ResearchPad - microbial-evolution-and-epidemiology:-mechanisms-of-evolution https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Genomic characterization of the non-O1/non-O139 <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> strain that caused a gastroenteritis outbreak in Santiago, Chile, 2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3195401c-faf6-4361-b2ea-0536d29ea9b9 is a human pathogen, which is transmitted by the consumption of contaminated food or water. strains belonging to the serogroups O1 and O139 can cause cholera outbreaks and epidemics, a severe life-threatening diarrheal disease. In contrast, serogroups other than O1 and O139, denominated as non-O1/non-O139, have been mainly associated with sporadic cases of moderate or mild diarrhea, bacteremia and wound infections. Here we investigated the virulence determinants and phylogenetic origin of a non-O1/non-O139 strain that caused a gastroenteritis outbreak in Santiago, Chile, 2018. We found that this outbreak strain lacks the classical virulence genes harboured by O1 and O139 strains, including the cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). However, this strain carries genomic islands (GIs) encoding Type III and Type VI secretion systems (T3SS/T6SS) and antibiotic resistance genes. Moreover, we found these GIs are wide distributed among several lineages of non-O1/non-O139 strains. Our results suggest that the acquisition of these GIs may enhance the virulence of non-O1/non-O139 strains that lack the CT and TCP-encoding genes. Our results highlight the pathogenic potential of these strains.

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<![CDATA[Genome structure reveals the diversity of mating mechanisms in <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> x <i>Saccharomyces kudriavzevii</i> hybrids, and the genomic instability that promotes phenotypic diversity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nedd8319d-3380-450b-8d94-22644704759d Interspecific hybridization has played an important role in the evolution of eukaryotic organisms by favouring genetic interchange between divergent lineages to generate new phenotypic diversity involved in the adaptation to new environments. This way, hybridization between Saccharomyces species, involving the fusion between their metabolic capabilities, is a recurrent adaptive strategy in industrial environments. In the present study, whole-genome sequences of natural hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii were obtained to unveil the mechanisms involved in the origin and evolution of hybrids, as well as the ecological and geographic contexts in which spontaneous hybridization and hybrid persistence take place. Although Saccharomyces species can mate using different mechanisms, we concluded that rare-mating is the most commonly used, but other mechanisms were also observed in specific hybrids. The preponderance of rare-mating was confirmed by performing artificial hybridization experiments. The mechanism used to mate determines the genomic structure of the hybrid and its final evolutionary outcome. The evolution and adaptability of the hybrids are triggered by genomic instability, resulting in a wide diversity of genomic rearrangements. Some of these rearrangements could be adaptive under the stressful conditions of the industrial environment.

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<![CDATA[Evolution of a zoonotic pathogen: investigating prophage diversity in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 by long-read sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b37c5a9463d7e707c62a7a6

Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 is a zoonotic pathogen for which colonization of cattle and virulence in humans is associated with multiple horizontally acquired genes, the majority present in active or cryptic prophages. Our understanding of the evolution and phylogeny of EHEC O157 continues to develop primarily based on core genome analyses; however, such short-read sequences have limited value for the analysis of prophage content and its chromosomal location. In this study, we applied Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing, using the Pacific Biosciences long-read sequencing platform, to isolates selected from the main sub-clusters of this clonal group. Prophage regions were extracted from these sequences and from published reference strains. Genome position and prophage diversity were analysed along with genetic content. Prophages could be assigned to clusters, with smaller prophages generally exhibiting less diversity and preferential loss of structural genes. Prophages encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a and Stx1a were the most diverse, and more variable compared to prophages encoding Stx2c, further supporting the hypothesis that Stx2c-prophage integration was ancestral to acquisition of other Stx types. The concept that phage type (PT) 21/28 (Stx2a+, Stx2c+) strains evolved from PT32 (Stx2c+) was supported by analysis of strains with excised Stx-encoding prophages. Insertion sequence elements were over-represented in prophage sequences compared to the rest of the genome, showing integration in key genes such as stx and an excisionase, the latter potentially acting to capture the bacteriophage into the genome. Prophage profiling should allow more accurate prediction of the pathogenic potential of isolates.

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