ResearchPad - metabolic-networks https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Medusa: Software to build and analyze ensembles of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7734 Uncertainty in the structure and parameters of networks is ubiquitous across computational biology. In constraint-based reconstruction and analysis of metabolic networks, this uncertainty is present both during the reconstruction of networks and in simulations performed with them. Here, we present Medusa, a Python package for the generation and analysis of ensembles of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions. Medusa builds on the COBRApy package for constraint-based reconstruction and analysis by compressing a set of models into a compact ensemble object, providing functions for the generation of ensembles using experimental data, and extending constraint-based analyses to ensemble scale. We demonstrate how Medusa can be used to generate ensembles and perform ensemble simulations, and how machine learning can be used in conjunction with Medusa to guide the curation of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions. Medusa is available under the permissive MIT license from the Python Packaging Index (https://pypi.org) and from github (https://github.com/opencobra/Medusa), and comprehensive documentation is available at https://medusa.readthedocs.io/en/latest.

]]>
<![CDATA[RedCom: A strategy for reduced metabolic modeling of complex microbial communities and its application for analyzing experimental datasets from anaerobic digestion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df347d5eed0c48458108e

Constraint-based modeling (CBM) is increasingly used to analyze the metabolism of complex microbial communities involved in ecology, biomedicine, and various biotechnological processes. While CBM is an established framework for studying the metabolism of single species with linear stoichiometric models, CBM of communities with balanced growth is more complicated, not only due to the larger size of the multi-species metabolic network but also because of the bilinear nature of the resulting community models. Moreover, the solution space of these community models often contains biologically unrealistic solutions, which, even with model linearization and under application of certain objective functions, cannot easily be excluded. Here we present RedCom, a new approach to build reduced community models in which the metabolisms of the participating organisms are represented by net conversions computed from the respective single-species networks. By discarding (single-species) net conversions that violate a minimality criterion in the exchange fluxes, it is ensured that unrealistic solutions in the community model are excluded where a species altruistically synthesizes large amounts of byproducts (instead of biomass) to fulfill the requirements of other species. We employed the RedCom approach for modeling communities of up to nine organisms involved in typical degradation steps of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Compared to full (bilinear and linearized) community models, we found that the reduced community models obtained with RedCom are not only much smaller but allow, also in the largest model with nine species, extensive calculations required to fully characterize the solution space and to reveal key properties of communities with maximum methane yield and production rates. Furthermore, the predictive power of the reduced community models is significantly larger because they predict much smaller ranges of feasible community compositions and exchange fluxes still being consistent with measurements obtained from enrichment cultures. For an enrichment culture for growth on ethanol, we also used metaproteomic data to further constrain the solution space of the community models. Both model and proteomic data indicated a dominance of acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosarcinales) and Desulfovibrionales being the least abundant group in this microbial community.

]]>
<![CDATA[Social dynamics modeling of chrono-nutrition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52b1d5eed0c4842bce5a

Gut microbiota and human relationships are strictly connected to each other. What we eat reflects our body-mind connection and synchronizes with people around us. However, how this impacts on gut microbiota and, conversely, how gut bacteria influence our dietary behaviors has not been explored yet. To quantify the complex dynamics of this interplay between gut and human behaviors we explore the “gut-human behavior axis” and its evolutionary dynamics in a real-world scenario represented by the social multiplex network. We consider a dual type of similarity, homophily and gut similarity, other than psychological and unconscious biases. We analyze the dynamics of social and gut microbial communities, quantifying the impact of human behaviors on diets and gut microbial composition and, backwards, through a control mechanism. Meal timing mechanisms and “chrono-nutrition” play a crucial role in feeding behaviors, along with the quality and quantity of food intake. Considering a population of shift workers, we explore the dynamic interplay between their eating behaviors and gut microbiota, modeling the social dynamics of chrono-nutrition in a multiplex network. Our findings allow us to quantify the relation between human behaviors and gut microbiota through the methodological introduction of gut metabolic modeling and statistical estimators, able to capture their dynamic interplay. Moreover, we find that the timing of gut microbial communities is slower than social interactions and shift-working, and the impact of shift-working on the dynamics of chrono-nutrition is a fluctuation of strategies with a major propensity for defection (e.g. high-fat meals). A deeper understanding of the relation between gut microbiota and the dietary behavioral patterns, by embedding also the related social aspects, allows improving the overall knowledge about metabolic models and their implications for human health, opening the possibility to design promising social therapeutic dietary interventions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Extreme pathway analysis reveals the organizing rules of metabolic regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63394dd5eed0c484ae646f

