ResearchPad - metals https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Elevated Hair Mercury Levels Are Associated With Neurodevelopmental Deficits in Children Living Near Artisanal and Small‐Scale Gold Mining in Peru]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15096 Children living near artisanal and small‐scale gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon are exposed to mercury, a neurotoxicantChildren with higher hair‐mercury levels demonstrated significantly lower General Cognitive Ability than their peers in this rural, low‐income contextChildren living near artisanal and small‐scale gold mining in Peru may benefit from intervention to reach their full developmental potential

]]>
<![CDATA[On nanostructured molybdenum–copper composites produced by high-pressure torsion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6d21d92a-af4f-49f2-bbc3-e327b7479344

Nanostructured molybdenum–copper composites have been produced through severe plastic deformation of liquid-metal infiltrated Cu30Mo70 and Cu50Mo50 (wt%) starting materials. Processing was carried out using high-pressure torsion at room temperature with no subsequent sintering treatment, producing a porosity-free, ultrafine-grained composite. Extensive deformation of the Cu50Mo50 composite via two-step high-pressure torsion produced equiaxed nanoscale grains of Mo and Cu with a grain size of 10–15 nm. Identical treatment of Cu30Mo70 produced a ultrafine, lamellar structure, comprised of Cu and Mo layers with thicknesses of [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sim 5$$\end{document}5 and [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sim 10{-}20\,\hbox {nm}$$\end{document}10-20nm, respectively, and an interlamellar spacing of 9 nm. This microstructure differs substantially from that of HPT-deformed Cu–Cr and Cu–W composites, in which the lamellar microstructure breaks down at high strains. The ultrafine-grained structure and absence of porosity resulted in composites with Vickers hardness values of 600 for Cu30Mo70 and 475 for Cu50Mo50. The ability to produce Cu30Mo70 nanocomposites with a combination of high-strength, and a fine, oriented microstructure should be of interest for thermoelectric applications.

]]>
<![CDATA[Thermal expansion coefficients in Invar processed by selective laser melting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6817f68e-e3bb-47c3-94a8-31284e9bc24b

This work investigates whether the unique low thermal expansion property of Invar (64Fe–36Ni) is retained after processing using the additive manufacturing process selective laser melting (SLM). Using this process, near-full-density components (99.96%) were formed by melting thin (20 μm) layers of powdered Invar (15–45 μm particle size). The mechanical properties of SLM Invar were comparable to that of cold-drawn Invar36®; however, the thermal coefficient of expansion was observed to be a lower value and negative up until 100 °C. This negative value was attributed to residual stress in the as-deposited parts. The low thermal expansion property of Invar was still maintained when processed using a non-conventional layer-based additive manufacturing technique.

]]>
<![CDATA[Alkaline Earth Metal Template (Cross‐)Coupling Reactions with Hybrid Disila‐Crown Ether Analogues]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd9c4468b-1db6-4266-9951-bd227fa6145e

Abstract

Alkaline earth metal iodides were used as templates for the synthesis of novel silicon‐based ligands. Siloxane moieties were (cross‐)coupled and ion‐specific, silicon‐rich crown ether analogues were obtained. The reaction of 1,2,7,8‐tetrasila[12]crown‐4 (I) and 1,2‐disila[9]crown‐3 (II) with MgI2 yielded exclusively [Mg(1,2,7,8‐tetrasila[12]crown‐4)I2] (1). The larger Ca2+ ion was then employed for cross‐coupling of I and II and yielded the complex [Ca(1,2,7,8‐tetrasila[15]crown‐5)I2] (2). Cross‐coupling of I and 1,2,4,5‐tetrasila[9]crown‐3 (III) with SrI2 enables the synthesis of the silicon‐dominant 1,2,4,5,10,11‐hexasila[15]crown‐5 ether complex of SrI2 (3). Further, the compounds [Sr(1,2,10,11‐tetrasila[18]crown‐6)I2] (4), [Sr(1,2,13,14‐tetrasila[24]crown‐8)I2] (5), and [Sr(1,2,13,14‐tetrasila‐dibenzo[24]crown‐8)I2] (6) were obtained by coupling I, 1,2‐disila[12]crown‐4 (IV) or 1,2‐disila‐benzo[12]crown‐4 (V), respectively. Using various anions, the (cross‐)coupled ligands were also observed in an X‐ray structure within the mentioned complexes. These template‐assisted (cross‐)couplings of various ligands are the first of their kind and a novel method to obtain macrocycles and/or their metal complexes to be established. Further, the Si−O bond activations presented herein might be of importance for silane or even organic functionalization.

