ResearchPad - metabolic-processes https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Traditional milk transformation schemes in Côte d’Ivoire and their impact on the prevalence of <i>Streptococcus bovis</i> complex bacteria in dairy products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14743 The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) and possibly Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) are associated with human and animal diseases. Sii predominate in spontaneously fermented milk products with unknown public health effects. Sii/SBSEC prevalence data from West Africa in correlation with milk transformation practices are limited. Northern Côte d’Ivoire served as study area due to its importance in milk production and consumption and to link a wider Sudano-Sahelian pastoral zone of cross-border trade. We aimed to describe the cow milk value chain and determine Sii/SBSEC prevalence with a cross-sectional study. Dairy production practices were described as non-compliant with basic hygiene standards. The system is influenced by secular sociocultural practices and environmental conditions affecting product properties. Phenotypic and molecular analyses identified SBSEC in 27/43 (62.8%) fermented and 26/67 (38.8%) unfermented milk samples. Stratified by collection stage, fermented milk at producer and vendor levels featured highest SBSEC prevalence of 71.4% and 63.6%, respectively. Sii with 62.8% and 38.8% as well as Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus with 7.0% and 7.5% were the predominant SBSEC species identified among fermented and unfermented milk samples, respectively. The population structure of Sii/SBSEC isolates seems to reflect evolving novel dairy-adapted, non-adapted and potentially pathogenic lineages. Northern Côte d’Ivoire was confirmed as area with high Sii presence in dairy products. The observed production practices and the high diversity of Sii/SBSEC supports in-depth investigations on Sii ecology niche, product safety and related technology in the dairy value chain potentially affecting large population groups across sub-Saharan Africa.

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<![CDATA[An Out-of-Patagonia migration explains the worldwide diversity and distribution of <i>Saccharomyces eubayanus</i> lineages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14503 Lager yeast history has intrigued scientists for decades. The recent isolation of S. eubayanus, the lager yeast ancestor, represents an unprecedented opportunity to extend our knowledge on yeast phylogeography and the origins of the S. pastorianus lager hybrid. However, the genetic, phenotypic and evolutionary history of this species remains poorly known. Our work demonstrates that S. eubayanus isolates from Patagonia have the greatest genetic diversity, comprising the largest number of lineages within a single geographic region and experienced ancestral and recent admixture between lineages, likely suggesting co-occurrence in Patagonia. Importantly, some isolates exhibited significant phenotypic differences for traits such as high temperature and ethanol tolerance, together with fermentation performance, demonstrating their potential in the brewing industry for the generation of new styles of lager beers. Furthermore, our results support the idea of colonization from peripheral glacial refugia from the South, as responsible for the high genetic diversity observed in southern Chilean Patagonia. Our results allow hypothesizing a successful physiological adjustment of the species to the local conditions in Patagonia, explaining its wide distribution in the southern hemisphere.

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<![CDATA[Citrate lyase CitE in Mycobacterium tuberculosis contributes to mycobacterial survival under hypoxic conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5c16b8fb-2363-48af-bce8-dbbca8329b25

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis and has evolved an ability to survive in hostile host environments. M. tuberculosis is thought to utilize the rTCA cycle to sustain its latent growth during infection, but the enzymatic characteristics and physiological function for the key citrate lyase of the rTCA cycle, MtbCitE, in the important pathogen remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of MtbCitE based on its structural properties and sequence comparisons with other bacterial citrate lyase subunits. We showed that several amino acid residues were important for the citrate cleavage activity of MtbCitE. Strikingly, the citrate cleavage activity of MtbCitE was inhibited by ATP, indicating that energy metabolism might couple with the regulation of MtbCitE activity, which differed from other CitEs. More interestingly, deletion of citE from Mycobacterium bovis BCG decreased the mycobacterial survival rate under hypoxic conditions, whereas complementation with citE restored the phenotype to wild-type levels. Consistently, three key rTCA cycle enzymes were positively regulated under hypoxic conditions in mycobacteria. Therefore, we characterized a unique citrate lyase MtbCitE from M. tuberculosis and found that the CitE protein significantly contributed to mycobacterial survival under hypoxic conditions.