Cellular systems shift metabolic states by adjusting gene expression and enzyme activities to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Biochemical and genetic studies are identifying how metabolic regulation affects the selection of metabolic phenotypes. However, how metabolism influences its regulatory architecture still remains unexplored. We present a new method of extreme pathway analysis (the minimal set of conically independent metabolic pathways) to deduce regulatory structures from pure pathway information. Applying our method to metabolic networks of human red blood cells and Escherichia coli, we shed light on how metabolic regulation are organized by showing which reactions within metabolic networks are more prone to transcriptional or allosteric regulation. Applied to a human genome-scale metabolic system, our method detects disease-associated reactions. Thus, our study deepens the understanding of the organizing principle of cellular metabolic regulation and may contribute to metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and disease treatment.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cellular determinants of metabolite concentration ranges]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536be4d5eed0c484a4947e

Cellular functions are shaped by reaction networks whose dynamics are determined by the concentrations of underlying components. However, cellular mechanisms ensuring that a component’s concentration resides in a given range remain elusive. We present network properties which suffice to identify components whose concentration ranges can be efficiently computed in mass-action metabolic networks. We show that the derived ranges are in excellent agreement with simulations from a detailed kinetic metabolic model of Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that the approach can be used with genome-scale metabolic models to arrive at predictions concordant with measurements from Escherichia coli under different growth scenarios. By application to 14 genome-scale metabolic models from diverse species, our approach specifies the cellular determinants of concentration ranges that can be effectively employed to make predictions for a variety of biotechnological and medical applications.

]]>
<![CDATA[Metabolic models and gene essentiality data reveal essential and conserved metabolism in prokaryotes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf86f5ed5eed0c48405a937

Essential metabolic reactions are shaping constituents of metabolic networks, enabling viable and distinct phenotypes across diverse life forms. Here we analyse and compare modelling predictions of essential metabolic functions with experimental data and thereby identify core metabolic pathways in prokaryotes. Simulations of 15 manually curated genome-scale metabolic models were integrated with 36 large-scale gene essentiality datasets encompassing a wide variety of species of bacteria and archaea. Conservation of metabolic genes was estimated by analysing 79 representative genomes from all the branches of the prokaryotic tree of life. We find that essentiality patterns reflect phylogenetic relations both for modelling and experimental data, which correlate highly at the pathway level. Genes that are essential for several species tend to be highly conserved as opposed to non-essential genes which may be conserved or not. The tRNA-charging module is highlighted as ancestral and with high centrality in the networks, followed closely by cofactor metabolism, pointing to an early information processing system supplied by organic cofactors. The results, which point to model improvements and also indicate faults in the experimental data, should be relevant to the study of centrality in metabolic networks and ancient metabolism but also to metabolic engineering with prokaryotes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Using genome-scale metabolic models to compare serovars of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b7ce463d7e14181b1813

