ResearchPad - microwave-radiation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Effective coupling of rapid freeze-quench to high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7690 We report an easy, efficient and reproducible way to prepare Rapid-Freeze-Quench samples in sub-millimeter capillaries and load these into the probe head of a 275 GHz Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer. Kinetic data obtained for the binding reaction of azide to myoglobin demonstrate the feasibility of the method for high-frequency EPR. Experiments on the same samples at 9.5 GHz show that only a single series of Rapid-Freeze-Quench samples is required for studies at multiple microwave frequencies.

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<![CDATA[Study on dielectric properties of high organic sulfur coking coal and modeling sulfur compounds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b795d5eed0c48449054b

Coking coal is geologically scarce resource and most of them cannot be directly used in steel making due to their higher sulfur content. One desulfurization method that has great potential for massive application is microwave desulfurization, which removes the relatively stubborn organic sulfur under mild conditions. The dielectric properties of coals determine the efficiency of the microwave energy absorption. The key to describing the mechanism of microwave desulfurization and further improvement of the desulfurization efficiency is the dielectric response of organic sulfur compounds in coal to microwave. This study focuses on existing formand microwave response of organic sulfur components of three typical coking coal in China. Resultsshowed that the major organic sulfur in selected coals is thiophene which has a stable structure and is the most difficult to be removed. Several dielectric peaks (dielectric loss)andsignificant differencesofeach selected coal samples are observed. The microwave absorption peaks of the model sulfur compounds are identified to be within 9-11GHz. The real parts of the relative dielectric constants (hereinafter referred to as ε′) shows a decreasing trend as: diphenyl sulfoxide > diphenyl sulfone > diphenyl sulfide > dibenzothiophene > Octadecane thiol. Response to microwaveare observed to be distinctively different between sulfur-containing and sulfur-free model compounds. The dielectric polarization of mixture (coal mixed with model sulfur compounds) is greater than pure coal. Meanwhile the higher the sulfur content of the coal, the greater the ε′ is. Sulfur componentsin coal can significantly influence its polarization.

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<![CDATA[Estimating the Effective Permittivity for Reconstructing Accurate Microwave-Radar Images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4dab0ee8fa60bdae73

We present preliminary results from a method for estimating the optimal effective permittivity for reconstructing microwave-radar images. Using knowledge of how microwave-radar images are formed, we identify characteristics that are typical of good images, and define a fitness function to measure the relative image quality. We build a polynomial interpolant of the fitness function in order to identify the most likely permittivity values of the tissue. To make the estimation process more efficient, the polynomial interpolant is constructed using a locally and dimensionally adaptive sampling method that is a novel combination of stochastic collocation and polynomial chaos. Examples, using a series of simulated, experimental and patient data collected using the Tissue Sensing Adaptive Radar system, which is under development at the University of Calgary, are presented. These examples show how, using our method, accurate images can be reconstructed starting with only a broad estimate of the permittivity range.

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<![CDATA[Implanted Miniaturized Antenna for Brain Computer Interface Applications: Analysis and Design]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbd5fc

Implantable Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are designed to provide real-time control signals for prosthetic devices, study brain function, and/or restore sensory information lost as a result of injury or disease. Using Radio Frequency (RF) to wirelessly power a BCI could widely extend the number of applications and increase chronic in-vivo viability. However, due to the limited size and the electromagnetic loss of human brain tissues, implanted miniaturized antennas suffer low radiation efficiency. This work presents simulations, analysis and designs of implanted antennas for a wireless implantable RF-powered brain computer interface application. The results show that thin (on the order of 100 micrometers thickness) biocompatible insulating layers can significantly impact the antenna performance. The proper selection of the dielectric properties of the biocompatible insulating layers and the implantation position inside human brain tissues can facilitate efficient RF power reception by the implanted antenna. While the results show that the effects of the human head shape on implanted antenna performance is somewhat negligible, the constitutive properties of the brain tissues surrounding the implanted antenna can significantly impact the electrical characteristics (input impedance, and operational frequency) of the implanted antenna. Three miniaturized antenna designs are simulated and demonstrate that maximum RF power of up to 1.8 milli-Watts can be received at 2 GHz when the antenna implanted around the dura, without violating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limits.

