ResearchPad - milk https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Traditional milk transformation schemes in Côte d’Ivoire and their impact on the prevalence of <i>Streptococcus bovis</i> complex bacteria in dairy products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14743 The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) and possibly Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) are associated with human and animal diseases. Sii predominate in spontaneously fermented milk products with unknown public health effects. Sii/SBSEC prevalence data from West Africa in correlation with milk transformation practices are limited. Northern Côte d’Ivoire served as study area due to its importance in milk production and consumption and to link a wider Sudano-Sahelian pastoral zone of cross-border trade. We aimed to describe the cow milk value chain and determine Sii/SBSEC prevalence with a cross-sectional study. Dairy production practices were described as non-compliant with basic hygiene standards. The system is influenced by secular sociocultural practices and environmental conditions affecting product properties. Phenotypic and molecular analyses identified SBSEC in 27/43 (62.8%) fermented and 26/67 (38.8%) unfermented milk samples. Stratified by collection stage, fermented milk at producer and vendor levels featured highest SBSEC prevalence of 71.4% and 63.6%, respectively. Sii with 62.8% and 38.8% as well as Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus with 7.0% and 7.5% were the predominant SBSEC species identified among fermented and unfermented milk samples, respectively. The population structure of Sii/SBSEC isolates seems to reflect evolving novel dairy-adapted, non-adapted and potentially pathogenic lineages. Northern Côte d’Ivoire was confirmed as area with high Sii presence in dairy products. The observed production practices and the high diversity of Sii/SBSEC supports in-depth investigations on Sii ecology niche, product safety and related technology in the dairy value chain potentially affecting large population groups across sub-Saharan Africa.

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<![CDATA[Cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants—A mixed method study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14739 Many women cease breastfeeding earlier than desired. This study examined the cessation of breastfeeding among mothers of preterm infants. Thus, the aim was to describe the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants up to 12 months after birth.MethodThis mixed methods study used a convergent design with both qualitative data, consisting of written comments, and quantitative data, on breastfeeding status and breastfeeding satisfaction. The data were collected from questionnaires sent to the mothers at three points during the first year after birth. In total, 270 mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit provided data for the study. The quantitative and qualitative data were analysed separately with statistical tests and hermeneutical analysis, respectively and then together according to the convergent mixed methods design.ResultsFour themes of the meanings of the cessation of breastfeeding were identified in the qualitative analysis: “Desire to regain the mother’s and the infant’s well-being”, “The mothers interpretation that the infants actively ceased breastfeeding”, “The mother’s body and/or the infants’ signals showing the way” and “The mother's own will and perceived external obstacles”. Mothers who did not breastfeed as long as they wanted were more likely to report less satisfaction with breastfeeding, a shorter breastfeeding period, and less activity when ceasing breastfeeding. In comparison, mothers who breastfed as long as they wanted were more satisfied with breastfeeding, breastfed for a longer period of time and were more active in decision making in breastfeeding cessation.ConclusionMaternal passivity or activity influenced the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit. Passive behaviour related to breastfeeding may result in early cessation of breastfeeding, and low breastfeeding satisfaction while active behaviour may increase breastfeeding length and satisfaction. ]]> <![CDATA[Likely questionnaire-diagnosed food allergy in 78, 890 adults from the northern Netherlands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13854 It is challenging to define likely food allergy (FA) in large populations which limited the number of large studies regarding risk factors for FA.ObjectiveWe studied the prevalence and characteristics of self-reported FA (s-rFA) in the large, population-based Dutch Lifelines cohort and identified associated risk factors.MethodsLikely food allergic cases (LikelyFA) were classified based on questionnaire reported characteristics consistent with FA. Subjects with atypical characteristics were classified as Indeterminate. We investigated 13 potential risk factors for LikelyFA such as birth mode and living on a farm and addressed health-related quality of life (H-RQOL).ResultsOf the 78, 890 subjects, 12.1% had s-rFA of which 4.0% and 8.1% were classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate, respectively. Younger age, female sex, asthma, eczema and nasal allergy increased the risk of LikelyFA (p-value range <1.00*10−250–1.29*10−7). Living in a small city/large village or suburb during childhood was associated with a higher risk of LikelyFA than living on a farm (p-value = 7.81*10−4 and p = 4.84*10−4, respectively). Subjects classified as Indeterminate more often reported depression and burn-out compared to those without FA (p-value = 1.46*10−4 and p = 8.39*10−13, respectively). No association was found with ethnicity, (duration of) breastfeeding, birth mode and reported eating disorder. Mental and physical component scores measuring H-RQOL were lower in both those classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate compared to those without FA.ConclusionThe prevalence of s-rFA among adults is considerable and one-third reports characteristics consistent with LikelyFA. Living on a farm decreased the risk of LikelyFA. The association of poorer H-RQOL as well as depression and burn-out with questionable self-perceived FA is striking and a priority for future study. ]]> <![CDATA[Beware of vested interests: Epistemic vigilance improves reasoning about scientific evidence (for some people)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na4c1a7a8-d330-434e-b120-e60e98785391