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<![CDATA[Bioconversion of fructus sophorae into 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyis oflavone with Aspergillus aculeatus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897726d5eed0c4847d2578

A fungus identified as Aspergillus aculeatus was used to biotransform genistein and glycosides to polyhydroxylated isoflavones. The strain was identified on the basis of colony morphology features and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to determine its taxonomic status. Genistein and glycosides were transformed by Aspergillus aculeatus to 5,7,8,4’- tetrahydroxyisoflavone. The chemical structure of the product was identified by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC/MS), Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and NMR spectrometer methods. The ITS rDNA sequence of the strain had 100% similarity with Aspergillus. Furthermore, it was ultimately identified as Aspergillus aculeatus. The metabolite of genistein and glycosides was identified as 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. 120 mg 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyisoflavone was made from 20 g fructus sophorae, which was bioconverted unconditionally by Aspergillus aculeatus for 96 h, and the purity was 96%. On the basis of the findings, Aspergillus aculeatus was a novel strain with specific ability to convert genistein and glycosides into 5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyisoflavone which had potential applications.

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<![CDATA[Isolation and identification of aroma producing strain with esterification capacity from yellow water]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1540d5eed0c48467af8c

Kaoliang is a refreshing fragranced type of Chinese spirits with slight apple fragrance that comes from ethyl acetate (EA). Special aromas are produced by esterification microorganisms, which affect the taste and quality of the wine. In this study, new yeast strains were isolated from yellow water, a by-product during fermentation process. Meanwhile, the optimal culture condition was determined for its growth and EA production. Three new strains, Kazachstaniaexigua, Candida humilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified from yellow water. Among these strains, S. cerevisiae S5 was the new and dominant strain. Results from response surface methodology showed that S. cerevisiae S5 produced 161.88 ppm of EA, in the medium with 4.91% yeast extract, 9.82% peptone, and 20.91% glucose after 96 hours of cultivation at 27.53°C. GC analysis showed that aroma compounds, such as EA, isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol increased from the sample of optimal condition when compared to the one from initial fermentation condition.

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<![CDATA[Extreme pathway analysis reveals the organizing rules of metabolic regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63394dd5eed0c484ae646f

Cellular systems shift metabolic states by adjusting gene expression and enzyme activities to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Biochemical and genetic studies are identifying how metabolic regulation affects the selection of metabolic phenotypes. However, how metabolism influences its regulatory architecture still remains unexplored. We present a new method of extreme pathway analysis (the minimal set of conically independent metabolic pathways) to deduce regulatory structures from pure pathway information. Applying our method to metabolic networks of human red blood cells and Escherichia coli, we shed light on how metabolic regulation are organized by showing which reactions within metabolic networks are more prone to transcriptional or allosteric regulation. Applied to a human genome-scale metabolic system, our method detects disease-associated reactions. Thus, our study deepens the understanding of the organizing principle of cellular metabolic regulation and may contribute to metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and disease treatment.

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<![CDATA[Metaproteomics reveals potential mechanisms by which dietary resistant starch supplementation attenuates chronic kidney disease progression in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52bad5eed0c4842bcf23

Background

Resistant starch is a prebiotic metabolized by the gut bacteria. It has been shown to attenuate chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in rats. Previous studies employed taxonomic analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics profiling. Here we expand these studies by metaproteomics, gaining new insight into the host-microbiome interaction.

Methods

Differences between cecum contents in CKD rats fed a diet containing resistant starch with those fed a diet containing digestible starch were examined by comparative metaproteomics analysis. Taxonomic information was obtained using unique protein sequences. Our methodology results in quantitative data covering both host and bacterial proteins.