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<![CDATA[1800MHz Microwave Induces p53 and p53-Mediated Caspase-3 Activation Leading to Cell Apoptosis In Vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da85ab0ee8fa60b9c198

Recent studies have reported that exposure of mammalian cells to microwave radiation may have adverse effects such as induction of cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microwave induced mammalian cell apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism: exposure to 1800MHz microwave radiation induces p53-dependent cell apoptosis through cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. We first measured intensity of microwave radiation from several electronic devices with an irradiation detector. Mouse NIH/3T3 and human U-87 MG cells were then used as receivers of 1800MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at a power density of 1209 mW/m2. Following EMR exposure, cells were analyzed for viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, p53 expression, and caspase-3 activity. Our analysis revealed that EMR exposure significantly decreased viability of NIH/3T3 and U-87 MG cells, and increased caspase-3 activity. ROS burst was observed at 6 h and 48 h in NIH/3T3 cells, while at 3 h in U-87 MG cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and in situ TUNEL assay detected that EMR exposure increased DNA damage, which was significantly restrained in the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant). Moreover, EMR exposure increased the levels of p53 protein and p53 target gene expression, promoted cytochrome c release from mitochondrion, and increased caspase-3 activity. These events were inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor) and caspase inhibitor. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that 1800MHz EMR induces apoptosis-related events such as ROS burst and more oxidative DNA damage, which in turn promote p53-dependent caspase-3 activation through release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion. These findings thus provide new insights into physiological mechanisms underlying microwave-induced cell apoptosis.

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<![CDATA[Investigation of New Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Patch Resonator with Geometrical Fractal Slot]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85c8f

A compact dual-mode microstrip bandpass filter using geometrical slot is presented in this paper. The adopted geometrical slot is based on first iteration of Cantor square fractal curve. This filter has the benefits of possessing narrower and sharper frequency responses as compared to microstrip filters that use single mode resonators and traditional dual-mode square patch resonators. The filter has been modeled and demonstrated by Microwave Office EM simulator designed at a resonant frequency of 2 GHz using a substrate of εr = 10.8 and thickness of h = 1.27 mm. The output simulated results of the proposed filter exhibit 22 dB return loss, 0.1678 dB insertion loss and 12 MHz bandwidth in the passband region. In addition to the narrow band gained, miniaturization properties as well as weakened spurious frequency responses and blocked second harmonic frequency in out of band regions have been acquired. Filter parameters including insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, coupling coefficient and external quality factor have been compared with different values of perturbation dimension (d). Also, a full comparative study of this filter as compared with traditional square patch filter has been considered.

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<![CDATA[Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3cab0ee8fa60b885a2

We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

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<![CDATA[Feasibility Study on a Microwave-Based Sensor for Measuring Hydration Level Using Human Skin Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9faab0ee8fa60b71c3c

Tissue dehydration results in three major types of exsiccosis—hyper-, hypo-, or isonatraemia. All three types entail alterations of salt concentrations leading to impaired biochemical processes, and can finally cause severe morbidity. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a microwave-based sensor technology for the non-invasive measurement of the hydration status. Electromagnetic waves at high frequencies interact with molecules, especially water. Hence, if a sample contains free water molecules, this can be detected in a reflected microwave signal. To develop the sensor system, human three-dimensional skin equivalents were instituted as a standardized test platform mimicking reproducible exsiccosis scenarios. Therefore, skin equivalents with a specific hydration and density of matrix components were generated and microwave measurements were performed. Hydration-specific spectra allowed deriving the hydration state of the skin models. A further advantage of the skin equivalents was the characterization of the impact of distinct skin components on the measured signals to investigate mechanisms of signal generation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a non-invasive microwave-based hydration sensor technology. The sensor bears potential to be integrated in a wearable medical device for personal health monitoring.

