ResearchPad - micro-report https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Different effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on the behavior and brain transcriptome of zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf3f37779-b95d-4d4f-a1ec-2a58b068ce61 Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder found in children. It is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) are commonly prescribed for the treatment of ADHD. In the present study, we examined the behavioral and brain transcriptome changes in MPH-treated and ATX-treated zebrafish. In behavioral analysis, zebrafish showed opposite response to each treatment. MPH-treated fish showed higher anxiety-like behavior while ATX-treated fish showed lower anxiety-like behavior. Further, we performed RNA sequencing analysis of zebrafish brain to elucidate the underlying biological pathways associated with MPH and ATX treatment. Interestingly, we found that shared differentially expressed genes in MPH-treated and ATX-treated fish were instrumental in cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and were regulated in opposite manner. Our findings highlight the contrast between MTH and ATX, and may suggest the alterations in clinical practice for these medications and drug development for ADHD.

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<![CDATA[Autophagy pathway upregulation in a human iPSC-derived neuronal model of Cohen syndrome with <i>VPS13B</i> missense mutations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0fa200e3-eef2-4791-926c-f25e53c0fcd0 Significant clinical symptoms of Cohen syndrome (CS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, include intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, postnatal microcephaly, retinal dystrophy, and intermittent neutropenia. CS has been associated with mutations in the VPS13B (vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog B) gene, which regulates vesicle-mediated protein sorting and transport; however, the cellular mechanism underlying CS pathogenesis in patient-derived neurons remains uncertain. This report states that autophagic vacuoles accumulate in CS fibroblasts and the axonal terminals of CS patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (CS iPSC)-derived neurons; additionally, autophagic flux was significantly increased in CS-derived neurons compared to control neurons. VPS13B knockout HeLa cell lines generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system showed significant upregulation of autophagic flux, indicating that VSP13B may be associated with autophagy in CS. Transcriptomic analysis focusing on the autophagy pathway revealed that genes associated with autophagosome organization were dysregulated in CS-derived neurons. ATG4C is a mammalian ATG4 paralog and a crucial regulatory component of the autophagosome biogenesis/recycling pathway. ATG4C was significantly upregulated in CS-derived neurons, indicating that autophagy is upregulated in CS neurons. The autophagy pathway in CS neurons may be associated with the pathophysiology exhibited in the neural network of CS patients.

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<![CDATA[Reduced chronic restraint stress in mice overexpressing hyperactive proteasomes in the forebrain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N391a3f1d-b24c-4178-a59d-cc59d2fa4574

While chronic restraint stress (CRS) results in depression-like behaviors possibly through oxidative stress in the brain, its molecular etiology and the development of therapeutic strategies remain elusive. Since oxidized proteins can be targeted by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, we investigated whether increased proteasome activity might affect the stress response in mice. Transgenic mice, expressing the N-terminally deleted version of α3 subunit (α3ΔN) of the proteasome, which has been shown to generate open-gated mutant proteasomes, in the forebrain were viable and fertile, but showed higher proteasome activity. After being challenged with CRS for 14 d, the mutant mice with hyperactive proteasomes showed significantly less immobility time in the forced swimming test compared with their wild-type littermates, suggesting that the α3ΔN transgenic mice are resistant to CRS. The accumulation of ER stress markers, such as polyubiquitin conjugates and phospho-IRE1α, was also significantly delayed in the hippocampus of the mutants. Notably, α3ΔN mice exhibited little deficits in other behavioral tasks, suggesting that stress resilience is likely due to the degradation of misfolded proteins by the open-gated proteasomes. These data strongly indicate that not only is the proteasome a critical modulator of stress response in vivo but also a possible therapeutic target for reducing chronic stress.

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