In public disputes, stakeholders sometimes misrepresent statistics or other types of scientific evidence to support their claims. One of the reasons this is problematic is that citizens often do not have the motivation nor the cognitive skills to accurately judge the meaning of statistics and thus run the risk of being misinformed. This study reports an experiment investigating the conditions under which people become vigilant towards a source’s claim and thus reason more carefully about the supporting evidence. For this, participants were presented with a claim by a vested-interest or a neutral source and with statistical evidence which was cited by the source as being in support of the claim. However, this statistical evidence actually contradicted the source’s claim but was presented as a contingency table, which are typically difficult for people to interpret correctly. When the source was a lobbyist arguing for his company’s product people were better at interpreting the evidence compared to when the same source argued against the product. This was not the case for a different vested-interests source nor for the neutral source. Further, while all sources were rated as less trustworthy when participants realized that the source had misrepresented the evidence, only for the lobbyist source was this seen as a deliberate attempt at deception. Implications for research on epistemic trust, source credibility effects and science communication are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Novel polyclonal antibody-based rapid gold sandwich immunochromatographic strip for detecting the major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) in honey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac8fd5eed0c484d08a41

Honey adulteration is becoming increasingly alarming incidents in food safety. Monitoring and detecting adulteration face greater challenges. Honey contains the major royal jelly proteins (MRJP) secreted by bee workers. To detect honey adulteration fast and accurately, a rapid gold sandwich immunochromatographic strip (GSIS) was developed based on two specific polyclonal antibodies (PoAbs) against the MRJP1, the most abundant protein of all MRJPs. We determined the best of pH value (pH 8.6) and PoAb SP-1 amount (5 μg/mL) in conjunction with colloidal. The cut-off value (sensitivity) of GSIS in detecting MRJP1 is 2.0 μg/mL in solution. Validation analysis with RJ, milk vetch honey, acacia honey and honey adulteration containing rice syrup and corn syrup with different ratios demonstrated that the GSIS could show consistent Test line (T line) when the test samples contain more than 30% pure honey or MRJP1 0.4 mg/g. The validation results by isotope ratio mass spectrometry on the same pure and all adulteration milk vetch honey samples showed the same information of GSIS test. The qualitative assay GSIS provided a valuable new way for honey authenticity and laid the foundation for the future application of GSIS with monoclonal antibodies in honey authentication.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains isolated from livestock workers and cattle in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe6bd5eed0c484e5ba23