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<![CDATA[Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on Mie-Resonance Extraordinary Transmission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da86ab0ee8fa60b9c352

Microwave bandpass filter structure has been designed and fabricated by filling the periodically metallic apertures with dielectric particles. The microwave cannot transmit through the metallic subwavelength apertures. By filling the metallic apertures with dielectric particles, a transmission passband with insertion loss 2 dB appears at the frequency of 10–12 GHz. Both simulated and experimental results show that the passband is induced by the Mie resonance of the dielectric particles. In addition, the passband frequency can be tuned by the size and the permittivity of the dielectric particles. This approach is suitable to fabricate the microwave bandpass filters.

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<![CDATA[Design of Miniaturized Double-Negative Material for Specific Absorption Rate Reduction in Human Head]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da12ab0ee8fa60b7a0d5

In this study, a double-negative triangular metamaterial (TMM) structure, which exhibits a resounding electric response at microwave frequency, was developed by etching two concentric triangular rings of conducting materials. A finite-difference time-domain method in conjunction with the lossy-Drude model was used in this study. Simulations were performed using the CST Microwave Studio. The specific absorption rate (SAR) reduction technique is discussed, and the effects of the position of attachment, the distance, and the size of the metamaterials on the SAR reduction are explored. The performance of the double-negative TMMs in cellular phones was also measured in the cheek and the tilted positions using the COMOSAR system. The TMMs achieved a 52.28% reduction for the 10 g SAR. These results provide a guideline to determine the triangular design of metamaterials with the maximum SAR reducing effect for a mobile phone.

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<![CDATA[Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafcab0ee8fa60bc4f90

Background

There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment.

Methods

We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires in May 2008 (baseline) and May 2009 (follow-up). We also asked about mobile and cordless phone use and asked study participants for consent to obtain their mobile phone connection data from the mobile phone operators. Exposure to environmental RF-EMF was computed for each study participant using a previously developed and validated prediction model. In a nested sample of 119 study participants, RF-EMF exposure was measured in the bedroom and data on sleep behavior was collected by means of actigraphy during two weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders.

Results

In the longitudinal analyses neither operator-recorded nor self-reported mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness. Also, exposure to environmental RF-EMF did not affect self-reported sleep quality. The results from the longitudinal analyses were confirmed in the nested sleep study with objectively recorded exposure and measured sleep behavior data.

Conclusions

We did not find evidence for adverse effects on sleep quality from RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment.

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<![CDATA[Compact circularly polarized truncated square ring slot antenna with suppressed higher resonances]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbbbb

This paper presents a compact circularly polarized (CP) antenna with an integrated higher order harmonic rejection filter. The proposed design operates within the ISM band of 2.32 GHz– 2.63 GHz and is suitable for example for wireless power transfer applications. Asymmetrical truncated edges on a square ring create a defected ground structure to excite the CP property, simultaneously realizing compactness. It offers a 50.5% reduced patch area compared to a conventional design. Novel stubs and slot shapes are integrated in the transmission line to reduce higher (up to the third) order harmonics. The proposed prototype yields a -10 dB reflection coefficient (S11) impedance bandwidth of 12.53%, a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.27%, and a gain of 5.64 dBi. Measurements also show good agreement with simulations.

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<![CDATA[Modifications of the 7-Hydroxyl Group of the Transthyretin Ligand Luteolin Provide Mechanistic Insights into Its Binding Properties and High Plasma Specificity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b898c9

