ResearchPad - microbial-evolution-and-epidemiology:-communicable-disease-genomics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Comparison of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages in highly pathogenic strains of Shiga toxin-producing <i>Escherichia coli</i> O157:H7 in the UK]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2911cbf6-de66-4445-8a87-f504e01b444c Over the last 35 years in the UK, the burden of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) O157:H7 infection has, during different periods of time, been associated with five different sub-lineages (1983–1995, Ia, I/IIa and I/IIb; 1996–2014, Ic; and 2015–2018, IIb). The acquisition of a stx2a-encoding bacteriophage by these five sub-lineages appears to have coincided with their respective emergences. The Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) system was used to sequence, characterize and compare the stx-encoding prophages harboured by each sub-lineage to investigate the integration of this key virulence factor. The stx2a-encoding prophages from each of the lineages causing clinical disease in the UK were all different, including the two UK sub-lineages (Ia and I/IIa) circulating concurrently and causing severe disease in the early 1980s. Comparisons between the stx2a-encoding prophage in sub-lineages I/IIb and IIb revealed similarity to the prophage commonly found to encode stx2c, and the same site of bacteriophage integration (sbcB) as stx2c-encoding prophage. These data suggest independent acquisition of previously unobserved stx2a-encoding phage is more likely to have contributed to the emergence of STEC O157:H7 sub-lineages in the UK than intra-UK lineage to lineage phage transmission. In contrast, the stx2c-encoding prophage showed a high level of similarity across lineages and time, consistent with the model of stx2c being present in the common ancestor to extant STEC O157:H7 and maintained by vertical inheritance in the majority of the population. Studying the nature of the stx-encoding bacteriophage contributes to our understanding of the emergence of highly pathogenic strains of STEC O157:H7.

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<![CDATA[The characterization of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes among 33 000 Salmonella enterica genomes from routine public health surveillance in England]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nebb16e3f-535d-4c32-ab0a-5067b3384a66

To establish the prevalence of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes amongst Salmonella enterica isolates obtained through public health surveillance in England (April 2014 to September 2017), 33 205 S . enterica genome sequences obtained from human, food, animal and environmental isolates were screened for the presence of mcr variants 1 to 8. The mcr-positive genomes were assembled, annotated and characterized according to plasmid type. Nanopore sequencing was performed on six selected isolates with putative novel plasmids, and phylogenetic analysis was used to provide an evolutionary context for the most commonly isolated clones. Fifty-two mcr-positive isolates were identified, of which 32 were positive for mcr-1, 19 for mcr-3 and 1 for mcr-5. The combination of Illumina and Nanopore sequencing identified three novel mcr-3 plasmids and one novel mcr-5 plasmid, as well as the presence of chromosomally integrated mcr-1 and mcr-3. Monophasic S. enterica serovar Typhimurium accounted for 27/52 (52 %) of the mcr-positive isolates, with the majority clustering in clades associated with travel to Southeast Asia. Isolates in these clades were associated with a specific plasmid range and an additional extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genotype. Routine whole-genome sequencing for public health surveillance provides an effective screen for novel and emerging antimicrobial determinants, including mcr. Complementary long-read technologies elucidated the genomic context of resistance determinants, offering insights into plasmid dissemination and linkage to other resistance genes.

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