Molecular typing techniques are useful in understanding tuberculosis epidemiology; yet, they have been under-utilised at the human-animal interface in Nigeria. Sixty-four Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates including 42 M. tuberculosis, 13 M. bovis and nine M. africanum obtained from livestock workers (LW, n = 47) and their cattle (n = 17) in three geographical zones of Nigeria were genotyped to identify and evaluate the genetic diversity of the circulating MTBC using spoligotyping. Distribution into clades of M. tuberculosis revealed; 45.3% Uganda I- [SIT46- cattle: 1; LW: 28], 14.1% Latin American Mediterranean- [SIT61, cattle: 1; LW: 8], and 1.6% T- [SIT53—LW: 1]. The M. bovis strains were 6.3% SB0944 [cattle: 4] and 1.6% each of SB0300, SB1026, SB1027 and SB1439 [cattle: 4]. Seventeen MTBC isolates [cattle: 7; LW: 10] yielded 14 new spoligotype patterns including three M. tuberculosis strains (three isolates), five M. bovis strains (five isolates) and six M. africanum strains (nine isolates), two of which belonged to MAF1. Only few families namely, the not previously described Uganda I-, LAM and SB0944 are predominant among the LW and cattle, with other types in lower prevalences. The strain population structure indicates an intriguing diversity and possible zoonotic linkage with consequences for TB control in the country. The need to employ newer molecular techniques such as Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeats and whole genome sequence to decipher circulating MTBC strains in Nigeria is advocated.

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<![CDATA[Effects of complementary feeding on attained height among lower primary school-aged children in Eastern Uganda: A nested prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcebd5eed0c484dec56b

Background

Despite the fact that Uganda has been a signatory to the global strategy for Infant and Young Children Feeding practices (IYCF) for nearly a decade, the prevalence of stunting among children under five years of age remains tragically high at 17% in Eastern Uganda and twofold higher countrywide. Only 6% of all children aged 6–23 months feed adequately. This study aimed to establish the covariates of complementary feeding (CF) and its effect on attained height among primary school-aged children in Mbale district (Eastern Uganda).

Methods

This was a community-based prospective cohort study using data from the PROMISE EBF trial. The main exposure variable was adequate complementary feeding (CF) measured in a parent questionnaire at 18–24 months of age. We defined adequate CF as having received animal food, cereals and fruit, juice and/or vegetables during the 24 hours preceding the interview. An adapted minimum acceptable diet was defined as having been given milk or milk products at least twice a day, an adapted meal frequency of two and solid or semi-solid food from at least four food groups on a 24-hour dietary recall based on modified IYCF criteria. The main outcome variable was attained height [(height-for-age Z score (HAZ)] measured between five and eight years of age using the WHO growth standards. Effects of CF on HAZ were estimated using linear regression analyses with cluster-robust standard errors.

Results

A total of 506 children were studied. The majority (85%) were from rural areas and the average age at the end of the study was 6.9 (standard deviation: 0.63) years. Of these, 23.9% were adequately fed and 2.3% received the adapted minimum acceptable diet. Adequate CF was not associated with HAZ (adjusted β = -0.111; 95% CI: -0.363, 0.141; p = 0.374). Factors significantly associated with attained height were baseline HAZ (0.262; 0.152, 0.374; p<0.001) and WHZ (-0.147; -0.243, -0.051; p = 0.004), child’s age (0.454; -0.592, -0.315; p<0.001) and maternal education (0.030; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.057; p = 0.034).

Conclusion

Adequate CF at age 18–24 months was worryingly insufficient and not associated with attained HAZ at age 5–8 years. Further strategies need to be considered to improve child nutrition and linear growth in resource-constrained settings.

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<![CDATA[Heat stress modifies the lactational performances and the urinary metabolomic profile related to gastrointestinal microbiota of dairy goats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730b8d5eed0c484f37f98

The aim of the study is to identify the candidate biomarkers of heat stress (HS) in the urine of lactating dairy goats through the application of proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis. Dairy does (n = 16) in mid-lactation were submitted to thermal neutral (TN; indoors; 15 to 20°C; 40 to 45% humidity) or HS (climatic chamber; 37°C day, 30°C night; 40% humidity) conditions according to a crossover design (2 periods of 21 days). Thermophysiological traits and lactational performances were recorded and milk composition analyzed during each period. Urine samples were collected at day 15 of each period for 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square—discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) assessment with cross validation were used to identify the goat urinary metabolome from the Human Metabolome Data Base. HS increased rectal temperature (1.2°C), respiratory rate (3.5-fold) and water intake (74%), but decreased feed intake (35%) and body weight (5%) of the lactating does. No differences were detected in milk yield, but HS decreased the milk contents of fat (9%), protein (16%) and lactose (5%). Metabolomics allowed separating TN and HS urinary clusters by PLS-DA. Most discriminating metabolites were hippurate and other phenylalanine (Phe) derivative compounds, which increased in HS vs. TN does. The greater excretion of these gut-derived toxic compounds indicated that HS induced a harmful gastrointestinal microbiota overgrowth, which should have sequestered aromatic amino acids for their metabolism and decreased the synthesis of neurotransmitters and thyroid hormones, with a negative impact on milk yield and composition. In conclusion, HS markedly changed the thermophysiological traits and lactational performances of dairy goats, which were translated into their urinary metabolomic profile through the presence of gut-derived toxic compounds. Hippurate and other Phe-derivative compounds are suggested as urinary biomarkers to detect heat-stressed dairy animals in practice.