Listeria monocytogenes is a microorganism of great concern for the food industry and the cause of human foodborne disease. Therefore, novel methods of control are needed, and systems biology is one such approach to identify them. Using a combination of computational techniques and laboratory methods, genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) can be created, validated, and used to simulate growth environments and discern metabolic capabilities of microbes of interest, including L. monocytogenes. The objective of the work presented here was to generate GEMs for six different strains of L. monocytogenes, and to both qualitatively and quantitatively validate these GEMs with experimental data to examine the diversity of metabolic capabilities of numerous strains from the three different serovar groups most associated with foodborne outbreaks and human disease. Following qualitative validation, 57 of the 95 carbon sources tested experimentally were present in the GEMs, and; therefore, these were the compounds from which comparisons could be drawn. Of these 57 compounds, agreement between in silico predictions and in vitro results for carbon source utilization ranged from 80.7% to 91.2% between strains. Nutrient utilization agreement between in silico predictions and in vitro results were also conducted for numerous nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur sources. Additionally, quantitative validation showed that the L. monocytogenes GEMs were able to generate in silico predictions for growth rate and growth yield that were strongly and significantly (p < 0.0013 and p < 0.0015, respectively) correlated with experimental results. These findings are significant because they show that these GEMs for L. monocytogenes are comparable to published GEMs of other organisms for agreement between in silico predictions and in vitro results. Therefore, as with the other GEMs, namely those for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Salmonella spp., they can be used to determine new methods of growth control and disease treatment.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Novel Nutritional Predictor Links Microbial Fastidiousness with Lowered Ubiquity, Growth Rate, and Cooperativeness]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75ef8

Understanding microbial nutritional requirements is a key challenge in microbiology. Here we leverage the recent availability of thousands of automatically generated genome-scale metabolic models to develop a predictor of microbial minimal medium requirements, which we apply to thousands of species to study the relationship between their nutritional requirements and their ecological and genomic traits. We first show that nutritional requirements are more similar among species that co-habit many ecological niches. We then reveal three fundamental characteristics of microbial fastidiousness (i.e., complex and specific nutritional requirements): (1) more fastidious microorganisms tend to be more ecologically limited; (2) fastidiousness is positively associated with smaller genomes and smaller metabolic networks; and (3) more fastidious species grow more slowly and have less ability to cooperate with other species than more metabolically versatile organisms. These associations reflect the adaptation of fastidious microorganisms to unique niches with few cohabitating species. They also explain how non-fastidious species inhabit many ecological niches with high abundance rates. Taken together, these results advance our understanding microbial nutrition on a large scale, by presenting new nutrition-related associations that govern the distribution of microorganisms in nature.

]]>
<![CDATA[Emergent Biosynthetic Capacity in Simple Microbial Communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da77ab0ee8fa60b97248

Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity – instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a “Goldilocks” principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential to design and engineer synthetic communities capable of novel metabolic activities and point to promising future directions in environmental and clinical bioengineering.

]]>
<![CDATA[Enteric Microbiome Metabolites Correlate with Response to Simvastatin Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae2ab0ee8fa60bbc399

Although statins are widely prescribed medications, there remains considerable variability in therapeutic response. Genetics can explain only part of this variability. Metabolomics is a global biochemical approach that provides powerful tools for mapping pathways implicated in disease and in response to treatment. Metabolomics captures net interactions between genome, microbiome and the environment. In this study, we used a targeted GC-MS metabolomics platform to measure a panel of metabolites within cholesterol synthesis, dietary sterol absorption, and bile acid formation to determine metabolite signatures that may predict variation in statin LDL-C lowering efficacy. Measurements were performed in two subsets of the total study population in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (CAP) study: Full Range of Response (FR), and Good and Poor Responders (GPR) were 100 individuals randomly selected from across the entire range of LDL-C responses in CAP. GPR were 48 individuals, 24 each from the top and bottom 10% of the LDL-C response distribution matched for body mass index, race, and gender. We identified three secondary, bacterial-derived bile acids that contribute to predicting the magnitude of statin-induced LDL-C lowering in good responders. Bile acids and statins share transporters in the liver and intestine; we observed that increased plasma concentration of simvastatin positively correlates with higher levels of several secondary bile acids. Genetic analysis of these subjects identified associations between levels of seven bile acids and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4149056, in the gene encoding the organic anion transporter SLCO1B1. These findings, along with recently published results that the gut microbiome plays an important role in cardiovascular disease, indicate that interactions between genome, gut microbiome and environmental influences should be considered in the study and management of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic profiles could provide valuable information about treatment outcomes and could contribute to a more personalized approach to therapy.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Central Role of Abscisic Acid in Stress-Regulated Carbohydrate Metabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85935

Background

Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and development. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the response and adaptation to environmental constraints. However, apart from the well established role of ABA in regulating gene expression programmes, little is known about its function in plant stress metabolism.