]]>
<![CDATA[Synthesis of MnCo2O4 nanoparticles as modifiers for simultaneous determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648ce7d5eed0c484c81a65

The porous spinel oxide nanoparticles, MnCo2O4, were synthesized by citrate gel combustion technique. Morphology, crystallinity and Co/Mn content of modified electrode was characterized and determined by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction pattern analysis (XRD), simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). Nanoparticles were used for modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and new sensor was applied for simultaneous determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions in water samples with the linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV).The factors such as pH, deposition potential and deposition time are optimized. Under optimal conditions the wide linear concentration range from 0.05 to 40 μmol/dm3was obtained for Pb(II), with limit of detection (LOD) of 8.06 nmol/dm3 and two linear concentration ranges were obtained for Cd(II), from 0.05 to 1.6 μmol/dm3 and from 1.6 to 40 μmol/dm3, with calculated LOD of 7.02 nmol/dm3. The selectivity of the new sensor was investigated in the presence of interfering ions. The sensor is stable and it gave reproducible results. The new sensor was succesfully applied on determination of heavy metals in natural waters.

]]>
<![CDATA[Adsorption of Pb2+ by ameliorated alum plasma in water and soil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6448d7d5eed0c484c2efe8

Four methods, including hot acid treatment, hot alkali treatment, calcination treatment and sulfhydrylation treatment, were applied to activate alum plasma in order to obtain new Pb2+ adsorbents. The corresponding adsorption isotherm satisfies the Langmuir equation, and the maximum adsorption of the alum plasma after hot acid treatment, hot alkali treatment and high-temperature calcination were 18.9, 57.3 and 10.9 mg·g−1, respectively, and in the range of 1.23–6.57 times greater than the adsorption capacity of the original alum plasma. The soil culture experiments indicated that the effective Pb content in the soils treated with hot alkali ameliorated alum plasma was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those treated with the other three types of alum plasma. For example, if the additive content is 5.0%, after a storage period of 16 weeks, the effective Pb content becomes 19.87 mg·kg−1, which corresponds to a reduction of 60.9% in comparison with the control sample. In addition, Specific surface area (BET), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FIR) were used to characterize the microstructure of alum plasma before and after amelioration. It was evident that hot alkali treatment of alum plasma resulted in smaller particles, a significantly higher specific area and lower mineral crystallinity, which improved the adsorption performance of Pb2+. In conclusion, hot alkali treatment of alum plasma indicates relatively good Pb2+ adsorption ability, and is a promising novel adsorbents that could ameliorate soils that have been polluted by heavy metal Pb.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization and mechanism of lead and zinc biosorption by growing Verticillium insectorum J3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028f0d5eed0c4842488ee

Verticillium insectorum J3 was isolated from a local lead-zinc deposit tailing, and its biosorption characteristics and reaction to the toxicities of different Pb(II) and Zn(II) concentrations were investigated. SEM, FTIR, a pH test and a desorption experiment were carried out to identify a possible mechanism. The biosorption of J3 presented an inhibition trend at low concentrations (25–75 mg L-1) and promotion at high concentrations (100–300 mg L-1). J3 absorbed Pb(II) prior to Zn(II) and produced alkaline substances, while mycelial and pellet morphology modifications were important for the removal of Pb(II) and Zn(II) under different stressful conditions (SEM results). Both intracellular accumulation and extracellular absorption may contribute to the removal of Pb(II) at lower concentrations (25–50 mg L-1), although mainly extracellular biosorption occurred at higher concentrations (75–300 mg L-1). However, Zn(II) bioaccumulation occurred at all concentrations assayed. Verticillium insectorum J3 may have evolved active defenses to alleviate the toxicity of heavy metals and proved to be a highly efficient biosorbent, especially for Pb(II) at high concentrations. This study is a useful reference for the development of biotreatment technologies to mitigate heavy metal waste.

]]>
<![CDATA[IAA producing fungal endophyte Penicillium roqueforti Thom., enhances stress tolerance and nutrients uptake in wheat plants grown on heavy metal contaminated soils]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993ced5eed0c4842ad9b0

Heavy metals contaminated soil is a serious environmental concern that has a negative impact on agriculture and ecosystem. Economical and efficient ways are needed to address this problem worldwide. In this regard, exploration and application of proficient microbial strains that can help the crop plants to thrive in agricultural soils that are greatly contaminated with heavy metals. The present study mainly focused on the effect of IAA producing endophytic fungi Penicillium ruqueforti Thom., on wheat plants cultivated in soil rich in heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb). P. ruqueforti has induced great resistance in wheat inoculated plants grown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Application of the isolated strain of P. ruqueforti restricted the transfer of heavy metals from soil to the plants by secreting indole acetic acid (IAA). Furthermore, P. ruqueforti inoculated wheat seedlings watered with waste water had higher plant growth, nutrient uptake and low concentrations of heavy metals in shoot and roots. On the contrary, non-inoculated wheat plants under heavy metal stress had stunted growth with symptoms of chlorosis. From the results, it is concluded that P. ruqueforti inoculation can establish a symbiotic relationship with host plants, which is useful for phytostabilization of heavy metals or in other words helping the host crops to flourish through soil that are highly contaminated with heavy metals.

