ResearchPad - microglial-cells https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Betanin purification from red beetroots and evaluation of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-activated microglial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13861 Microglial activation can release free radicals and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which implicates the progress of a neurodegenerative disease. Therefore suppression of microglial activation can be an appropriate strategy for combating neurodegenerative diseases. Betanin is a red food dye that acts as free radical scavenger and can be a promising candidate for this purpose. In this study, purification of betanin from red beetroots was carried out by normal phase colum chromatography, yielding 500 mg of betanin from 100 g of red beetroot. The purified betanin was evaluated by TLC, UV-visible, HPLC, ESI-MASS, FT-IR spectroscopy. Investigation on the inhibitory effect of betanin on activated microglia was performed using primary microglial culture. The results showed that betanin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced microglial function including the production of nitric oxide free radicals, reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Moreover, betanin modulated mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and adenosine triphosphate. We further investigated the interaction of betanin with TNF-α, IL-6 and Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) using in silico molecular docking analysis. The docking results demonstrated that betanin have significant negative binding energy against active sites of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS.

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<![CDATA[Microglia exit the CNS in spinal root avulsion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79a3e5d5eed0c4841d1bf2

Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Their ability to migrate outside of the CNS, however, is not understood. Using time-lapse imaging in an obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) model, we show that microglia squeeze through the spinal boundary and emigrate to peripheral spinal roots. Although both macrophages and microglia respond, microglia are the debris-clearing cell. Once outside the CNS, microglia re-enter the spinal cord in an altered state. These peripheral nervous system (PNS)-experienced microglia can travel to distal CNS areas from the injury site, including the brain, with debris. This emigration is balanced by two mechanisms—induced emigration via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) dependence and restriction via contact-dependent cellular repulsion with macrophages. These discoveries open the possibility that microglia can migrate outside of their textbook-defined regions in disease states.

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<![CDATA[Trans ε viniferin decreases amyloid deposits and inflammation in a mouse transgenic Alzheimer model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe09d5eed0c484e5b330

As Alzheimer’s disease (AD) induces several cellular and molecular damages, it could be interesting to use multi-target molecules for therapeutics. We previously published that trans ε-viniferin induced the disaggregation of Aβ42 peptide and inhibited the inflammatory response in primary cellular model of AD. Here, effects of this stilbenoid were evaluated in transgenic APPswePS1dE9 mice. We report that trans ε-viniferin could go through the blood brain barrier, reduces size and density of amyloid deposits and decreases reactivity of astrocytes and microglia, after a weekly intraperitoneal injection at 10 mg/kg from 3 to 6 months of age.

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<![CDATA[Melatonin decreases M1 polarization via attenuating mitochondrial oxidative damage depending on UCP2 pathway in prorenin-treated microglia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b266ad5eed0c484289a2f

Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in cardiovascular center contribute to the pathological processes underlying hypertension. Microglia activation triggers the inflammation and oxidative stress. Melatonin is a documented potent anti-inflammatory regent and antioxidant, the underlying roles of melatonin in regulating microglia activation via mitochondria remain unclear. In present study, we investigated the protective role of melatonin in decreasing M1 phenotype switching via attenuating mitochondrial oxidative damage in dependence on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) pathway in microglia. Prorenin (20 nmol/L; 24 hr) was used to induce inflammation in cultured microglia. Mitochondrial morphology was detected by transmission electron microscope. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by using DCFH-DA fluorescence imaging and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) was evaluated by JC-1 staining. The indicator of the redox status as the ratio of the amount of total NADP+ to total NADPH, and the expression of 6 subunits of NADPH oxidase is measured. The pro-inflammatory cytokines releasing was measured by qPCR. UCP2 and activated AMPKα (p-AMPKα) expression were examined by immunoblot. Melatonin (100 μM) markedly alleviated the M1 microglia phenotype shifting and abnormal mitochondria morphology. Melatonin attenuated prorenin-induced ΔΨm increasing and ROS overproduction. Melatonin decreased the redox ratio (NADP+/NADPH) and the p47phox and gp91phox subunits of NADPH oxidase expression in prorenin-treated microglia. These effects were reversed in the presence of UCP2 siRNA. Our results suggested that the protective effect of melatonin against prorenin-induced M1 phenotype switching via attenuating mitochondrial oxidative damage depending on UCP2 upregulation in prorenin-treated microglia.