Results

5,834 proteins were quantified, with 947 proteins originating from the host organism. Taxonomic information derived from metaproteomics data surpassed previous 16S RNA analysis, and reached species resolutions for moderately abundant taxonomic groups. In particular, the Ruminococcaceae family becomes well resolved–with butyrate producers and amylolytic species such as R. bromii clearly visible and significantly higher while fibrolytic species such as R. flavefaciens are significantly lower with resistant starch feeding. The observed changes in protein patterns are consistent with fiber-associated improvement in CKD phenotype. Several known host CKD-associated proteins and biomarkers of impaired kidney function were significantly reduced with resistant starch supplementation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008845.

Conclusions

Metaproteomics analysis of cecum contents of CKD rats with and without resistant starch supplementation reveals changes within gut microbiota at unprecedented resolution, providing both functional and taxonomic information. Proteins and organisms differentially abundant with RS supplementation point toward a shift from mucin degraders to butyrate producers.

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<![CDATA[Optimization of Ralstonia solanacearum cell growth using a central composite rotational design for the P(3HB) production: Effect of agitation and aeration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fecdd5eed0c484135550

The intracellular accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) normally occurs after cell growth, during the second fermentation stage and under nutrient-limited conditions in the presence of a carbon excess. However, some microorganisms are able to accumulate PHAs as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] during the first fermentation stage, the cell growth phase, without nutrient limitation, once they have been reported to utilize type II metabolism during the polymer accumulation phase. This study evaluated the effect of aeration and agitation on cell growth and P(3HB) accumulation in Ralstonia solanacearum RS, performed in a bioreactor for 24h at 32°C. A 22 central composite rotational design (CCRD) was used, with agitation (150 to 250 rpm) and aeration (0.3 to 1 vvm) as independent variables and optical density (OD600nm), dry cell weight (DCW), and P(3HB) yield as dependent variables. A significant polymer accumulation, until 70% of P(3HB), was observed, proving that R. solanacearum RS exhibited metabolism type II, regardless of the aeration process. The best results were obtained for 1 vvm and 250 rpm (+1, +1), with values of OD600nm (18.04) and DCW (4.82 g.L-1).

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<![CDATA[The effect of different treatments of lymph after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats on macrophages in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644955d5eed0c484c2fa61

Background

To observe the effects of different treatments of lymph after intestinal I/R in rats on macrophages in vitro.

Methods

Forty-eight healthy SPF SD rats weighing 300 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into two groups: group A, and group B. The rats in group A were drained of lymph fluid for 180 min; the rats in group B were subjected to 60 min ischemia by clamping the SMA, followed by 120 min reperfusion and 180 min of lymph drainage. The lymph fluid collected was divided into 4 sub-groups: 1. no treatment (A1, Ly, and B1, I/R Ly); 2. protein degradation (A2, Ly PD, and B2 I/R PD); 3. endotoxin removal (A3, Ly ER, and B3, I/R ER); 4. protein degradation plus endotoxin removal (A4, Ly PD+ER, and B4, I/R PD+ER), then used to stimulate a monocyte-macrophage cell line.

Results

Compared with group A1, the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, HMGB1 concentration, protein and mRNA expression of TLR4, HMGB1 and NF-κBp65 were significantly increased in group B1. There was a significant reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and of the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, and chemokines in groups A2, B2, A4, and B4. However, there were no significant decrease of these factors in groups A3 and B3.

Conclusions

The lymph fluid drained after intestinal I/R can cause inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Deproteinization of lymph fluid with proteinase K significantly reduced the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, TLR4 and NF-κBp65 in cell culture supernatant, exerting a protective effect on inflammatory reaction caused by the intestinal I/R. Passage of lymph fluid through an endotoxin removal column did not reduce the levels of active proinflammatory factors produced by macrophages in vitro.

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<![CDATA[Iron levels, genes involved in iron metabolism and antioxidative processes and lung cancer incidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466574d5eed0c48451942c

Background

Lung cancer is the most common adult malignancy accounting for the largest proportion of cancer related deaths. Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element and is a component of several major metabolic pathways playing an important role in many physiological processes. In this study we evaluated the association between Fe concentration in serum, iron metabolism parameters and genetic variaton in 7 genes involved in iron metabolism and anti-oxidative processes with the incidence of lung cancer in Poland.