Amyloid formation of the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) has been linked to familial amyloid polyneuropathy and senile systemic amyloidosis. Binding of ligands within its natural hormone binding site can stabilize the tetrameric structure and impair amyloid formation. We have recently shown that the flavonoid luteolin stabilizes TTR in human plasma with a very high selectivity. Luteolin, however, is inactivated in vivo via glucuronidation for which the preferred site is the hydroxy group at position 7 on its aromatic A-ring. We have evaluated the properties of two luteolin variants in which the 7-hydroxy group has been exchanged for a chlorine (7-Cl-Lut) or a methoxy group (7-MeO-Lut). Using an in vitro model, based on human liver microsomes, we verified that these modifications increase the persistence of the drug. Crystal structure determinations show that 7-Cl-Lut binds similarly to luteolin. The larger MeO substituent cannot be accommodated within the same space as the chlorine or hydroxy group and as a result 7-MeO-Lut binds in the opposite direction with the methoxy group in position 7 facing the solvent. Both 7-Cl-Lut and 7-MeO-Lut qualify as high-affinity binders, but in contrast to luteolin, they display a highly non-specific binding to other plasma components. The binding of the two conformations and the key-interactions to TTR are discussed in detail. Taken together, these results show a proof-of-concept that the persistence of luteolin towards enzymatic modification can be increased. We reveal two alternative high-affinity binding modes of luteolin to TTR and that modification in position 7 is restricted only to small substituents if the original orientation of luteolin should be preserved. In addition, the present work provides a general and convenient method to evaluate the efficacy of TTR-stabilizing drugs under conditions similar to an in vivo environment.

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<![CDATA[Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da77ab0ee8fa60b9723a

Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration.

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<![CDATA[Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Non-Invasive Microwave Head Imaging System for Intracranial Haemorrhage Detection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c725

An intracranial haemorrhage is a life threatening medical emergency, yet only a fraction of the patients receive treatment in time, primarily due to the transport delay in accessing diagnostic equipment in hospitals such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Computed Tomography. A mono-static microwave head imaging system that can be carried in an ambulance for the detection and localization of intracranial haemorrhage is presented. The system employs a single ultra-wideband antenna as sensing element to transmit signals in low microwave frequencies towards the head and capture backscattered signals. The compact and low-profile antenna provides stable directional radiation patterns over the operating bandwidth in both near and far-fields. Numerical analysis of the head imaging system with a realistic head model in various situations is performed to realize the scattering mechanism of haemorrhage. A modified delay-and-summation back-projection algorithm, which includes effects of surface waves and a distance-dependent effective permittivity model, is proposed for signal and image post-processing. The efficacy of the automated head imaging system is evaluated using a 3D-printed human head phantom with frequency dispersive dielectric properties including emulated haemorrhages with different sizes located at different depths. Scattered signals are acquired with a compact transceiver in a mono-static circular scanning profile. The reconstructed images demonstrate that the system is capable of detecting haemorrhages as small as 1 cm3. While quantitative analyses reveal that the quality of images gradually degrades with the increase of the haemorrhage’s depth due to the reduction of signal penetration inside the head; rigorous statistical analysis suggests that substantial improvement in image quality can be obtained by increasing the data samples collected around the head. The proposed head imaging prototype along with the processing algorithm demonstrates its feasibility for potential use in ambulances as an effective and low cost diagnostic tool to assure timely triaging of intracranial hemorrhage patients.

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<![CDATA[Mobile Phones and Multiple Sclerosis – A Nationwide Cohort Study in Denmark]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d3ab0ee8fa60b650c4

We investigated the risk of, prognosis of and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) among all Danish residents who owned a mobile phone subscription before 1996. Using the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Civil Registration System, study subjects were followed up for MS through 2004. Poisson models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR, age range: 18–64 years) and mortality rate ratios (MRR, age range: 18+) and to compare presenting symptoms among subscribers and all non-subscribers. A total of 405 971 subscription holders accrued four million years of follow up, with men accounting for 86% of the observation time. Among subscription holding men, the IRR of MS was close to unity, overall as well as 13+ years after first subscription (IRR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.48–2.16). Among women, the IRR was 3.43 (95% CI: 0.86–13.72) 13+ years after first subscription, however, based on only two cases. Presenting symptoms of MS differed between subscribers and non-subscribers (p = 0.03), with slightly increased risk of diplopia in both genders (IRR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.02–1.86), an increased risk of fatigue among women (IRR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.45–6.28), and of optic neuritis among men (IRR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.03–1.86). Overall the MRR was close to one (MRR: 0.91, 95%CI 0.70–1.19) among MS-patients with a subscription and although we observed some increased MRR estimates among women, these were based on small numbers. In conclusion, we found little evidence for a pronounced association between mobile phone use and risk of MS or mortality rate among MS patients. Symptoms of MS differed between subscribers and nonsubscribers for symptoms previously suggested to be associated with mobile phone use. This deserves further attention, as does the increased long-term risk of MS among female subscribers, although small numbers and lack of consistency between genders prevent causal interpretation.