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<![CDATA[miRNA expression profiles and molecular networks in resting and LPS-activated BV-2 microglia—Effect of cannabinoids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26a9d5eed0c484289e22

Mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in modulating the response of immune cells to stimuli. Cannabinoids are known to exert beneficial actions such as neuroprotection and immunosuppressive activities. However, the underlying mechanisms which contribute to these effects are not fully understood. We previously reported that the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) differ in their anti-inflammatory signaling pathways. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate BV-2 microglial cells, we examined the role of cannabinoids on the expression of miRNAs. Expression was analyzed by performing deep sequencing, followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to describe networks and intracellular pathways. miRNA sequencing analysis revealed that 31 miRNAs were differentially modulated by LPS and by cannabinoids treatments. In addition, we found that at the concentration tested, CBD has a greater effect than THC on the expression of most of the studied miRNAs. The results clearly link the effects of both LPS and cannabinoids to inflammatory signaling pathways. LPS upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory miRNAs associated to Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-κB signaling, including miR-21, miR-146a and miR-155, whereas CBD inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of miR-146a and miR-155. In addition, CBD upregulated miR-34a, known to be involved in several pathways including Rb/E2f cell cycle and Notch-Dll1 signaling. Our results show that both CBD and THC reduced the LPS-upregulated Notch ligand Dll1 expression. MiR-155 and miR-34a are considered to be redox sensitive miRNAs, which regulate Nrf2-driven gene expression. Accordingly, we found that Nrf2-mediated expression of redox-dependent genes defines a Mox-like phenotype in CBD treated BV-2 cells. In summary, we have identified a specific repertoire of miRNAs that are regulated by cannabinoids, in resting (surveillant) and in LPS-activated microglia. The modulated miRNAs and their target genes are controlled by TLR, Nrf2 and Notch cross-talk signaling and are involved in immune response, cell cycle regulation as well as cellular stress and redox homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[LRRK2 kinase plays a critical role in manganese-induced inflammation and apoptosis in microglia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478ca0d5eed0c484bd3865

Long-term exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) causes manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder with Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like symptoms. Increasing evidence suggests that leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), which is highly expressed in microglia and macrophages, contributes to the inflammation and neurotoxicity seen in autosomal dominant and sporadic PD. As gene-environment interactions have emerged as important modulators of PD-associated toxicity, LRRK2 may also mediate Mn-induced inflammation and pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of LRRK2 in Mn-induced toxicity using human microglial cells (HMC3), LRRK2-wild-type (WT) and LRRK2-knockout (KO) RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Results showed that Mn activated LRRK2 kinase by phosphorylation of its serine residue at the 1292 position (S1292) as a marker of its kinase activity in macrophage and microglia, while inhibition with GSK2578215A (GSK) and MLi-2 abolished Mn-induced LRRK2 activation. LRRK2 deletion and its pharmacological inhibition attenuated Mn-induced apoptosis in macrophages and microglia, along with concomitant decreases in the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein. LRRK2 deletion also attenuated Mn-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Mn-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and ERK signaling proteins was significantly attenuated in LRRK2 KO cells and GSK-treated cells. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK p38 and ERK as well as LRRK2 attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity plays a critical role in Mn-induced toxicity via downstream activation of MAPK signaling in macrophage and microglia. Collectively, these results suggest that LRRK2 could be a potential molecular target for developing therapeutics to treat Mn-related neurodegenerative disorders.

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<![CDATA[Dietary salt promotes ischemic brain injury and is associated with parenchymal migrasome formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2e7fded5eed0c48451bdb9

Sodium chloride promotes vascular fibrosis, arterial hypertension, pro-inflammatory immune cell polarization and endothelial dysfunction, all of which might influence outcomes following stroke. But despite enormous translational relevance, the functional importance of sodium chloride in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke is still unclear. In the current study, we show that high-salt diet leads to significantly worse functional outcomes, increased infarct volumes, and a loss of astrocytes and cortical neurons in acute ischemic stroke. While analyzing the underlying pathologic processes, we identified the migrasome as a novel, sodium chloride-driven pathomechanism in acute ischemic stroke. The migrasome was previously described in vitro as a migrating organelle, which incorporates and dispatches cytosol of surrounding cells and plays a role in intercellular signaling, whereas a pathophysiological meaning has not been elaborated. We here confirm previously reported characteristics of the migrasome in vivo. Immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and proteomic analyses further demonstrate that the migrasome incorporates and dispatches cytosol of surrounding neurons following stroke. The clinical relevance of these findings is emphasized by neuropathological examinations, which detected migrasome formation in infarcted brain parenchyma of human stroke patients. In summary, we demonstrate that high-salt diet aggravates stroke outcomes, and we characterize the migrasome as a novel mechanism in acute stroke pathophysiology.