Principal Findings

Using an integrative multiparallel approach of metabolome and transcriptome analyses, we studied the dynamic response of the model glyophyte Arabidopsis thaliana to ABA and high salt conditions. Our work shows that salt stress induces complex re-adjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and that ABA triggers the initial steps of carbon mobilisation.

Significance

These findings open new perspectives on how high salinity and ABA impact on central carbohydrate metabolism and highlight the power of iterative combinatorial approaches of non-targeted and hypothesis-driven experiments in stress biology.

]]>
<![CDATA[Sampling the Solution Space in Genome-Scale Metabolic Networks Reveals Transcriptional Regulation in Key Enzymes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d3ab0ee8fa60b64d82

Genome-scale metabolic models are available for an increasing number of organisms and can be used to define the region of feasible metabolic flux distributions. In this work we use as constraints a small set of experimental metabolic fluxes, which reduces the region of feasible metabolic states. Once the region of feasible flux distributions has been defined, a set of possible flux distributions is obtained by random sampling and the averages and standard deviations for each of the metabolic fluxes in the genome-scale model are calculated. These values allow estimation of the significance of change for each reaction rate between different conditions and comparison of it with the significance of change in gene transcription for the corresponding enzymes. The comparison of flux change and gene expression allows identification of enzymes showing a significant correlation between flux change and expression change (transcriptional regulation) as well as reactions whose flux change is likely to be driven only by changes in the metabolite concentrations (metabolic regulation). The changes due to growth on four different carbon sources and as a consequence of five gene deletions were analyzed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzymes with transcriptional regulation showed enrichment in certain transcription factors. This has not been previously reported. The information provided by the presented method could guide the discovery of new metabolic engineering strategies or the identification of drug targets for treatment of metabolic diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Mycoplasma genitalium, iPS189]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6bab0ee8fa60b92d4b

With a genome size of ∼580 kb and approximately 480 protein coding regions, Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the smallest known self-replicating organisms and, additionally, has extremely fastidious nutrient requirements. The reduced genomic content of M. genitalium has led researchers to suggest that the molecular assembly contained in this organism may be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes required for bacterial growth. Here, we introduce a systematic approach for the construction and curation of a genome-scale in silico metabolic model for M. genitalium. Key challenges included estimation of biomass composition, handling of enzymes with broad specificities, and the lack of a defined medium. Computational tools were subsequently employed to identify and resolve connectivity gaps in the model as well as growth prediction inconsistencies with gene essentiality experimental data. The curated model, M. genitalium iPS189 (262 reactions, 274 metabolites), is 87% accurate in recapitulating in vivo gene essentiality results for M. genitalium. Approaches and tools described herein provide a roadmap for the automated construction of in silico metabolic models of other organisms.

]]>
<![CDATA[SteatoNet: The First Integrated Human Metabolic Model with Multi-layered Regulation to Investigate Liver-Associated Pathologies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da20ab0ee8fa60b7e775

Current state-of-the-art mathematical models to investigate complex biological processes, in particular liver-associated pathologies, have limited expansiveness, flexibility, representation of integrated regulation and rely on the availability of detailed kinetic data. We generated the SteatoNet, a multi-pathway, multi-tissue model and in silico platform to investigate hepatic metabolism and its associated deregulations. SteatoNet is based on object-oriented modelling, an approach most commonly applied in automotive and process industries, whereby individual objects correspond to functional entities. Objects were compiled to feature two novel hepatic modelling aspects: the interaction of hepatic metabolic pathways with extra-hepatic tissues and the inclusion of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. SteatoNet identification at normalised steady state circumvents the need for constraining kinetic parameters. Validation and identification of flux disturbances that have been proven experimentally in liver patients and animal models highlights the ability of SteatoNet to effectively describe biological behaviour. SteatoNet identifies crucial pathway branches (transport of glucose, lipids and ketone bodies) where changes in flux distribution drive the healthy liver towards hepatic steatosis, the primary stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cholesterol metabolism and its transcription regulators are highlighted as novel steatosis factors. SteatoNet thus serves as an intuitive in silico platform to identify systemic changes associated with complex hepatic metabolic disorders.

