ResearchPad - methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Radioimmunotherapy of methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> in planktonic state and biofilms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14628 Implant associated infections such as periprosthetic joint infections are difficult to treat as the bacteria form a biofilm on the prosthetic material. This biofilm complicates surgical and antibiotic treatment. With rising antibiotic resistance, alternative treatment options are needed to treat these infections in the future. The aim of this article is to provide proof-of-principle data required for further development of radioimmunotherapy for non-invasive treatment of implant associated infections.MethodsPlanktonic cells and biofilms of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus are grown and treated with radioimmunotherapy. The monoclonal antibodies used, target wall teichoic acids that are cell and biofilm specific. Three different radionuclides in different doses were used. Viability and metabolic activity of the bacterial cells and biofilms were measured by CFU dilution and XTT reduction.ResultsAlpha-RIT with Bismuth-213 showed significant and dose dependent killing in both planktonic MRSA and biofilm. When planktonic bacteria were treated with 370 kBq of 213Bi-RIT 99% of the bacteria were killed. Complete killing of the bacteria in the biofilm was seen at 185 kBq. Beta-RIT with Lutetium-177 and Actinium-225 showed little to no significant killing.ConclusionOur results demonstrate the ability of specific antibodies loaded with an alpha-emitter Bismuth-213 to selectively kill staphylococcus aureus cells in vitro in both planktonic and biofilm state. RIT could therefore be a potentially alternative treatment modality against planktonic and biofilm-related microbial infections. ]]> <![CDATA[Molecular epidemiology, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> isolated from chicken and pig carcasses, and carcass handlers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14574 The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in food animals, associated products, and their zoonotic potential in Nigeria are poorly understood. This study aimed to provide data on the prevalence, genetic characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from chicken and pig carcasses, and persons in contact with the carcasses at slaughterhouses in Nigeria. Surface swabs were collected randomly from 600 chicken and 600 pig carcasses. Nasal swabs were collected from 45 workers in chicken slaughterhouses and 45 pig slaughterhouse workers. S. aureus isolates were analyzed by spa typing. They were also examined for presence of the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) and mecA genes, as well as for antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Overall, 53 S. aureus isolates were recovered (28 from chicken carcasses, 17 from pig carcasses, 5 from chicken carcass handlers and 3 from pig carcass handlers). Among the isolates, 19 (35.8%) were PVL-positive and 12 (22.6%) carried the mecA gene. The 53 isolates belonged to 19 spa types. The Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP) algorithm separated the isolates into 2 spa-clonal complexes (spa-CC) and 9 singletons including 2 novel spa types (t18345 and t18346). The clonal complexes (CC) detected were CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC88 and CC152. CC15-related isolates represented by spa type t084 (32.1%) and CC5 represented by spa type t311 (35.3%) predominated among isolates from chicken carcasses/ handlers, and pig carcasses/ handlers, respectively. Multidrug resistance exhibited by all the CC except CC8, was observed among isolates from chicken carcasses (64.3%), pig carcasses (41.2%), handlers of chicken meat (40.0%) and handlers of pork (33.3%). All the CC showed varying degrees of resistance to tetracycline while CC15 and CC5 exhibited the highest resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and erythromycin, respectively. The predominant antimicrobial resistance pattern observed was penicillin-tetracycline-sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (PEN-TET-SXT). In conclusion, food animals processed in Enugu State in Southeast Nigeria are potential vehicles for transmission of PVL-positive multiple-drug resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus from farm to slaughterhouse and potentially to the human population. Public health intervention programs at pre- and post-slaughter stages should be considered in Nigerian slaughterhouses.