Materials and methods

The study included 200 lung cancer patients and 200 matched healthy control subjects. We analyzed serum iron concentration and iron metabolism parameters (TIBC, UIBC, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation), and genotyped seven variants in seven genes: HFE, TFR1, HAMP, TF, SOD2, CAT and GPX1.

Results

Lung cancer patients compared to their matched controls had significantly higher mean serum iron level (p = 0.01), ferritin level (p = 0.007) and TIBC (p = 0.006). Analysis revealed that higher concentration of iron and ferritin (IVth quartile) compared to the lower concentration (Ist quartile) was associated with over 2-fold increased lung cancer incidence. We also found that higher transferrin saturation (p = 0.01) and lower TIBC (p<0.01) are associated with better survival of lung cancer patients. The analysis of polymorphisms in iron related genes did not reveal a significant difference between lung cancer patients and controls. However, rs10421768 in HAMP showed a borderline statistically significant correlation with lung cancer risk (OR = 2.83, p = 0.05).

Conclusions

The results of this case control study indicate that higher body iron represented by higher Fe and ferritin levels may be associated with lung cancer incidence. Rs10421768 in HAMP may be associated with about 3-times higher lung cancer risk. Higher Fe body content may be associated with better survival of lung cancer patients.

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<![CDATA[Different temporal windows for CB1 receptor involvement in contextual fear memory destabilisation in the amygdala and hippocampus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c80d5eed0c484bd2b5d

Reconsolidation is a process in which re-exposure to a reminder causes a previously acquired memory to undergo a process of destabilisation followed by subsequent restabilisation. Different molecular mechanisms have been postulated for destabilisation in the amygdala and hippocampus, including CB1 receptor activation, protein degradation and AMPA receptor exchange; however, most of the amygdala studies have used pre-reexposure interventions, while those in the hippocampus have usually performed them after reexposure. To test whether the temporal window for destabilisation is similar across both structures, we trained Lister Hooded rats in a contextual fear conditioning task, and 1 day later performed memory reexposure followed by injection of either the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) or saline in order to block reconsolidation. In parallel, we also performed local injections of either the CB1 antagonist SR141716A or its vehicle in the hippocampus or in the amygdala, either immediately before or immediately after reactivation. Infusion of SR141716A in the hippocampus prevented the reconsolidation-blocking effect of MK-801 when performed after reexposure, but not before it. In the amygdala, meanwhile, pre-reexposure infusions of SR141716A impaired reconsolidation blockade by MK-801, although the time-dependency of this effect was not as clear as in the hippocampus. Our results suggest the temporal windows for CB1-receptor-mediated memory destabilisation during reconsolidation vary between brain structures. Whether this reflects different time windows for engagement of these structures or different roles played by CB1 receptors in destabilisation across structures remains an open question for future studies.

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<![CDATA[Machine learning framework for assessment of microbial factory performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c5fd5eed0c484bd1ec8

Metabolic models can estimate intrinsic product yields for microbial factories, but such frameworks struggle to predict cell performance (including product titer or rate) under suboptimal metabolism and complex bioprocess conditions. On the other hand, machine learning, complementary to metabolic modeling necessitates large amounts of data. Building such a database for metabolic engineering designs requires significant manpower and is prone to human errors and bias. We propose an approach to integrate data-driven methods with genome scale metabolic model for assessment of microbial bio-production (yield, titer and rate). Using engineered E. coli as an example, we manually extracted and curated a data set comprising about 1200 experimentally realized cell factories from ~100 papers. We furthermore augmented the key design features (e.g., genetic modifications and bioprocess variables) extracted from literature with additional features derived from running the genome-scale metabolic model iML1515 simulations with constraints that match the experimental data. Then, data augmentation and ensemble learning (e.g., support vector machines, gradient boosted trees, and neural networks in a stacked regressor model) are employed to alleviate the challenges of sparse, non-standardized, and incomplete data sets, while multiple correspondence analysis/principal component analysis are used to rank influential factors on bio-production. The hybrid framework demonstrates a reasonably high cross-validation accuracy for prediction of E.coli factory performance metrics under presumed bioprocess and pathway conditions (Pearson correlation coefficients between 0.8 and 0.93 on new data not seen by the model).