]]>
<![CDATA[Rapid Etiological Classification of Meningitis by NMR Spectroscopy Based on Metabolite Profiles and Host Response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac1ab0ee8fa60bb0a65

Bacterial meningitis is an acute disease with high mortality that is reduced by early treatment. Identification of the causative microorganism by culture is sensitive but slow. Large volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are required to maximise sensitivity and establish a provisional diagnosis.

We have utilised nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly characterise the biochemical profile of CSF from normal rats and animals with pneumococcal or cryptococcal meningitis. Use of a miniaturised capillary NMR system overcame limitations caused by small CSF volumes and low metabolite concentrations. The analysis of the complex NMR spectroscopic data by a supervised statistical classification strategy included major, minor and unidentified metabolites.

Reproducible spectral profiles were generated within less than three minutes, and revealed differences in the relative amounts of glucose, lactate, citrate, amino acid residues, acetate and polyols in the three groups. Contributions from microbial metabolism and inflammatory cells were evident. The computerised statistical classification strategy is based on both major metabolites and minor, partially unidentified metabolites. This data analysis proved highly specific for diagnosis (100% specificity in the final validation set), provided those with visible blood contamination were excluded from analysis; 6–8% of samples were classified as indeterminate.

This proof of principle study suggests that a rapid etiologic diagnosis of meningitis is possible without prior culture. The method can be fully automated and avoids delays due to processing and selective identification of specific pathogens that are inherent in DNA-based techniques.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association of Lipidome Remodeling in the Adipocyte Membrane with Acquired Obesity in Humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadbab0ee8fa60bb9e42

The authors describe a new approach to studying cellular lipid profiles and propose a compensatory mechanism that may help maintain the normal membrane function of adipocytes in the context of obesity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reconstruction and In Silico Analysis of Metabolic Network for an Oleaginous Yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2bab0ee8fa60bd1332

With the emergence of energy scarcity, the use of renewable energy sources such as biodiesel is becoming increasingly necessary. Recently, many researchers have focused their minds on Yarrowia lipolytica, a model oleaginous yeast, which can be employed to accumulate large amounts of lipids that could be further converted to biodiesel. In order to understand the metabolic characteristics of Y. lipolytica at a systems level and to examine the potential for enhanced lipid production, a genome-scale compartmentalized metabolic network was reconstructed based on a combination of genome annotation and the detailed biochemical knowledge from multiple databases such as KEGG, ENZYME and BIGG. The information about protein and reaction associations of all the organisms in KEGG and Expasy-ENZYME database was arranged into an EXCEL file that can then be regarded as a new useful database to generate other reconstructions. The generated model iYL619_PCP accounts for 619 genes, 843 metabolites and 1,142 reactions including 236 transport reactions, 125 exchange reactions and 13 spontaneous reactions. The in silico model successfully predicted the minimal media and the growing abilities on different substrates. With flux balance analysis, single gene knockouts were also simulated to predict the essential genes and partially essential genes. In addition, flux variability analysis was applied to design new mutant strains that will redirect fluxes through the network and may enhance the production of lipid. This genome-scale metabolic model of Y. lipolytica can facilitate system-level metabolic analysis as well as strain development for improving the production of biodiesels and other valuable products by Y. lipolytica and other closely related oleaginous yeasts.

]]>
<![CDATA[Metabolic Flux Analysis of Mitochondrial Uncoupling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0bab0ee8fa60bca31c

Background

Increasing energy expenditure at the cellular level offers an attractive option to limit adiposity and improve whole body energy balance. In vivo and in vitro observations have correlated mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression with reduced white adipose tissue triglyceride (TG) content. The metabolic basis for this correlation remains unclear.