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<![CDATA[Potential combinations of endocannabinoid/endocannabinoid-like compounds and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8a72c2e-13c7-43d3-9f49-0ed6410d9d0b

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus have reached epidemic proportions globally. Our previous study showed antimicrobial effects of anandamide (AEA) and arachidonoyl serine (AraS) against methicillin (MET)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, proposing the therapeutic potential of these endocannabinoid/endocannabinoid-like (EC/EC-like) agents for the treatment of MRSA. Here, we investigated the potential synergism of combinations of AEA and AraS with different types of antibiotics against MRSA grown under planktonic growth or biofilm formation. The most effective combinations under planktonic conditions were mixtures of AEA and ampicillin (AMP), and of AraS and gentamicin (GEN). The combination with the highest synergy in the biofilm formation against all tested bacterial strains was AEA and MET. Moreover, the combination of AraS and MET synergistically caused default of biofilm formation. Slime production of MRSA was also dramatically impaired by AEA or AraS combined with MET. Our data suggest the novel potential activity of combinations of EC/EC-like agents and antibiotics in the prevention of MRSA biofilm formation.

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<![CDATA[The burden of Staphylococcus aureus among Native Americans on the Navajo Nation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823e9d5eed0c4846392b2

Introduction

Native Americans in the southwestern United States have a higher risk for many infectious diseases and may be at higher risk for Staphylococcus aureus due to the high prevalence of risk factors for S. aureus. Recent data on invasive S. aureus infections among Native Americans are limited.

Methods

Active population- and laboratory-based surveillance was conducted in 2016–2017 on the Navajo Nation to document the rate of invasive S. aureus. A case of invasive S.aureus infection was defined as a Native American individual with S. aureus isolated from a normally sterile body site whose reported community of residence was on or around the Navajo Nation.

Results

One hundred and fifty-nine cases of invasive S. aureus from 152 individuals were identified. The median age of cases was 56.3 years and 35% were female. Thirty-five percent of cases had community-acquired infections. Ninety-three percent of cases had underlying medical conditions, including diabetes (60%) and obesity (42%), 28% of cases had a documented prior S. aureus infection, and 33% were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The annual incidence of invasive S. aureus and of invasive methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 64.9/100,000 persons and 21.2/100,000 persons, respectively.

Conclusions

This community has a high burden of invasive S. aureus infections. Further research is needed to identify prevention strategies and opportunities for intervention.

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<![CDATA[A decade of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A single center experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a1d5eed0c4843cff40

Background

The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) resulted in the recommended use of clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for suspected S. aureus infections. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance to methicillin, clindamycin, and TMP-SMX in S. aureus isolates during a 10-year period.

Methods

Retrospective review of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of all S. aureus isolates in the outpatient and inpatient settings at Nationwide Children’s Hospital from 1/1/2005 to 12/31/2014. Duplicate isolates from the same site and year and those obtained for MRSA surveillance or from patients with cystic fibrosis were excluded.

Results

Of the 57,788 S. aureus isolates from 2005–2014, 40,795 (71%) were included. In the outpatient setting, methicillin resistance decreased from 54% to 44% (p<0.001) while among inpatient isolates, no significant change was observed. From 2009–2014, resistance to clindamycin among outpatient isolates increased from 16% to 17% (p = 0.002) but no significant trend was observed among inpatient isolates (18% to 22%). Similarly, TMP-SMX resistance increased in outpatient S. aureus isolates from 2005–2014 (0.9% to 4%, p<0.001) but not among inpatient isolates. Among both inpatient and outpatient isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) exhibited higher resistance to both clindamycin and TMP-SMX than MRSA. In addition, resistance to methicillin, clindamycin and TMP-SMX varied widely according to the site of specimen collection.

Conclusion

In a decade where >40,000 S. aureus isolates were identified at a large pediatric hospital, substantial changes in methicillin, clindamycin, and TMP-SMX resistance occurred. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance of the local antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus in order to guide empiric antimicrobial therapy.

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<![CDATA[Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2668d5eed0c484289a21

Background

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa—to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

Methods

A retrospective review of VITEK 2 (bioMérieux) records capturing antimicrobial susceptibility data for the year 2015 was done and analysed using WHONET and SPSS.

