that it may serve as a serum biomarker reflecting skeletal muscle regeneration.

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<![CDATA[Plasmodium male gametocyte development and transmission are critically regulated by the two putative deadenylases of the CAF1/CCR4/NOT complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca300d5eed0c48441efa2

With relatively few known specific transcription factors to control the abundance of specific mRNAs, Plasmodium parasites may rely more on the regulation of transcript stability and turnover to provide sufficient gene regulation. Plasmodium transmission stages impose translational repression on specific transcripts in part to accomplish this. However, few proteins are known to participate in this process, and those that are characterized primarily affect female gametocytes. We have identified and characterized Plasmodium yoelii (Py) CCR4-1, a putative deadenylase, which plays a role in the development and activation of male gametocytes, regulates the abundance of specific mRNAs in gametocytes, and ultimately increases the efficiency of host-to-vector transmission. We find that when pyccr4-1 is deleted or its protein made catalytically inactive, there is a loss in the initial coordination of male gametocyte maturation and a reduction of parasite infectivity of the mosquito. Expression of only the N-terminal CAF1 domain of the essential CAF1 deadenylase leads to a similar phenotype. Comparative RNA-seq revealed that PyCCR4-1 affects transcripts important for transmission-related functions that are associated with male or female gametocytes, some of which directly associate with the immunoprecipitated complex. Finally, circular RT-PCR of one of the bound, dysregulated transcripts showed that deletion of the pyccr4-1 gene does not result in gross changes to its UTR or poly(A) tail length. We conclude that the two putative deadenylases of the CAF1/CCR4/NOT complex play critical and intertwined roles in gametocyte maturation and transmission.

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<![CDATA[HIV-1 infection increases microRNAs that inhibit Dicer1, HRB and HIV-EP2, thereby reducing viral replication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644911d5eed0c484c2f555

HIV-1 is the causative agent of AIDS (Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV-1 infection results in systemic CD4+ T cell depletion, thereby impairing cell-mediated immunity. MicroRNAs are short (~22 nucleotides long), endogenous single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTR) of mRNA transcripts. The relation between HIV-1 infection and human miRNA expression profile has been previously investigated, and studies have shown that the virus can alter miRNA expression and vice versa. Here, we broaden the understanding of the HIV-1 infection process, and show that miRNA-186, 210 and 222 are up-regulated following HIV-1 infection of human Sup-T1 cells. As a result, the host miRNA target genes: Dicer1 (Double-Stranded RNA-Specific Endoribonuclease), HRB (HIV-1 Rev-binding protein) and HIV-EP2 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Enhancer Binding Protein 2), are down-regulated. Moreover, testing the miRNA-gene anti- correlation on the Jurkat and the HeLa-MAGI cell lines demonstrated the ability of the miRNAs to down-regulate viral expression as well. To conclude, we found that human miR-186, 210 and 222 directly regulate the human genes Dicer1, HRB and HIV-EP2, thus may be filling key roles during HIV-1 replication and miRNA biogenesis. This finding may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

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<![CDATA[Quadruplex-forming oligonucleotide targeted to the VEGF promoter inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e675d5eed0c484ef32bf

Background

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types including lung cancer. As a key regulator of angiogenesis, it promotes tumor survival, growth, and metastasis through the activation of the downstream protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) activation. The VEGF promoter contains a 36 bp guanine-rich sequence (VEGFq) which is capable of forming quadruplex (four-stranded) DNA. This sequence has been implicated in the down-regulation of both basal and inducible VEGF expression and represents an ideal target for inhibition of VEGF expression.

Results

Our experiments demonstrate sequence-specific interaction between a G-rich quadruplex-forming oligonucleotide encoding a portion of the VEGFq sequence and its double stranded target sequence, suggesting that this G-rich oligonucleotide binds specifically to its complementary C-rich sequence in the genomic VEGF promoter by strand invasion. We show that treatment of A549 non-small lung cancer cells (NSCLC) with this oligonucleotide results in decreased VEGF expression and growth inhibition. The VEGFq oligonucleotide inhibits proliferation and invasion by decreasing VEGF mRNA/protein expression and subsequent ERK 1/2 and AKT activation. Furthermore, the VEGFq oligonucleotide is abundantly taken into cells, localized in the cytoplasm/nucleus, inherently stable in serum and intracellularly, and has no effect on non-transformed cells. Suppression of VEGF expression induces cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and increased expression of LC3B, suggesting that VEGFq may induce autophagic cell death.