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<![CDATA[Alpha-Synuclein Proteins Promote Pro-Inflammatory Cascades in Microglia: Stronger Effects of the A53T Mutant]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae3ab0ee8fa60bbc4e6

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is histologically described by the deposition of α-synuclein, whose accumulation in Lewy bodies causes dopaminergic neuronal death. Although most of PD cases are sporadic, point mutations of the gene encoding the α-synuclein protein cause inherited forms of PD. There are currently six known point mutations that result in familial PD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have also been described as early events associated with dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. Though it is known that microglia are activated by wild-type α-synuclein, little is known about its mutated forms and the signaling cascades responsible for this microglial activation. The present study was designed to investigate consequences of wild-type and mutant α-synuclein (A53T, A30P and E46K) exposure on microglial reactivity. Interestingly, we described that α-synuclein-induced microglial reactivity appeared to be peptide-dependent. Indeed, the A53T protein activated more strongly microglia than the wild-type α-synuclein and other mutants. This A53T-induced microglial reactivity mechanism was found to depend on phosphorylation mechanisms mediated by MAPKs and on successive NFkB/AP-1/Nrf2 pathways activation. These results suggest that the microgliosis intensity during PD might depend on the type of α-synuclein protein implicated. Indeed, mutated forms are more potent microglial stimulators than wild-type α-synuclein. Based on these data, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic strategies may be valid in order to reduce microgliosis but also to subsequently slow down PD progression, especially in familial cases.

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<![CDATA[Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor Derived from Injured Primary Afferent Induces Proliferation of Spinal Microglia and Neuropathic Pain in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d3ab0ee8fa60b64e14

Peripheral nerve injury induces proliferation of microglia in the spinal cord, which can contribute to neuropathic pain conditions. However, candidate molecules for proliferation of spinal microglia after injury in rats remain unclear. We focused on the colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and interleukin-34 (IL-34) that are involved in the proliferation of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. We examined the expression of mRNAs for macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), granulocyte macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and IL-34 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord after spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that M-CSF and IL-34, but not GM- or G-CSF, mRNAs were constitutively expressed in the DRG, and M-CSF robustly increased in injured-DRG neurons. M-CSF receptor mRNA was expressed in naive rats and increased in spinal microglia following SNI. Intrathecal injection of M-CSF receptor inhibitor partially but significantly reversed the proliferation of spinal microglia and in early phase of neuropathic pain induced by SNI. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of recombinant M-CSF induced microglial proliferation and mechanical allodynia. Here, we demonstrate that M-CSF is a candidate molecule derived from primary afferents that induces proliferation of microglia in the spinal cord and leads to induction of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury in rats.

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<![CDATA[Type II Activation of Macrophages and Microglia by Immune Complexes Enhances Th17 Biasing in an IL-6-Independent Manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e3ab0ee8fa60b6a65c

Macrophages can be activated into several distinct activation states. One of these states, type II activation, has a regulatory phenotype characterized by decreased IL-12 and increased IL-10, and has been shown to bias naïve CD4+ T cells to a Th2 response. Microglia, the resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important contributors to neuroinflammation and, thus, we investigated if type II activated microglia could bias CD4+ T cell responses in a similar manner as type II activated macrophages. Using immune complex ligation in the presence of LPS to induce type II activation, we found that both type II macrophages and type II microglia biased CD4+ T cell responses in vitro to express increased levels of IL-17A and CD124. The enhanced IL-17A production occurred independently of IL-6, and IL-10 and IL-12, which were key regulators of IFN-γ production, but were not involved in the increased IL-17A. Finally, we found that another type II-activating compound, glatiramer acetate, did not bias CD4+ T cells to produce enhanced IL-17A. Taken together, this study demonstrates that microglia can be type II activated and, similarly to type II macrophages, can bias CD4+ T cell responses; however, depending on the type II stimulus, the effect on CD4+ T cell subset differentiation may vary.