]]>
<![CDATA[Direct evidence for grain boundary motion as the dominant restoration mechanism in the steady-state regime of extremely cold-rolled copper]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ba6db9640307c421723c49e

Ultra-fine-grained high-purity copper (99.99%) deformed by means of high-pressure torsion into the steady-state regime was subjected to additional rolling deformation. The microstructural changes as a function of the applied strain were analysed by means of orientation imaging microscopy. It was found that after a distinctive rolling strain a steady state with respect to microstructural features such as grain size, misorientation distribution and texture evolves again. A special spilt specimen technique was used to perform quasi in situ observations of the microstructure between additional strain increments. Profound insights into the local deformation and restoration processes within the steady-state regime were gained. The observations lead to the conclusion that grain boundary migration perpendicular to the rolling direction leads to the disappearance of certain grains, enabling the occurrence of a steady state.

]]>
<![CDATA[Intramolecular N–H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds in the outer coordination sphere of a bipyridyl bisurea-based ligand stabilize a tetrahedral FeLCl2 complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ba6c6fb40307c39ee105b36

A bipyridyl-bisurea ligand coordinates a tetrahedral FeCl2 complex and demonstrates secondary coordination sphere influence through intramolecular hydrogen bonding to the chloride ligands.

]]>
<![CDATA[What is the Etiology of Dysarthria and Ataxia in a Woman With Cancer?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ad6bb38463d7e19660b83ff ]]> <![CDATA[Simultaneous Simulations of Uptake in Plants and Leaching to Groundwater of Cadmium and Lead for Arable Land Amended with Compost or Farmyard Manure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1dab0ee8fa60b7da27

The water budget of soil, the uptake in plants and the leaching to groundwater of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were simulated simultaneously using a physiological plant uptake model and a tipping buckets water and solute transport model for soil. Simulations were compared to results from a ten-year experimental field study, where four organic amendments were applied every second year. Predicted concentrations slightly decreased (Cd) or stagnated (Pb) in control soils, but increased in amended soils by about 10% (Cd) and 6% to 18% (Pb). Estimated plant uptake was lower in amended plots, due to an increase of Kd (dry soil to water partition coefficient). Predicted concentrations in plants were close to measured levels in plant residues (straw), but higher than measured concentrations in grains. Initially, Pb was mainly predicted to deposit from air into plants (82% in 1998); the next years, uptake from soil became dominating (30% from air in 2006), because of decreasing levels in air. For Cd, predicted uptake from air into plants was negligible (1–5%).

]]>
<![CDATA[Anchoring plant metallothioneins to the inner face of the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells leads to heavy metal accumulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be013e

In this study we engineered yeast cells armed for heavy metal accumulation by targeting plant metallothioneins to the inner face of the yeast plasma membrane. Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins involved in the buffering of excess metal ions, especially Cu(I), Zn(II) or Cd(II). The cDNAs of seven Arabidopsis thaliana MTs (AtMT1a, AtMT1c, AtMT2a, AtMT2b, AtMT3, AtMT4a and AtMT4b) and four Noccaea caerulescens MTs (NcMT1, NcMT2a, NcMT2b and NcMT3) were each translationally fused to the C-terminus of a myristoylation green fluorescent protein variant (myrGFP) and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The myrGFP cassette introduced a yeast myristoylation sequence which allowed directional targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane along with direct monitoring of the intracellular localization of the recombinant protein by fluorescence microscopy. The yeast strains expressing plant MTs were investigated against an array of heavy metals in order to identify strains which exhibit the (hyper)accumulation phenotype without developing toxicity symptoms. Among the transgenic strains which could accumulate Cu(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II), but also non-canonical metal ions, such as Co(II), Mn(II) or Ni(II), myrGFP-NcMT3 qualified as the best candidate for bioremediation applications, thanks to the robust growth accompanied by significant accumulative capacity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da22ab0ee8fa60b7f658

The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization and Modeling Analysis for Metal-Semiconductor-Metal GaAs Diodes with Pd/SiO2 Mixture Electrode]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da37ab0ee8fa60b86935

Characterization and modeling of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) GaAs diodes using to evaporate SiO2 and Pd simultaneously as a mixture electrode (called M-MSM diodes) compared with similar to evaporate Pd as the electrode (called Pd-MSM diodes) were reported. The barrier height (φb) and the Richardson constant (A*) were carried out for the thermionic-emission process to describe well the current transport for Pd-MSM diodes in the consideration of the carrier over the metal-semiconductor barrier. In addition, in the consideration of the carrier over both the metal-semiconductor barrier and the insulator-semiconductor barrier simultaneously, thus the thermionic-emission process can be used to describe well the current transport for M-MSM diodes. Furthermore, in the higher applied voltage, the carrier recombination will be taken into discussion. Besides, a composite-current (CC) model is developed to evidence the concepts. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

]]>
<![CDATA[Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db41ab0ee8fa60bd6f4c

Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cadmium Induces Transcription Independently of Intracellular Calcium Mobilization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3eab0ee8fa60bd5b0e

Background

Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal.