Results

Analysis of 624 isolates revealed AMR rates higher than most recent local and international reports. 88% of isolates tested were multi-drug resistant (MDR) whereas 26% were extensively-drug resistant (XDR). E. coli and K. pneumoniae had poor susceptibility to penicillins (8–48%), cephalosporins (16–43%), monobactams (17–29%), fluoroquinolones (22–44%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins, with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems (70% and 27% respectively). S aureus had poor susceptibility to penicillins (3%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (29%) but showed excellent susceptibility to imipenem (90%), vancomycin (97%) and linezolid (99%).

Conclusions

The overwhelming resistance to commonly used antibiotics heralds a clarion call towards strengthening antimicrobial stewardship programmes and regular AMR regional surveillance.

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<![CDATA[Selection of an appropriate empiric antibiotic regimen in hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673063d5eed0c484f37a49

Background

Empiric antibiotic therapy for suspected hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVO) should be initiated immediately in seriously ill patients and may be required in those with negative microbiological results. The aim of this study was to inform the appropriate selection of empiric antibiotic regimens for the treatment of suspected HVO by analyzing antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from microbiologically proven HVO.

Method

We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with microbiologically proven HVO in five tertiary-care hospitals over a 7-year period. The appropriateness of empiric antibiotic regimens was assessed based on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolated bacteria.

Results

In total, 358 cases of microbiologically proven HVO were identified. The main causative pathogens identified were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (33.5%), followed by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (24.9%), Enterobacteriaceae (19.3%), and Streptococcus species (11.7%). Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes accounted for only 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively, of the causative pathogens. Overall, 73.5% of isolated pathogens were susceptible to levofloxacin plus rifampicin, 71.2% to levofloxacin plus clindamycin, and 64.5% to amoxicillin-clavulanate plus ciprofloxacin. The susceptibility to these oral combinations was lower in cases of healthcare-associated HVO (52.6%, 49.6%, and 37.6%, respectively) than in cases of community-acquired HVO (85.8%, 84.0%, and 80.4%, respectively). Vancomycin combined with ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, or cefepime was similarly appropriate (susceptibility rates of 93.0%, 94.1%, 95.8%, and 95.8%, respectively).

Conclusions

Based on our susceptibility data, vancomycin combined with a broad-spectrum cephalosporin or fluoroquinolone may be appropriate for empiric treatment of HVO. Fluoroquinolone-based oral combinations may be not appropriate due to frequent resistance to these agents, especially in cases of healthcare-associated HVO.

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<![CDATA[The fight to keep resistance at bay, epidemiology of carbapenemase producing organisms (CPOs), vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway, 2006 - 2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8bad5eed0c48496f045

Introduction

Scandinavian countries have traditionally had a low prevalence of resistant organisms, but have in recent years experienced a change in their epidemiology. We aim to describe the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in Norway, measure the importance of infections contracted abroad, and assess the morbidity and mortality associated with these resistant bacteria in Norway.

Methods and materials

We used data from the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases covering all findings of the selected resistant bacteria including both infections and colonisation, in the period 2006–2017. Annual trends were assessed using negative binomial regression. For MRSA, we were able to calculate the Morisita-Horn index and transmission numbers following importation in order to assess the effect this had on further domestic transmission.

Results

The incidence rates (per 100,000 personyears) of the three groups of resistant bacteria have increased during the period. In 2017 the incidence rates were 0.82 for CPOs, 7.09 for VRE and 43.8 for MRSA. 81% of CPO cases were diagnosed in hospitals, but 73% were infected abroad. Most VRE cases were infected in Norwegian hospitals, 85% were associated with hospitals outbreaks. MRSA was predominantly diagnosed in the community, only 21% were diagnosed in hospitals. Of all MRSA cases, 35% were infected in other countries. Most MRSA spa-types were not identified again after introduction, resulting in a transmission of MRSA equivalent to a mean of 0.30 persons infected from each spa-type identified (range: 0–22). The proportion of infections among all notified cases within each diagnose was 44% for MRSA, 9% for VRE and 45% for CPOs. Among persons notified with bacteraemia, the 30 days all-cause mortality were 20%, 16% and 50% for MRSA, VRE and CPOs respectively.