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<![CDATA[Enhancement of Chemotactic Cell Aggregation by Haptotactic Cell-To-Cell Interaction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf1ab0ee8fa60bc1369

The crawling of biological cell is a complex phenomenon involving various biochemical and mechanical processes. Some of these processes are intrinsic to individual cells, while others pertain to cell-to-cell interactions and to their responses to extrinsically imposed cues. Here, we report an interesting aggregation dynamics of mathematical model cells, when they perform chemotaxis in response to an externally imposed global chemical gradient while they influence each other through a haptotaxis-mediated social interaction, which confers intriguing trail patterns. In the absence of the cell-to-cell interaction, the equilibrium population density profile fits well to that of a simple Keller-Segal population dynamic model, in which a chemotactic current density J→chemo∼∇p competes with a normal diffusive current density J→diff∼∇ρ, where p and ρ refer to the concentration of chemoattractant and population density, respectively. We find that the cell-to-cell interaction confers a far more compact aggregation resulting in a much higher peak equilibrium cell density. The mathematical model system is applicable to many biological systems such as swarming microglia and neutrophils or accumulating ants towards a localized food source.

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<![CDATA[Structural and Ultrastructural Alterations in Human Olfactory Pathways and Possible Associations with Herpesvirus 6 Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac3ab0ee8fa60bb16ff

Structural and ultrastructural alterations in human olfactory pathways and putative associations with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection were studied. The olfactory bulb/tract samples from 20 subjects with an unspecified encephalopathy determined by pathomorphological examination of the brain autopsy, 17 healthy age-matched and 16 younger controls were used. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 60, 29, and 19% of cases in these groups, respectively. In the whole encephalopathy group, significantly more HHV-6 positive neurons and oligodendrocytes were found in the gray matter, whereas, significantly more HHV-6 positive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia/macrophages and endothelial cells were found in the white matter. Additionally, significantly more HHV-6 positive astrocytes and, in particular, oligodendrocytes were found in the white matter when compared to the gray matter. Furthermore, when only HHV-6 PCR+ encephalopathy cases were studied, we observed similar but stronger associations between HHV-6 positive oligodendrocytes and CD68 positive cells in the white matter. Cellular alterations were additionally evidenced by anti-S100 immunostaining, demonstrating a significantly higher number of S100 positive cells in the gray matter of the whole encephalopathy group when compared to the young controls, and in the white matter when compared to both control groups. In spite the decreased S100 expression in the PCR+ encephalopathy group when compared to PCR- cases and controls, groups demonstrated significantly higher number of S100 positive cells in the white compared to the gray matter. Ultrastructural changes confirming the damage of myelin included irregularity of membranes and ballooning of paranodal loops. This study shows that among the cellular targets of the nervous system, HHV-6 most severely affects oligodendrocytes and the myelin made by them.

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<![CDATA[A model of Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) in neonate mice with histopathological and neurodevelopmental outcomes mimicking human PVL in neonates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc4e5

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a brain injury affecting premature infants is commonly associated with cerebral palsy. PVL results from hypoxia-ischemia (HI) with or without infection and is characterized by white matter necrotic lesions, hypomyelination, microglial activation, astrogliosis, and neuronal death. It is important to study a PVL mouse model that mimics human PVL in symptomatology, anatomic and molecular basis. In our neonate mice model, bilateral carotid arteries were temporary ligated at P5 followed by hypoxic exposure (FiO2 of 8% for 20 min.). At P5 in mice, the white matter is more vulnerable to HI injury than the grey matter. In our PVL model, mice suffer from significant hind limb paresis, incoordination and feeding difficulties. Histologically they present with ventriculomegally, white matter loss, microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis. HI injury increases proinflammtory cytokines, activates NF-kB, activates microglia and causes nitrative stress. All these inflammatory mediators lead to oligodendroglial injury and white matter loss. Neurobehavioral analysis in the PVL mice model at P60 showed that the HI group had a significant decrease in hind limb strength, worsening rotarod testing and worsening performance in the open field test. This new PVL model has great advantages far beyond just mimicking human PVL in clinical features and histopathology. Long term survival, the development of cerebral palsy and the ability of using this model in transgenic animals will increase our understanding of the mechanistic pathways underlying PVL and defining specific targets for the development of suitable therapeutics.