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<![CDATA[Comparative transcriptome analysis of mammary epithelial cells at different stages of lactation reveals wide differences in gene expression and pathways regulating milk synthesis between Jersey and Kashmiri cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633941d5eed0c484ae633a

Jersey and Kashmiri cattle are important dairy breeds that contribute significantly to the total milk production of the Indian northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Kashmiri cattle germplasm has been extensively diluted through crossbreeding with Jersey cattle with the goal of enhancing its milk production ability. However, crossbred animals are prone to diseases resulting to unsustainable milk production. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profile of mammary gland epithelial cells at different stages of lactation and to find key differences in genes and pathways regulating milk traits between Jersey and Kashmiri cattle. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) isolated from milk obtained from six lactating cows (three Jersey and three Kashmiri cattle) on day 15 (D15), D90 and D250 in milk, representing early, mid and late lactation, respectively were used. RNA isolated from MEC was subjected to next-generation RNA sequencing and bioinformatics processing. Casein and whey protein genes were found to be highly expressed throughout the lactation stages in both breeds. Largest differences in differentially expressed genes (DEG) were between D15 vs D90 (1,805 genes) in Kashmiri cattle and, D15 vs D250 (3,392 genes) in Jersey cattle. A total of 1,103, 1,356 and 1,397 genes were differentially expressed between Kashmiri and Jersey cattle on D15, D90 and D250, respectively. Antioxidant genes like RPLPO and RPS28 were highly expressed in Kashmiri cattle. Differentially expressed genes in both Kashmiri and Jersey were enriched for multicellular organismal process, receptor activity, catalytic activity, signal transducer activity, macromolecular complex and developmental process gene ontology terms. Whereas, biological regulation, endopeptidase activity and response to stimulus were enriched in Kashmiri cattle and, reproduction and immune system process were enriched in Jersey cattle. Most of the pathways responsible for regulation of milk production like JAK-STAT, p38 MAPK pathway, PI3 kinase pathway were enriched by DEG in Jersey cattle only. Although Kashmiri has poor milk production efficiency, the present study suggests possible physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Kashmiri cattle milk that needs to be further explored.

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<![CDATA[Bovine milk-derived exosomes enhance goblet cell activity and prevent the development of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5251d5eed0c4842bc640

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by intestinal injury and impaired mucin synthesis. We recently showed that breast milk exosomes from rodents promote intestinal cell viability, epithelial proliferation, and stem cell activity, but whether they also affect mucus production is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine milk-derived exosomes on goblet cell expression in experimental NEC and delineate potential underlying mechanisms of action. Exosomes were isolated from bovine milk by ultracentrifugation and confirmed by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and through the detection of exosome membrane markers. To study the effect on mucin production, human colonic LS174T cells were cultured and exposed to exosomes. Compared to control, exosomes promoted goblet cell expression, as demonstrated by increased mucin production and relative expression levels of goblet cell expression markers trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and mucin 2 (MUC2). In addition, exosome treatment enhanced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), the most abundant intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein that aids in protein synthesis. Furthermore, experimental NEC was induced in mouse pups by hyperosmolar formula feeding, lipopolysaccharide administration and hypoxia exposure on postnatal days 5–9. Milk exosomes were given with each gavage feed. NEC was associated with ileal morphological injury and reduction in MUC2+ goblet cells and GRP94+ cells per villus. Exosome administration to NEC pups prevented these changes. This research highlights the potential novel application of milk-derived exosomes in preventing the development of NEC in high-risk infants when breast milk is not available.