Methodology/Principal Finding

In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca2+]i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60), which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca2+]i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression.

Conclusions/Significance

These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

]]>
<![CDATA[Comparison of Gene Expression Profiles in Chromate Transformed BEAS-2B Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da46ab0ee8fa60b8be05

Background

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a potent human carcinogen. Occupational exposure has been associated with increased risk of respiratory cancer. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to contribute to Cr(VI) induced carcinogenesis, including DNA damage, genomic instability, and epigenetic modulation, however, the molecular mechanism and downstream genes mediating chromium's carcinogenicity remain to be elucidated.

Methods/Results

We established chromate transformed cell lines by chronic exposure of normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low doses of Cr(VI) followed by anchorage-independent growth. These transformed cell lines not only exhibited consistent morphological changes but also acquired altered and distinct gene expression patterns compared with normal BEAS-2B cells and control cell lines (untreated) that arose spontaneously in soft agar. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles of six Cr(VI) transformed cell lines were remarkably similar to each other yet differed significantly from that of either control cell lines or normal BEAS-2B cells. A total of 409 differentially expressed genes were identified in Cr(VI) transformed cells compared to control cells. Genes related to cell-to-cell junction were upregulated in all Cr(VI) transformed cells, while genes associated with the interaction between cells and their extracellular matrices were down-regulated. Additionally, expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis were also changed.

Conclusion

This study is the first to report gene expression profiling of Cr(VI) transformed cells. The gene expression changes across individual chromate exposed clones were remarkably similar to each other but differed significantly from the gene expression found in anchorage-independent clones that arose spontaneously. Our analysis identified many novel gene expression changes that may contribute to chromate induced cell transformation, and collectively this type of information will provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying chromate carcinogenicity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Curvelet Based Offline Analysis of SEM Images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbae52

Manual offline analysis, of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image, is a time consuming process and requires continuous human intervention and efforts. This paper presents an image processing based method for automated offline analyses of SEM images. To this end, our strategy relies on a two-stage process, viz. texture analysis and quantification. The method involves a preprocessing step, aimed at the noise removal, in order to avoid false edges. For texture analysis, the proposed method employs a state of the art Curvelet transform followed by segmentation through a combination of entropy filtering, thresholding and mathematical morphology (MM). The quantification is carried out by the application of a box-counting algorithm, for fractal dimension (FD) calculations, with the ultimate goal of measuring the parameters, like surface area and perimeter. The perimeter is estimated indirectly by counting the boundary boxes of the filled shapes. The proposed method, when applied to a representative set of SEM images, not only showed better results in image segmentation but also exhibited a good accuracy in the calculation of surface area and perimeter. The proposed method outperforms the well-known Watershed segmentation algorithm.

]]>
<![CDATA[TcOPT3, a Member of Oligopeptide Transporters from the Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, Is a Novel Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu Transporter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad6ab0ee8fa60bb82a2

Background

Thlaspi caerulescens is a natural selected heavy metal hyperaccumulator that can not only tolerate but also accumulate extremely high levels of heavy metals in the shoots. Thus, to identify the transportors involved in metal long-distance transportation is very important for understanding the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation in this hyperaccumulator.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We cloned and characterized a novel gene TcOPT3 of OPT family from T. caerulescens. TcOPT3 was pronouncedly expressed in aerial parts, including stem and leaf. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed that TcOPT3 expressed in the plant vascular systems, especially in the pericycle cells that may be involved in the long-distance transportation. The expression of TcOPT3 was highly induced by iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiency, especially in the stem and leaf. Sub-cellular localization showed that TcOPT3 was a plasma membrane-localized protein. Furthermore, heterogonous expression of TcOPT3 by mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) complementation experiments demonstrated that TcOPT3 could transport Fe2+ and Zn2+. Moreover, expression of TcOPT3 in yeast increased metal (Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd) accumulation and resulted in an increased sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu).

Conclusions

Our data demonstrated that TcOPT3 might encode an Fe/Zn/Cd/Cu influx transporter with broad-substrate. This is the first report showing that TcOPT3 may be involved in metal long-distance transportation and contribute to the heavy metal hyperaccumulation.

]]>