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<![CDATA[Novel Applications of Magnetic Cell Sorting to Analyze Cell-Type Specific Gene and Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da02ab0ee8fa60b74938

The isolation and study of cell-specific populations in the central nervous system (CNS) has gained significant interest in the neuroscience community. The ability to examine cell-specific gene and protein expression patterns in healthy and pathological tissue is critical for our understanding of CNS function. Several techniques currently exist to isolate cell-specific populations, each having their own inherent advantages and shortcomings. Isolation of distinct cell populations using magnetic sorting is a technique which has been available for nearly 3 decades, although rarely used in adult whole CNS tissue homogenate. In the current study we demonstrate that distinct cell populations can be isolated in rodents from early postnatal development through adulthood. We found this technique to be amendable to customization using commercially available membrane-targeted antibodies, allowing for cell-specific isolation across development and animal species. This technique yields RNA which can be utilized for downstream applications—including quantitative PCR and RNA sequencing—at relatively low cost and without the need for specialized equipment or fluorescently labeled cells. Adding to its utility, we demonstrate that cells can be isolated largely intact, retaining their processes, enabling analysis of extrasomatic proteins. We propose that magnetic cell sorting will prove to be a highly useful technique for the examination of cell specific CNS populations.

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<![CDATA[Short and Long Term Behavioral and Pathological Changes in a Novel Rodent Model of Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa2ab0ee8fa60ba60ce

A history of concussion, particularly repeated injury, has been linked to an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is characterized by abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and deficits in learning and memory. As yet the mechanisms associated with the development of CTE are unknown. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to develop and characterize a novel model of repetitive mTBI that accurately reproduces the key short and long-term functional and histopathological features seen clinically. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 0, 1 or 3x mTBI spaced five days apart using a modified version of the Marmarou impact-acceleration diffuse-TBI model to deliver 110G of linear force. Functional outcomes were assessed six and twelve weeks post-injury, with histopathology assessed twenty-four hours and twelve weeks post-injury. Repetitive mTBI resulted in mild spatial and recognition memory deficits as reflected by increased escape latency on the Barnes maze and decreased time spent in the novel arm of the Y maze. There was a trend towards increased anxiety-like behavior, with decreased time spent in the inner portion of the open field. At 24 hours and 12 weeks post injury, repetitive mTBI animals showed increased tau phosphorylation and microglial activation within the cortex. Increases in APP immunoreactivity were observed in repetitive mTBI animals at 12 weeks indicating long-term changes in axonal integrity. This novel model of repetitive mTBI with its persistent cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, axonal injury and tau hyperphosphorylation, thus represents a clinically relevant experimental approach to further explore the underlying pathogenesis of CTE.

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<![CDATA[CD4+ T Cells Are as Protective as CD8+ T Cells against Rickettsia typhi Infection by Activating Macrophage Bactericidal Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da30ab0ee8fa60b84412

Rickettsia typhi is an intracellular bacterium that causes endemic typhus, a febrile disease that can be fatal due to complications including pneumonia, hepatitis and meningoencephalitis, the latter being a regular outcome in T and B cell-deficient C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice upon Rickettsia typhi infection. Here, we show that CD4+ TH1 cells that are generated in C57BL/6 mice upon R. typhi infection are as protective as cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. CD4+- as well as CD8+-deficient C57BL/6 survived the infection without showing symptoms of disease at any point in time. Moreover, adoptively transferred CD8+ and CD4+ immune T cells entered the CNS of C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice with advanced infection and both eradicated the bacteria. However, immune CD4+ T cells protected only approximately 60% of the animals from death. They induced the expression of iNOS in infiltrating macrophages as well as in resident microglia in the CNS which can contribute to bacterial killing but also accelerate pathology. In vitro immune CD4+ T cells inhibited bacterial growth in infected macrophages which was in part mediated by the release of IFNγ. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are as protective as CD8+ T cells against R. typhi, provided that CD4+ TH1 effector cells are present in time to support bactericidal activity of phagocytes via the release of IFNγ and other factors. With regard to vaccination against TG Rickettsiae, our findings suggest that the induction of CD4+ TH1 effector cells is sufficient for protection.