Methodology/Principal Findings

This study tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling requires the cell to compensate for the decreased oxidation phosphorylation efficiency by up-regulating lactate production, thus redirecting carbon flux away from TG synthesis. Metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize the effects of non-lethal, long-term mitochondrial uncoupling (up to 18 days) on the pathways of intermediary metabolism in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Uncoupling was induced by forced expression of UCP1 and chemical (FCCP) treatment. Chemical uncoupling significantly decreased TG content by ca. 35%. A reduction in the ATP level suggested diminished oxidative phosphorylation efficiency in the uncoupled adipocytes. Flux analysis estimated significant up-regulation of glycolysis and down-regulation of fatty acid synthesis, with chemical uncoupling exerting quantitatively larger effects.

Conclusions/Significance

The results of this study support our hypothesis regarding uncoupling-induced redirection of carbon flux into glycolysis and lactate production, and suggest mitochondrial proton translocation as a potential target for controlling adipocyte lipid metabolism.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Top-Down Approach to Infer and Compare Domain-Domain Interactions across Eight Model Organisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e0ab0ee8fa60b694f8

Knowledge of specific domain-domain interactions (DDIs) is essential to understand the functional significance of protein interaction networks. Despite the availability of an enormous amount of data on protein-protein interactions (PPIs), very little is known about specific DDIs occurring in them. Here, we present a top-down approach to accurately infer functionally relevant DDIs from PPI data. We created a comprehensive, non-redundant dataset of 209,165 experimentally-derived PPIs by combining datasets from five major interaction databases. We introduced an integrated scoring system that uses a novel combination of a set of five orthogonal scoring features covering the probabilistic, evolutionary, evidence-based, spatial and functional properties of interacting domains, which can map the interacting propensity of two domains in many dimensions. This method outperforms similar existing methods both in the accuracy of prediction and in the coverage of domain interaction space. We predicted a set of 52,492 high-confidence DDIs to carry out cross-species comparison of DDI conservation in eight model species including human, mouse, Drosophila, C. elegans, yeast, Plasmodium, E. coli and Arabidopsis. Our results show that only 23% of these DDIs are conserved in at least two species and only 3.8% in at least 4 species, indicating a rather low conservation across species. Pair-wise analysis of DDI conservation revealed a ‘sliding conservation’ pattern between the evolutionarily neighboring species. Our methodology and the high-confidence DDI predictions generated in this study can help to better understand the functional significance of PPIs at the modular level, thus can significantly impact further experimental investigations in systems biology research.

]]>
<![CDATA[ADEMA: An Algorithm to Determine Expected Metabolite Level Alterations Using Mutual Information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6a99a

Metabolomics is a relatively new “omics” platform, which analyzes a discrete set of metabolites detected in bio-fluids or tissue samples of organisms. It has been used in a diverse array of studies to detect biomarkers and to determine activity rates for pathways based on changes due to disease or drugs. Recent improvements in analytical methodology and large sample throughput allow for creation of large datasets of metabolites that reflect changes in metabolic dynamics due to disease or a perturbation in the metabolic network. However, current methods of comprehensive analyses of large metabolic datasets (metabolomics) are limited, unlike other “omics” approaches where complex techniques for analyzing coexpression/coregulation of multiple variables are applied. This paper discusses the shortcomings of current metabolomics data analysis techniques, and proposes a new multivariate technique (ADEMA) based on mutual information to identify expected metabolite level changes with respect to a specific condition. We show that ADEMA better predicts De Novo Lipogenesis pathway metabolite level changes in samples with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) than prediction based on the significance of individual metabolite level changes. We also applied ADEMA's classification scheme on three different cohorts of CF and wildtype mice. ADEMA was able to predict whether an unknown mouse has a CF or a wildtype genotype with 1.0, 0.84, and 0.9 accuracy for each respective dataset. ADEMA results had up to 31% higher accuracy as compared to other classification algorithms. In conclusion, ADEMA advances the state-of-the-art in metabolomics analysis, by providing accurate and interpretable classification results.

]]>