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<![CDATA[Dietary supplementation of Scutellaria baicalensis extract during early lactation decreases milk somatic cells and increases whole lactation milk yield in dairy cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217abd5eed0c484794341

Systemic inflammation is common in early lactation dairy cows and is associated with decreased milk production. The Scutellaria baicalensis plant contains flavonoids with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, which may counteract the inflammatory state in early lactation dairy cows. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether Scutellaria baicalensis extract (SBE), a source of bioactive flavonoids, would alter the adaptation to lactation. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 122) were used in a randomized block design to determine the effect of short-term and long-term postpartum administration of SBE on 305-d milk yield, 120-d milk component yield, and early lactation milk markers of inflammation and metabolic function. Treatments were 1) control, 2) short term (5-d) administration of the SBE (SBE5), and 3) long term (60-d) administration of the SBE (SBE60). Treatments were included in a treatment pellet that was identical to a control pellet in ingredient source and composition except for the extract (10 g/d SBE providing 3.3 g/d of the flavonoid baicalin), both provided via an automated milking system beginning on d 1 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on d 1, 3, and once during d 5–12 of lactation, followed by weekly sampling until 120 days in milk (DIM). Milk samples collected in the first 2 wk were used for biomarker analysis (haptoglobin, β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], and glucose-6-phosphate [G6P]), and all samples were used for composition analysis. Cows were body condition scored every 2 wk prepartum and postpartum. Milk production, programmed pellet allocation, and actual provision of both pelleted feeds were recorded daily. Treatment effects were evaluated by contrasts between control and SBE5 and control and SBE60 for both the treatment (TP; wk 1–9) and carryover periods (CP; wk 10–37). Total pellet offered was greater for SBE60 in both the TP (P < 0.01) and CP (P = 0.02) but was not different for SBE5 during either period (P ≥ 0.13). No treatment effects were observed for body condition score (BCS), milk haptoglobin, BHB, or G6P. SBE5 did not alter milk yield or milk components. SBE60 increased whole-lactation milk yield by 1,419 kg (13%; P = 0.03). SBE60 increased milk lactose and fat yields (P ≤ 0.04) and tended to increase milk protein yield (P = 0.09) during TP, and each increased during CP (P ≤ 0.04). Somatic cell count decreased by 10% in SBE60 during TP (P = 0.02) but not CP (P = 0.13). Mastitis incidence tended to differ by treatment, being lesser for both SBE5 and SBE60 vs. control (14 and 15% vs. 33%). SBE supplementation did not impact time to pregnancy or hazard of leaving the herd. In conclusion, despite no detected treatment effects on BCS or milk biomarkers of inflammation and metabolic status, supplementation of postpartum dairy cows with Scutellaria baicalensis extract for 60 d was effective at increasing whole lactation milk yield.

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<![CDATA[Macronutrient variability in human milk from donors to a milk bank: Implications for feeding preterm infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644934d5eed0c484c2f8a4

Background and objective

The composition of human milk varies widely and impacts the ability to meet nutrient requirements for preterm infants. The purpose of this study is to use a large dataset of milk composition from donors to a milk bank to: (1) describe the macronutrient variability in human milk and how it contributes to the ability to meet the protein and calorie targets for the preterm infant using fortification with commercially available multi-nutrient fortifiers; (2) assess how temporal versus subject effects explain macronutrient variability; (3) determine how macronutrient variability contributes to the nutrient distribution in pooled donor milk.

Methods

This is a retrospective, observational study that analyzes the macronutrient data of 1,119 human milk samples from 443 individual donors to a milk bank. We test fortification strategies with potential basic, intermediate, and high protein and calorie commercial fortifiers. Additionally, we simulate the random pooling of multiple donors to model the impact of macronutrient variability on pooled donor milk.