Discussion

The incidence rates of CPOs, VRE and MRSA in Norway are low, but increasing. The continuing increase of notified resistant bacteria highlights the need for a revision of existing infection prevention and control guidelines.

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<![CDATA[Colonization with multidrug resistant organisms determines the clinical course of patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52185cd5eed0c484797d9f

Introduction

The global spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) complicates treatment and isolation measures in hospitals and has shown to increase mortality. Patients with disease- or therapy-related immunodeficiency are especially at risk for fatal infections caused by MDRO. The impact of MDRO colonization on the clinical course of AML patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy—a potentially curative but highly toxic treatment option—has not been systematically studied.

Materials & methods

312 AML patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy between 2007 and 2015 were examined for MDRO colonization. Patients with evidence for MDRO before or during the hospital stay of induction chemotherapy were defined as colonized, patients who never had a positive swab for MDRO were defined as noncolonized.

Results

Of 312 AML patients 90 were colonized and 130 were noncolonized. Colonized patients suffered from significantly more days with fever, spent more days on the intensive care unit and had a higher median C-reactive protein value during the hospital stay. These findings did not result in a prolonged length of hospital stay or an increased mortality rate for colonized patients. However, in a subgroup analysis, patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) had a significantly reduced 60- and 90-day, as well as 1- and 2-year survival rates when compared to noncolonized patients.

Conclusion

Our analysis highlights the importance of intensive MDRO screening especially in patients with febrile neutropenia since persisting fever can be a sign of MDRO-colonization. CRE-colonized patients require special surveillance, since they seem to be at risk for death.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of in vitro static and dynamic assays to evaluate the efficacy of an antimicrobial drug combination against Staphylococcus aureus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52184dd5eed0c484797b05

An easily implementable strategy to reduce treatment failures in severe bacterial infections is to combine already available antibiotics. However, most in vitro combination assays are performed by exposing standard bacterial inocula to constant concentrations of antibiotics over less than 24h, which can be poorly representative of clinical situations. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of static and dynamic in vitro Time-Kill Studies (TKS) to identify the potential benefits of an antibiotic combination (here, amikacin and vancomycin) on two different inoculum sizes of two S. aureus strains. In the static TKS (sTKS), performed by exposing both strains over 24h to constant antibiotic concentrations, the activity of the two drugs combined was not significantly different the better drug used alone. However, the dynamic TKS (dTKS) performed over 5 days by exposing one strain to fluctuating concentrations representative of those observed in patients showed that, with the large inoculum, the activities of the drugs, used alone or in combination, significantly differed over time. Vancomycin did not kill bacteria, amikacin led to bacterial regrowth whereas the combination progressively decreased the bacterial load. Thus, dTKS revealed an enhanced effect of the combination on a large inoculum not observed in sTKS. The discrepancy between the sTKS and dTKS results highlights that the assessment of the efficacy of a combination for severe infections associated with a high bacterial load could be demanding. These situations probably require the implementation of dynamic assays over the entire expected treatment duration rather than the sole static assays performed with steady drug concentrations over 24h.

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<![CDATA[Molecular epidemiology and expression of capsular polysaccharides in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466545d5eed0c484518589

Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharides (CP) are important virulence factors under evaluation as vaccine antigens. Clinical S. aureus isolates have the biosynthetic capability to express either CP5 or CP8 and an understanding of the relationship between CP genotype/phenotype and S. aureus epidemiology is valuable. Using whole genome sequencing, the clonal relatedness and CP genotype were evaluated for disease-associated S. aureus isolates selected from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) to represent different geographic regions in the United States (US) during 2004 and 2009–10. Thirteen prominent clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with CC5, 8, 30 and 45 representing >80% of disease isolates. CC5 and CC8 isolates were CP type 5 and, CC30 and CC45 isolates were CP type 8. Representative isolates from prevalent CC were susceptible to in vitro opsonophagocytic killing elicited by anti-CP antibodies, demonstrating that susceptibility to opsonic killing is not linked to the genetic lineage. However, as not all S. aureus isolates may express CP, isolates representing the diversity of disease isolates were assessed for CP production. While approximately 35% of isolates (primarily CC8) did not express CP in vitro, CP expression could be clearly demonstrated in vivo for 77% of a subset of these isolates (n = 20) despite the presence of mutations within the capsule operon. CP expression in vivo was also confirmed indirectly by measuring an increase in CP specific antibodies in mice infected with CP5 or CP8 isolates. Detection of antigen expression in vivo in relevant disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in vaccines. Our findings confirm the validity of CP as vaccine targets and the potential of CP-based vaccines to contribute to S. aureus disease prevention.