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<![CDATA[Calcium phosphate precipitation inhibits mitochondrial energy metabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d00f1d5eed0c484036e71

Early studies have shown that moderate levels of calcium overload can cause lower oxidative phosphorylation rates. However, the mechanistic interpretations of these findings were inadequate. And while the effect of excessive calcium overload on mitochondrial function is well appreciated, there has been little to no reports on the consequences of low to moderate calcium overload. To resolve this inadequacy, mitochondrial function from guinea pig hearts was quantified using several well-established methods including high-resolution respirometry and spectrofluorimetry and analyzed using mathematical modeling. We measured key mitochondrial variables such as respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, buffer calcium, and substrate effects for a range of mitochondrial calcium loads from near zero to levels approaching mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, we developed a computer model closely mimicking the experimental conditions and used this model to design experiments capable of eliminating many hypotheses generated from the data analysis. We subsequently performed those experiments and determined why mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration is significantly lowered during calcium overload. We found that when calcium phosphate levels, not matrix free calcium, reached sufficient levels, complex I activity is inhibited, and the rate of ATP synthesis is reduced. Our findings suggest that calcium phosphate granules form physical barriers that isolate complex I from NADH, disrupt complex I activity, or destabilize cristae and inhibit NADH-dependent respiration.

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<![CDATA[A computational knowledge-base elucidates the response of Staphylococcus aureus to different media types]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa568d5eed0c484ca3f80

S. aureus is classified as a serious threat pathogen and is a priority that guides the discovery and development of new antibiotics. Despite growing knowledge of S. aureus metabolic capabilities, our understanding of its systems-level responses to different media types remains incomplete. Here, we develop a manually reconstructed genome-scale model (GEM-PRO) of metabolism with 3D protein structures for S. aureus USA300 str. JE2 containing 854 genes, 1,440 reactions, 1,327 metabolites and 673 3-dimensional protein structures. Computations were in 85% agreement with gene essentiality data from random barcode transposon site sequencing (RB-TnSeq) and 68% agreement with experimental physiological data. Comparisons of computational predictions with experimental observations highlight: 1) cases of non-essential biomass precursors; 2) metabolic genes subject to transcriptional regulation involved in Staphyloxanthin biosynthesis; 3) the essentiality of purine and amino acid biosynthesis in synthetic physiological media; and 4) a switch to aerobic fermentation upon exposure to extracellular glucose elucidated as a result of integrating time-course of quantitative exo-metabolomics data. An up-to-date GEM-PRO thus serves as a knowledge-based platform to elucidate S. aureus’ metabolic response to its environment.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic value of baseline metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis in patients with lymphoma: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa583d5eed0c484ca53ef

Whether baseline metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured by FDG-PET/CT affected prognosis of patients with lymphoma was controversial. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane to identify studies assessing the effect of baseline TMTV and TLG on the survival of lymphoma patients. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twenty-seven eligible studies including 2,729 patients were analysed. Patients with high baseline TMTV showed a worse prognosis with an HR of 3.05 (95% CI 2.55–3.64, p<0.00001) for PFS and an HR of 3.07 (95% CI 2.47–3.82, p<0.00001) for OS. Patients with high baseline TLG also showed a worse prognosis with an HR of 3.44 (95% CI 2.37–5.01, p<0.00001) for PFS and an HR of 3.08 (95% CI 1.84–5.16, p<0.00001) for OS. A high baseline TMTV was significantly associated with worse survival in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (OS, pooled HR = 3.52; PFS, pooled HR = 2.93). A high baseline TLG was significantly associated with worse survival in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (OS, pooled HR = 3.06; PFS, pooled HR = 2.93). The negative effect of high baseline TMTV on PFS was demonstrated in HL (pooled HR = 3.89). A high baseline TMTV was significantly associated with worse survival in ENKL patients (OS, pooled HR = 2.24; PFS, pooled HR = 3.25). A high baseline TLG was significantly associated with worse survival in ENKL patients (OS, pooled HR = 2.58; PFS, pooled HR = 2.99). High baseline TMTV or TLG predict significantly worse PFS and OS in patients with lymphoma. Future studies are warranted to explore whether TMTV or TLG could be integrated into various prognostic models for clinical decision making.