Conclusion

Our data strongly suggest that the G-rich VEGFq oligonucleotide binds specifically to the C-rich strand of the genomic VEGF promoter, via strand invasion, stabilizing the quadruplex structure formed by the genomic G-rich sequence, resulting in transcriptional inhibition. Strand invading oligonucleotides represent a new approach to specifically inhibit VEGF expression that avoids many of the problems which have plagued the therapeutic use of oligonucleotides. This is a novel approach to specific inhibition of gene expression.

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<![CDATA[Allele-specific RNA imaging shows that allelic imbalances can arise in tissues through transcriptional bursting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5f1d5eed0c484caa55b

Extensive cell-to-cell variation exists even among putatively identical cells, and there is great interest in understanding how the properties of transcription relate to this heterogeneity. Differential expression from the two gene copies in diploid cells could potentially contribute, yet our ability to measure from which gene copy individual RNAs originated remains limited, particularly in the context of tissues. Here, we demonstrate quantitative, single molecule allele-specific RNA FISH adapted for use on tissue sections, allowing us to determine the chromosome of origin of individual RNA molecules in formaldehyde-fixed tissues. We used this method to visualize the allele-specific expression of Xist and multiple autosomal genes in mouse kidney. By combining these data with mathematical modeling, we evaluated models for allele-specific heterogeneity, in particular demonstrating that apparent expression from only one of the alleles in single cells can arise as a consequence of low-level mRNA abundance and transcriptional bursting.

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<![CDATA[SENP3-mediated host defense response contains HBV replication and restores protein synthesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466562d5eed0c484518e5e

Certain organs are capable of containing the replication of various types of viruses. In the liver, infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the etiological factor of Hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), often remains asymptomatic and leads to a chronic carrier state. Here we investigated how hepatocytes contain HBV replication and promote their own survival by orchestrating a translational defense mechanism via the stress-sensitive SUMO-2/3-specific peptidase SENP3. We found that SENP3 expression level decreased in HBV-infected hepatocytes in various models including HepG2-NTCP cell lines and a humanized mouse model. Downregulation of SENP3 reduced HBV replication and boosted host protein translation. We also discovered that IQGAP2, a Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, is a key substrate for SENP3-mediated de-SUMOylation. Downregulation of SENP3 in HBV infected cells facilitated IQGAP2 SUMOylation and degradation, which leads to suppression of HBV gene expression and restoration of global translation of host genes via modulation of AKT phosphorylation. Thus, The SENP3-IQGAP2 de-SUMOylation axis is a host defense mechanism of hepatocytes that restores host protein translation and suppresses HBV gene expression.

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<![CDATA[Bottom-up, integrated -omics analysis identifies broadly dosage-sensitive genes in breast cancer samples from TCGA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a78d5eed0c4847cd00d

The massive genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including proteomics data from Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), provides a unique opportunity to study cancer systematically. While most observations are made from a single type of genomics data, we apply big data analytics and systems biology approaches by simultaneously analyzing DNA amplification, mRNA and protein abundance. Using multiple genomic profiles, we have discovered widespread dosage compensation for the extensive aneuploidy observed in TCGA breast cancer samples. We do identify 11 genes that show strong correlation across all features (DNA/mRNA/protein) analogous to that of the well-known oncogene HER2 (ERBB2). These genes are generally less well-characterized regarding their role in cancer and we advocate their further study. We also discover that shRNA knockdown of these genes has an impact on cancer cell growth, suggesting a vulnerability that could be used for cancer therapy. Our study shows the advantages of systematic big data methodologies and also provides future research directions.