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<![CDATA[Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da81ab0ee8fa60b9aa87

Background

Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity.

Objectives

To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation.

Methods

Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay.

Results

Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level.

Conclusions

RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Combined Exposure of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields and Doxorubicin in HL-60 Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab8ab0ee8fa60badc03

Human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells were pre-exposed to non-ionizing 900 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 12 µW/cm2 power density for 1 hour/day for 3 days and then treated with a chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX, 0.125 mg/L). Several end-points related to toxicity, viz., viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) and Ca2+-Mg2+ -ATPase activity were measured. The results obtained in un-exposed and sham-exposed control cells were compared with those exposed to RF alone, DOX alone and RF+DOX. The results indicated no significant differences between un-exposed, sham-exposed control cells and those exposed to RF alone while treatment with DOX alone showed a significant decrease in viability, increased apoptosis, decreased MMP, increased Ca2+ and decreased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity. When the latter results were compared with cells exposed RF+DOX, the data showed increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, increased MMP, decreased Ca2+ and increased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity. Thus, RF pre-exposure appear to protect the HL-60 cells from the toxic effects of subsequent treatment with DOX. These observations were similar to our earlier data which suggested that pre-exposure of mice to 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm2 power density for 1 hours/day for 14 days had a protective effect in hematopoietic tissue damage induced by subsequent gamma-irradiation.

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<![CDATA[Extraction and Sensitive Detection of Toxins A and B from the Human Pathogen Clostridium difficile in 40 Seconds Using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab2ab0ee8fa60baba7e

Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea in humans and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus the rapid and accurate identification of this pathogen in clinical samples, such as feces, is a key step in reducing the devastating impact of this disease. The bacterium produces two toxins, A and B, which are thought to be responsible for the majority of the pathology associated with the disease, although the relative contribution of each is currently a subject of debate. For this reason we have developed a rapid detection assay based on microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence which is capable of detecting the presence of 10 bacteria in unprocessed human feces within 40 seconds. These promising results suggest that this prototype biosensor has the potential to be developed into a rapid, point of care, real time diagnostic assay for C. difficile.

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<![CDATA[Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad5ab0ee8fa60bb7a3b

In this study, we determined the LD50 (50% lethal dose) for cell death, and the ED50 (50% of cell population staining positive) for propidium (Pr) iodide uptake, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, Jurkat, U937, CHO-K1, and GH3) exposed to 10-ns electric pulses (EP). We found that the LD50 varied substantially across the cell lines studied, increasing from 51 J/g for Jurkat to 1861 J/g for HeLa. PS externalized at doses equal or lower than that required for death in all cell lines ranging from 51 J/g in Jurkat, to 199 J/g in CHO-K1. Pr uptake occurred at doses lower than required for death in three of the cell lines: 656 J/g for CHO-K1, 634 J/g for HeLa, and 142 J/g for GH3. Both Jurkat and U937 had a LD50 lower than the ED50 for Pr uptake at 780 J/g and 1274 J/g, respectively. The mechanism responsible for these differences was explored by evaluating cell size, calcium concentration in the exposure medium, and effect of trypsin treatment prior to exposure. None of the studied parameters correlated with the observed results suggesting that cellular susceptibility to injury and death by 10-ns EP was largely determined by cell physiology. In contrast to previous studies, our findings suggest that permeabilization of internal membranes may not necessarily be responsible for cell death by 10-ns EP. Additionally, a mixture of Jurkat and HeLa cells was exposed to 10-ns EP at a dose of 280 J/g. Death was observed only in Jurkat cells suggesting that 10-ns EP may selectively kill cells within a heterogeneous tissue.

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