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<![CDATA[Reducing phenolic off-flavors through CRISPR-based gene editing of the FDC1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid lager beer yeasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5d6d5eed0c484ca92ab

Today’s beer market is challenged by a decreasing consumption of traditional beer styles and an increasing consumption of specialty beers. In particular, lager-type beers (pilsner), characterized by their refreshing and unique aroma and taste, yet very uniform, struggle with their sales. The development of novel variants of the common lager yeast, the interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus, has been proposed as a possible solution to address the need of product diversification in lager beers. Previous efforts to generate new lager yeasts through hybridization of the ancestral parental species (S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus) yielded strains with an aromatic profile distinct from the natural biodiversity. Unfortunately, next to the desired properties, these novel yeasts also inherited unwanted characteristics. Most notably is their phenolic off-flavor (POF) production, which hampers their direct application in the industrial production processes. Here, we describe a CRISPR-based gene editing strategy that allows the systematic and meticulous introduction of a natural occurring mutation in the FDC1 gene of genetically complex industrial S. cerevisiae strains, S. eubayanus yeasts and interspecific hybrids. The resulting cisgenic POF- variants show great potential for industrial application and diversifying the current lager beer portfolio.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptome-wide responses of adult melon thrips (Thrips palmi) associated with capsicum chlorosis virus infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e64d5eed0c484d26693

Thrips palmi is a widely distributed major agricultural pest in the tropics and subtropics, causing significant losses in cucurbit and solanaceous crops through feeding damage and transmission of tospoviruses. Thrips palmi is a vector of capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) in Australia. The present understanding of transmission biology and potential effects of CaCV on T. palmi is limited. To gain insights into molecular responses to CaCV infection, we performed RNA-Seq to identify thrips transcripts that are differentially-abundant during virus infection of adults. De-novo assembly of the transcriptome generated from whole bodies of T. palmi adults generated 166,445 contigs, of which ~24% contained a predicted open reading frame. We identified 1,389 differentially-expressed (DE) transcripts, with comparable numbers up- (708) and down-regulated (681) in virus-exposed thrips compared to non-exposed thrips. Approximately 59% of these DE transcripts had significant matches to NCBI non-redundant proteins (Blastx) and Blast2GO identified provisional functional categories among the up-regulated transcripts in virus-exposed thrips including innate immune response-related genes, salivary gland and/or gut-associated genes and vitellogenin genes. The majority of the immune-related proteins are known to serve functions in lysosome activity and melanisation in insects. Most of the up-regulated oral and extra-oral digestion-associated genes appear to be involved in digestion of proteins, lipids and plant cell wall components which may indirectly enhance the likelihood or frequency of virus transmission or may be involved in the regulation of host defence responses. Most of the down-regulated transcripts fell into the gene ontology functional category of ‘structural constituent of cuticle’. Comparison to DE genes responsive to tomato spotted wilt virus in Frankliniella occidentalis indicates conservation of some thrips molecular responses to infection by different tospoviruses. This study assembled the first transcriptome in the genus Thrips and provides important data to broaden our understanding of networks of molecular interactions between thrips and tospoviruses.