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<![CDATA[Surgical Site Infections Caused by Highly Virulent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c354d2ed5eed0c484dd444a

We identified 2 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of sequence type 398 from surgical site infections in China. Genetic analysis and clinical data from these strains suggested that they were human-related but sporadic. Hemolysis analysis and mouse-skin infection models indicated a high virulence potential for these strains.

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<![CDATA[Antibiotic resistance is lower in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from antibiotic-free raw meat as compared to conventional raw meat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1813c8d5eed0c484775ce7

The frequent use of antibiotics contributes to antibiotic resistance in bacteria, resulting in an increase in infections that are difficult to treat. Livestock are commonly administered antibiotics in their feed, but there is current interest in raising animals that are only administered antibiotics during active infections. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common pathogen of both humans and livestock raised for human consumption. SA has achieved high levels of antibiotic resistance, but the origins and locations of resistance selection are poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of SA and MRSA in conventional and antibiotic-free (AF) meat products, and also measured rates of antibiotic resistance in these isolates. We isolated SA from raw conventional turkey, chicken, beef, and pork samples and also from AF chicken and turkey samples. We found that SA contamination was common, with an overall prevalence of 22.6% (range of 2.8–30.8%) in conventional meats and 13.0% (range of 12.5–13.2%) in AF poultry meats. MRSA was isolated from 15.7% of conventional raw meats (range of 2.8–20.4%) but not from AF-free meats. The degree of antibiotic resistance in conventional poultry products was significantly higher vs AF poultry products for a number of different antibiotics, and while multi-drug resistant strains were relatively common in conventional meats none were detected in AF meats. The use of antibiotics in livestock contributes to high levels of antibiotic resistance in SA found in meat products. Our results support the use of AF conditions for livestock in order to prevent antibiotic resistance development in SA.

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<![CDATA[Zoonotic multidrug-resistant microorganisms among small companion animals in Germany]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e88d5eed0c484d270af

Antimicrobial multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO) can be transmitted between companion animals and their human owners. Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in different companion animal species. Dogs (n = 192), cats (n = 74), and rabbits (n = 17), treated in a veterinary practice and hospital or living in an animal shelter and private households, were sampled. All facilities were located in a region characterized by a high density of pig production. Nasal, buccal and perianal swabs were enriched and cultured on solid chromogenic selective media. A subgroup of 20 animals (13 dogs, 3 cats, 4 rabbits) was analyzed for the presence of staphylococci other than S. aureus. Amongst all animals (n = 283), twenty dogs (10.4%) and six cats (8.1%) carried S. aureus. MRSA was found in five dogs (2.6%) and two cats (2.7%). Isolates were of spa types t011, t034, t108 (all mecA-positive, ST398), and t843 (mecC-positive, ST130), typical for livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. Except for one dog, MRSA-positive animals did not have direct contact to husbandry. ESBL-Escherichia coli (blaCTX-M/blaTEM/blaSHV genes) were present in seven dogs (3.6%), one cat (1.4%) possessed a cefotaxime-resistant Citrobacter freundii isolate (blaTEM/blaCMY-2 genes). MDRO carriage was associated with animals from veterinary medical settings (p<0.05). One dog and one rabbit carried methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. The exclusive occurrence of MRSA lineages typically described for livestock stresses the impact of MDRO strain dissemination across species barriers in regional settings. Presence of ESBL-E and LA-MRSA among pets and probable dissemination in clinical settings support the necessity of a “One Health” approach to address the potential threats due to MDRO-carrying companion animals.