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<![CDATA[Cecal Ligation and Puncture Results in Long-Term Central Nervous System Myeloid Inflammation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad2ab0ee8fa60bb6b64

Survivors of sepsis often experience long-term cognitive and functional decline. Previous studies utilizing lipopolysaccharide injection and cecal ligation and puncture in rodent models of sepsis have demonstrated changes in depressive-like behavior and learning and memory after sepsis, as well as evidence of myeloid inflammation and cytokine expression in the brain, but the long-term course of neuroinflammation after sepsis remains unclear. Here, we utilize cecal ligation and puncture with greater than 80% survival as a model of sepsis. We found that sepsis survivor mice demonstrate deficits in extinction of conditioned fear, but no acquisition of fear conditioning, nearly two months after sepsis. These cognitive changes occur in the absence of neuronal loss or changes in synaptic density in the hippocampus. Sepsis also resulted in infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils into the CNS at least two weeks after sepsis in a CCR2 independent manner. Cellular inflammation is accompanied by long-term expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, including TNFα and CCR2 ligands, in whole brain homogenates. Gene expression analysis of microglia revealed that while microglia do express anti-microbial genes and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules of the S100A family of genes at least 2 weeks after sepsis, they do not express the cytokines observed in whole brain homogenates. Our results indicate that in a naturalistic model of infection, sepsis results in long-term neuroinflammation, and that this sustained inflammation is likely due to interactions among multiple cell types, including resident microglia and peripherally derived myeloid cells.

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<![CDATA[Critical Endothelial Regulation by LRP5 during Retinal Vascular Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d5ab0ee8fa60b65bad

Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels. Using a highly specific Flk1-CreBreier line for vascular endothelial cells, together with several genetic models, we demonstrate that loss of endothelium-derived LRP5 recapitulates the retinal vascular defects in Lrp5-/- mice. In addition, restoring LRP5 function only in endothelial cells in Lrp5-/- mice rescues their retinal vascular abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that retinal vascularization is regulated by LRP5 in a dosage dependent manner and does not depend on LRP6. Our study provides the first direct evidence that endothelium-derived LRP5 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its critical role in the development and maintenance of retinal vasculature.

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<![CDATA[Galectin-3 Inhibition Is Associated with Neuropathic Pain Attenuation after Peripheral Nerve Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf0ab0ee8fa60bc0ef7

Neuropathic pain remains a prevalent and persistent clinical problem because it is often poorly responsive to the currently used analgesics. It is very urgent to develop novel drugs to alleviate neuropathic pain. Galectin-3 (gal3) is a multifunctional protein belonging to the carbohydrate-ligand lectin family, which is expressed by different cells. Emerging studies showed that gal3 elicits a pro-inflammatory response by recruiting and activating lymphocytes, macrophages and microglia. In the study we investigated whether gal3 inhibition could suppress neuroinflammation and alleviate neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. We found that L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) increases the expression of gal3 in dorsal root ganglions at the mRNA and protein level. Intrathecal administration of modified citrus pectin (MCP), a gal3 inhibitor, reduces gal3 expression in dorsal root ganglions. MCP treatment also inhibits SNL-induced gal3 expression in primary rat microglia. SNL results in an increased activation of autophagy that contributes to microglial activation and subsequent inflammatory response. Intrathecal administration of MCP significantly suppresses SNL-induced autophagy activation. MCP also inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced autophagy in cultured microglia in vitro. MCP further decreases LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory mediators including IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 by regulating autophagy. Intrathecal administration of MCP results in adecreased mechanical and cold hypersensitivity following SNL. These results demonstrated that gal3 inhibition is associated with the suppression of SNL-induced inflammatory process andneurophathic pain attenuation.

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<![CDATA[Graphene Functionalized Scaffolds Reduce the Inflammatory Response and Supports Endogenous Neuroblast Migration when Implanted in the Adult Brain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3fab0ee8fa60bd6197

Electroactive materials have been investigated as next-generation neuronal tissue engineering scaffolds to enhance neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after brain injury. Graphene, an emerging neuronal scaffold material with charge transfer properties, has shown promising results for neuronal cell survival and differentiation in vitro. In this in vivo work, electrospun microfiber scaffolds coated with self-assembled colloidal graphene, were implanted into the striatum or into the subventricular zone of adult rats. Microglia and astrocyte activation levels were suppressed with graphene functionalization. In addition, self-assembled graphene implants prevented glial scarring in the brain 7 weeks following implantation. Astrocyte guidance within the scaffold and redirection of neuroblasts from the subventricular zone along the implants was also demonstrated. These findings provide new functional evidence for the potential use of graphene scaffolds as a therapeutic platform to support central nervous system regeneration.

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