Results

Fat was the most variable nutrient and accounted for 80% of the difference in calories. A subject-effect predicted more of the variability after 4 weeks postpartum in all macronutrients (R2 > = 0.50) than a time-effect (R2 < = 0.28). When pooling multiple donors, variability was reduced by increasing the number of donors randomly selected for a pool or targeted pooling based on macronutrient analysis of donor pools. Over 75% of mature milk samples fortified with a basic protein fortifier did not meet daily protein targets of 3.5 g/kg without exceeding volumes of 160 ml/kg/day.

Conclusion

There is a strong individual signature to human milk that impacts the pooling of donor milk, and the ability to meet protein and energy requirements for the preterm infant with basic and intermediate protein and calorie fortifiers.

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<![CDATA[Health effects of micronutrient fortified dairy products and cereal food for children and adolescents: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52185fd5eed0c484797e44

Introduction

Micronutrient (MN) deficiencies cause a considerable burden of disease for children in many countries. Dairy products or cereals are an important food component during adolescence. Fortification of dairy products or cereals with MN may be an effective strategy to overcome MN deficiencies, but their specific impact on health in this age group is poorly documented.

Methods

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (registration number CRD42016039554) to assess the impact of MN fortified dairy products and cereal food on the health of children and adolescents (aged 5–15 years) compared with non-fortified food. We reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCT) using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library; latest search: January 2018), reference list screening and citation searches. Three pairs of reviewers assessed 2048 studies for eligibility and extracted data. We assessed the risk of bias and applied GRADE to rate quality of evidence.

Results

We included 24 RCT (often multi MN fortification) with 30 pair-wise comparisons mainly from low- and middle income countries. A very small and non-significant increase of haemoglobin values emerged (0.09 g/dl [95%-CI: -0.01 to 0.18]; 13 RCT with iron fortification; very low quality of evidence). No significant difference was found on anaemia risk (risk ratio 0.87 [95%-CI: 0.76 to 1.01]; 12 RCT; very low quality), but a significant difference in iron deficiency anaemia favouring fortified food was found (risk ratio 0.38 [95%-CI: 0.18 to 0.81]; 5 RCT; very low quality). Similar effects were seen for fortified dairy products and cereals and different fortification strategies (mono- vs. dual- vs. multi-MN). Follow-up periods were often short and the impact on anthropometric measures was weak (low quality of evidence) Very low quality of evidence emerged for the improvement of cognitive performance, functional measures and morbidity.

Conclusions

Fortification of dairy products and cereal food had only marginal health effects in our sample population from 5–15 years. Further evidence is needed to better understand the health impact of fortified dairy products and cereals in this age group.

Systematic review registration

The study protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 26 May 2016 (registration number CRD42016039554).

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<![CDATA[Modeling the spatial distribution of grazing intensity in Kazakhstan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424395d5eed0c4845e06e2

With increasing affluence in many developing countries, the demand for livestock products is rising and the increasing feed requirement contributes to pressure on land resources for food and energy production. However, there is currently a knowledge gap in our ability to assess the extent and intensity of the utilization of land by livestock, which is the single largest land use in the world. We developed a spatial model that combines fine-scale livestock numbers with their associated energy requirements to distribute livestock grazing demand onto a map of energy supply, with the aim of estimating where and to what degree pasture is being utilized. We applied our model to Kazakhstan, which contains large grassland areas that historically have been used for extensive livestock production but for which the current extent, and thus the potential for increasing livestock production, is unknown. We measured the grazing demand of Kazakh livestock in 2015 at 286 Petajoules, which was 25% of the estimated maximum sustainable energy supply that is available to livestock for grazing. The model resulted in a grazed area of 1.22 million km2, or 48% of the area theoretically available for grazing in Kazakhstan, with most utilized land grazed at low intensities (average off-take rate was 13% of total biomass energy production). Under a conservative scenario, our estimations showed a production potential of 0.13 million tons of beef additional to 2015 production (31% increase), and much more with utilization of distant pastures. This model is an important step forward in evaluating pasture use and available land resources, and can be adapted at any spatial scale for any region in the world.