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<![CDATA[Staphylococcus aureus from ocular and otolaryngology infections are frequently resistant to clinically important antibiotics and are associated with lineages of community and hospital origins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf90d5eed0c484914956

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. aureus causing ocular and otolaryngology infections, we characterized 262 isolates by antimicrobial sensitivity testing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus were subjected to SCCmec typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening. Although we detected a high level of genetic diversity among methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) isolates, (63 sequence types—STs), the population was dominated by five lineages: ST30, ST5, ST8, ST15 and ST97. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin was common among the major MSSA lineages, with fluctuations markedly impacted by genetic background. Isolates belonging to the predominant lineage, ST30, displayed high rates of resistance to penicillin (100%), erythromycin (71%), and clindamycin (63%). Overall, 21% of the isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSA), with an apparent enrichment among otitis and orbital cellulitis isolates (>40%). MRSA isolates belonged to 14 STs grouped in 5 clonal complexes (CC), however, CC5 (56.1%) and CC8 (38.6%) dominated the population. Most CC5 strains were SCCmec type II, and resembled the hospital-adapted USA100 clone. CC8 strains were SCCmec type IV, and 86% were positive for the PVL toxin, common features of the community-acquired clone USA300. CC5 strains harboring a SCCmec type IV, typical for the USA800 clone, comprised 15.5% of the population. USA100 strains were highly resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and levofloxacin (100%), while USA300 strains were frequently resistant to erythromycin (89%) but displayed lower rates of resistance to levofloxacin (39%) and clindamycin (17%). Our data demonstrate that the ocular and otolaryngology S. aureus populations are composed of strains that are commonly resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics, and are associated with the major epidemic clonal complexes of both community and hospital origins.

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<![CDATA[Impact of an alternating first-line antibiotics strategy in febrile neutropenia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084204d5eed0c484fcb7a5

Background

Rising antibiotic resistance poses a challenge to the management of febrile neutropenia in patients with haematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy.

Aim

We studied an alternating first-line antibiotic strategy to determine its impact on all-cause mortality and bacteremia rates in patients with febrile neutropenia.

Methods

An alternating first-line antibiotic strategy was established in mid-2013. Data for 2012 (before strategy implementation) and 2014 (post-strategy implementation) were compared. Antibiotic Heterogeneity Index (AHI) for each of the two time-periods was also calculated.

Findings

There were 2012 admissions (26082 patient-days) in 2012 and 1843 admissions (24331 patient-days) in 2014. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics of patients in the two groups. The defined daily doses (DDD) of cefepime (CEF) fell while the DDD of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) rose in 2014 compared with 2012. Vancomycin DDD fell in 2014. The AHI was 0.466 in 2012 and 0.582 in 2014. The difference in all-cause mortality was not statistically significant. There was no difference in rates of bacteremia with CEF-resistant, PTZ-resistant and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms in the two groups. Rates of new cases of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were 2.38/1000 and 2.59/1000 patient-days in 2012 and 2014 respectively. Rates of new cases of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) were 1.84/1000 and 1.81/1000 patient-days in 2012 and 2014 respectively. There was no Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bacteremia in 2012 and 1 in 2014.

Conclusion

An alternating first-line antibiotic strategy resulted in an increase in antibiotic heterogeneity, without increasing mortality. There was also no significant increase in bacteremia rates.