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<![CDATA[Macrophages attenuate the transcription of CYP1A1 in breast tumor cells and enhance their proliferation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d017ed5eed0c48403bde0

While aberrant cells are routinely recognized and removed by immune cells, tumors eventually escape innate immune responses. Infiltrating immune cells are even corrupted by the tumor to acquire a tumor-supporting phenotype. In line, tumor-associated macrophages are well-characterized to promote tumor progression and high levels of tumor-infiltrating macrophages are a poor prognostic marker in breast cancer. Here, we aimed to further decipher the influence of macrophages on breast tumor cells and determined global gene expression changes in three-dimensional tumor spheroids upon infiltration of macrophages. While various tumor-associated mRNAs were upregulated, expression of the cytochrome P450 family member CYP1A1 was markedly attenuated. Repression of CYP1A1 in tumor cells was elicited by a macrophage-shaped tumor microenvironment rather than by direct tumor cell-macrophage contacts. In line with changes in RNA expression profiles, macrophages enhanced proliferation of the tumor cells. Enhanced proliferation and macrophage presence further correlated with reduced CYP1A1 expression in patient tumors when compared with normal tissue. These findings are of interest in the context of combinatory therapeutic approaches involving cytotoxic and immune-modulatory compounds.

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<![CDATA[Small molecule inhibition of IRE1α kinase/RNase has anti-fibrotic effects in the lung]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5c3d5eed0c484ca83f8

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disease of progressive fibrosis and respiratory failure. ER stress activates a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) that either restores homeostasis or promotes apoptosis. The bifunctional kinase/RNase IRE1α is a UPR sensor/effector that promotes apoptosis if ER stress remains high and irremediable (i.e., a “terminal” UPR). Using multiple small molecule inhibitors against IRE1α, we show that ER stress-induced apoptosis of murine alveolar epithelial cells can be mitigated in vitro. In vivo, we show that bleomycin exposure to murine lungs causes early ER stress to activate IRE1α and the terminal UPR prior to development of pulmonary fibrosis. Small-molecule IRE1α kinase-inhibiting RNase attenuators (KIRAs) that we developed were used to evaluate the contribution of IRE1α activation to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. One such KIRA—KIRA7—provided systemically to mice at the time of bleomycin exposure decreases terminal UPR signaling and prevents lung fibrosis. Administration of KIRA7 14 days after bleomycin exposure even promoted the reversal of established fibrosis. Finally, we show that KIRA8, a nanomolar-potent, monoselective KIRA compound derived from a completely different scaffold than KIRA7, likewise promoted reversal of established fibrosis. These results demonstrate that IRE1α may be a promising target in pulmonary fibrosis and that kinase inhibitors of IRE1α may eventually be developed into efficacious anti-fibrotic drugs.

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<![CDATA[Conserved mRNA-granule component Scd6 targets Dhh1 to repress translation initiation and activates Dcp2-mediated mRNA decay in vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f0dd5eed0c484d296ca

Scd6 protein family members are evolutionarily conserved components of translationally silent mRNA granules. Yeast Scd6 interacts with Dcp2 and Dhh1, respectively a subunit and a regulator of the mRNA decapping enzyme, and also associates with translation initiation factor eIF4G to inhibit translation in cell extracts. However, the role of Scd6 in mRNA turnover and translational repression in vivo is unclear. We demonstrate that tethering Scd6 to a GFP reporter mRNA reduces mRNA abundance via Dcp2 and suppresses reporter mRNA translation via Dhh1. Thus, in a dcp2Δ mutant, tethered Scd6 reduces GFP protein expression with little effect on mRNA abundance, whereas tethered Scd6 has no impact on GFP protein or mRNA expression in a dcp2Δ dhh1Δ double mutant. The conserved LSm domain of Scd6 is required for translational repression and mRNA turnover by tethered Scd6. Both functions are enhanced in a ccr4Δ mutant, suggesting that the deadenylase function of Ccr4-Not complex interferes with a more efficient repression pathway enlisted by Scd6. Ribosome profiling and RNA-Seq analysis of scd6Δ and dhh1Δ mutants suggests that Scd6 cooperates with Dhh1 in translational repression and turnover of particular native mRNAs, with both processes dependent on Dcp2. Our results suggest that Scd6 can (i) recruit Dhh1 to confer translational repression and (ii) activate mRNA decapping by Dcp2 with attendant degradation of specific mRNAs in vivo, in a manner dependent on the Scd6 LSm domain and modulated by Ccr4.

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