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<![CDATA[Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sensory deviation responsible for the origin of the special sherry wines "palo cortado" type]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab857d5eed0c484027a29

The aim of this study was to characterize the biochemical changes and microbiological processes involved in the sensory deviation of “sobretablas” wines during biological aging, which leads to the origin of special or rare “palo cortado” wines. Industrial trials of biological aging of “sobretablas” wines with the potential for the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were performed to study this phenomenon. The results showed that sensory deviation was due to the development of malolactic fermentation (MLF) together with an attenuated aerobic metabolism of “flor” yeast. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) was promoted by the presence of malic acid concentrations that were higher than 1 g/L and the coexistence of LAB and “flor” velum yeast. Ethyl lactate, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are some of the volatile compounds that are responsible for this sensory deviation. Wines with high levels of gluconic and malic acids (> 1 g/L) can cause, with very low probability, the sensory deviation of “palo cortado”. A lysozyme dose of 12 g/hL is an effective treatment to avoid malolactic fermentation (MFL) and sensory deviation. Understanding the biochemical and microbiological changes involved in sensory deviation can be useful to wineries as markers to identify the origin of the special sherry wines "palo cortado" type.

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<![CDATA[Physicochemical characteristics and high sensory acceptability in cappuccinos made with jackfruit seeds replacing cocoa powder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8acde340307c144d0de054

Jackfruit seeds are an under-utilized waste product in many tropical countries. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to substitute for cocoa powder in cappuccino formulations. Two different flours were produced from a hard variety jackfruit by drying or fermenting the seeds prior to roasting. Next, formulations were prepared with 50%, 75%, and 100% substitution of cocoa powder with jackfruit seed flours, totalizing seven with control formulation. The acceptance of cappuccinos by consumers (n = 126) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) were used to describe the preparations. Physicochemical properties were also evaluated. When 50% and 75% cocoa powder was replaced with dry jackfruit seed flour, there was no change in sensory acceptability or technological properties; however, it is possible to identify advantages tousing dry jackfruit seed flour, including moisture reduction and high wettability, solubility and sensory acceptation of the chocolate aroma. The principal component analysis of QDA explained90% variances; cluster analysis enabled the definition of four groups for six cappuccino preparations. In fact, dry jackfruit seed flour is an innovative cocoa powder substitute; it could be used in food preparations, consequently utilizing this tropical fruit waste by incorporating it as an ingredient in a common product of the human diet.

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<![CDATA[Ruminal methane emissions, metabolic, and microbial profile of Holstein steers fed forage and concentrate, separately or as a total mixed ration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8acdef40307c144d0de05a

Few studies have examined the effects of feeding total mixed ration (TMR) versus roughage and concentrate separately (SF) on ruminant methane production. Therefore, this study compared differences in methane production, ruminal characteristics, total tract digestibility of nutrients, and rumen microbiome between the two feeding methods in Holstein steers. A total six Holstein steers of initial bodyweights 540 ± 34 kg were divided into two groups and assigned to a same experimental diet with two different feeding systems (TMR or SF) in a crossover design with 21 d periods. The experimental diet contained 73% concentrate and 27% forage and were fed twice a day. The total tract digestibility of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and organic matter were not affected by the two different feeding systems. Steers fed TMR emitted more methane (138.5 vs. 118.2 L/d; P < 0.05) and lost more gross energy as methane energy (4.0 vs. 3.5% gross energy intake; P = 0.005) compared to those fed SF. Steers fed TMR had greater (P < 0.05) total volatile fatty acid (VFA), ammonia-N concentrations and propionate proportion of total VFA at 1.5 h, whereas lower after that compared to steers fed SF. The greater (P < 0.05) acetate: propionate ratio at 4.5 h for steers fed TMR reflected the shift of H2 sink from propionate towards acetate synthesis. The lower (P < 0.05) isobutyrate and isovalerate proportions of total VFA observed in steers fed TMR implies decrease in net consumption of H2 for microbial protein synthesis compared to SF. There were no differences in both major bacterial and archaeal diversity between TMR and SF, unlike several minor bacterial abundances. The minor groups such as Coprococcus, Succiniclasticum, Butyrivibrio, and Succinivibrio were associated with the changes in ruminal VFA profiles or methanogenesis indirectly. Overall, these results indicate that SF reduces methane emissions from ruminants and increases propionate proportion of total VFA without affecting total tract digestion compared to TMR. There were no evidences that the response differed due to different major underlying microbial population.

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