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<![CDATA[Antibiotic resistance among bacterial conjunctival pathogens collected in the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd2325540307c60de5e9973

The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study evaluates in vitro antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from ocular infections. Here we report resistance rates and trends among conjunctival-sourced ocular isolates collected across the US from 2009 through 2016. A total of 1198 conjunctival isolates (483 S. aureus, 305 CoNS, 208 H. influenzae, 118 S. pneumoniae, and 84 P. aeruginosa) were collected from patients with presumed bacterial conjunctivitis from 57 sites across 40 states. A large proportion of staphylococci demonstrated resistance to oxacillin and azithromycin, while resistance was low against the majority of antibiotics tested for S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and H. influenzae. Multidrug resistance (≥3 antibiotic classes) was found in 30.2% of S. aureus and 39.0% of CoNS isolates, and methicillin resistance more than doubled the rate of multi-drug resistance (methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA], 76.5%; methicillin-resistant CoNS isolates, 72.8%). There was a pattern of increasing mean percent resistance with increasing age by decade of life among S. aureus, MRSA, and CoNS (P≤0.038). Over the eight-year study period, there were small yet significant decreases in resistance rates among S. aureus to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and oxacillin (P≤0.003), and among CoNS and P. aeruginosa (both P<0.05) to ciprofloxacin. These data indicate that antibiotic resistance is high, but did not increase, among conjunctival-sourced isolates collected in the US from 2009 through 2016. For certain antibiotic/pathogen combinations, there was a trend of decreased resistance, including a decrease in oxacillin resistance among S. aureus.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Chinese Medical College Campus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d7ab0ee8fa60b666c3

Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin—an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.

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<![CDATA[A Typical Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clone Is Widespread in the Community in the Gaza Strip]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da74ab0ee8fa60b95e11

Epidemiological data on community acquired methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infection in the Middle-East region is scarce with only few reports in the Israeli and Palestinian populations. As part of a Palestinian-Israeli collaborative research, we have conducted a cross-sectional survey of nasal S. aureus carriage in healthy children and their parents throughout the Gaza strip. Isolates were characterized for antibiotic susceptibility, mec gene presence, PFGE, spa type, SCCmec-type, presence of PVL genes and multi-locus-sequence-type (MLST). S. aureus was carried by 28.4% of the 379 screened children-parents pairs. MRSA was detected in 45% of S. aureus isolates, that is, in 12% of the study population. A single ST22-MRSA-IVa, spa t223, PVL-gene negative strain was detected in 64% of MRSA isolates. This strain is typically susceptible to all non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. The only predictor for MRSA carriage in children was having an MRSA carrier-parent (OR = 25.5, P = 0.0004). Carriage of the Gaza strain was not associated with prior hospitalization. The Gaza strain was closely related genetically to a local MSSA spa t223 strain and less so to EMRSA15, one of the pandemic hospital-acquired-MRSA clones, scarcely reported in the community. The rapid spread in the community may be due to population determinants or due to yet unknown advantageous features of this particular strain.

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<![CDATA[Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in a single large Minnesota medical center in 2015 as assessed using MLST, core genome MLST and spa typing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be02c2

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia in hospitalized patients. Whether or not S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with clonality, implicating potential nosocomial transmission, has not, however, been investigated. Herein, we examined the epidemiology of SAB using whole genome sequencing (WGS). 152 SAB isolates collected over the course of 2015 at a single large Minnesota medical center were studied. Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing was performed by PCR/Sanger sequencing; multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core genome MLST (cgMLST) were determined by WGS. Forty-eight isolates (32%) were methicillin–resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The isolates encompassed 66 spa types, clustered into 11 spa clonal complexes (CCs) and 10 singleton types. 88% of 48 MRSA isolates belonged to spa CC-002 or -008. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were more genotypically diverse, with 61% distributed across four spa CCs (CC-002, CC-012, CC-008 and CC-084). By MLST, there was 31 sequence types (STs), including 18 divided into 6 CCs and 13 singleton STs. Amongst MSSA isolates, the common MLST clones were CC5 (23%), CC30 (19%), CC8 (15%) and CC15 (11%). Common MRSA clones were CC5 (67%) and CC8 (25%); there were no MRSA isolates in CC45 or CC30. By cgMLST analysis, there were 9 allelic differences between two isolates, with the remaining 150 isolates differing from each other by over 40 alleles. The two isolates were retroactively epidemiologically linked by medical record review. Overall, cgMLST analysis resulted in higher resolution epidemiological typing than did multilocus sequence or spa typing.

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