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<![CDATA[Shedding and genetic diversity of Coxiella burnetii in Polish dairy cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7d5d5eed0c484386a74

Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease reported in humans and many animal species including cattle. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Coxiella (C.) burnetii shedding in Polish dairy cattle herds and to identify the pathogen’s genotypes and sequence types (STs) using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and multispacer sequence typing (MST) methods. The presence of C. burnetii DNA was detected using a commercial real-time PCR kit, targeting the IS1111 element. Overall, 1,439 samples from 279 herds were tested including: 897 individual milk specimens, 101 bulk tank milk samples, 409 genital tract swabs and 32 placentas. Furthermore, 30 consumer milk samples, including 10 from vending machines and 77 dairy products were also analyzed. C. burnetii shedding was confirmed in 31.54% of tested cattle herds as well as in 69.16% of consumer milk and dairy products. Among real-time PCR–positive samples, 49 specimens obtained from 49 cattle herds and 8 samples of purchased dairy products were selected for genotyping. Overall, five previously known MLVA genotypes (I, J, BG, BE, and NM) and three new ones (proposed as PL1, PL2, and PL3) were identified. Two MST sequence types were recorded: ST16 and a novel sequence (ST61). The new genotypes and sequence types need further research particularly into their pathogenicity to humans.

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<![CDATA[Impact of intramammary inoculation of inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus and antibiotics on the milk microbiota of water buffalo with subclinical mastitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d014ad5eed0c484039f42

Water buffalo mastitis represents a major issue in terms of animal health, cost of therapy, premature culling and decreased milk yeld. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to investigate strategies to avoid or reduce antibiotics’ based therapies, in particular during subclinical mastitis. The use of Generally Regarded As Safe bacteria (GRAS) such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus to restore the unbalance in mammary gland microbiota could provide potential corrective measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in milk microbiota after the intramammary treatment with inactivated cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus of mammary gland quarters naturally affected by subclinical mastitis as compared to antibiotic therapy.A number of 43 quarters affected by subclinical mastitis with no signs of clinical inflammation and aerobic culture positive for pathogens were included in the study. The experimental design was as follows: 11 quarters were treated with antibiotics, 15 with inactivated cultures of Lactobacillus rhmnosus and 17 with PBS as negative control, by means of intrammary injection. Samples were collected at eight time points, pre- (T-29, T-21, T-15, T-7, T0 days) and post- treatment (T1, T2, and T6 days). Microbiological culture and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) were perfomed on all the samples, and microbiota was determined on milk samples collected at T0 and T6 by amplifying the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene by PCR and sequencing using next generation sequencing technique. Treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus elicited a strong chemotactic response, as determined by a significant increase of leukocytes in milk, but did not change the microbiological culture results of the treated quarters. For what concerns the analysis of the microbiota, the treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus induced the modification in relative abundance of some genera such as Pseudomonas and 5-7N15. As expected, antibiotic treatment caused major changes in microbiota structure with an increase of Methylobacterium relative abundance. No changes were detected after PBS treatment. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that the in vivo intrammmary treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus has a transient pro-inflammatory activity by increasing SCC and is capable to modify the microbiota of milk after six days from inoculation, albeit slightly, even when the bacterial cultures were heat inactivated. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential use of this GRAS as supportive therapy against mastitis.

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<![CDATA[Heat stress induces proteomic changes in the liver and mammary tissue of dairy cows independent of feed intake: An iTRAQ study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa54ed5eed0c484ca2dbc

Heat stress decreases milk yield and deleteriously alters milk composition. Reduced feed intake partially explains some of the consequences of heat stress, but metabolic changes in the mammary tissue and liver associated with milk synthesis have not been thoroughly evaluated. In the current study, changes of protein abundance in the mammary tissue and liver between heat-stressed cows with ad libitum intake and pair-fed thermal neutral cows were investigated using the iTRAQ proteomic approach. Most of the differentially expressed proteins from mammary tissue and liver between heat-stressed and pair-fed cows were involved in Gene Ontology category of protein metabolic process. Pathway analysis indicated that differentially expressed proteins in the mammary tissue were related to pyruvate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pathways, while those in the liver participated in oxidative phosphorylation and antigen processing and presentation pathways. Several heat shock proteins directly interact with each other and were considered as central “hubs” in the protein interaction network. These findings provide new insights to understand the turnover of protein biosynthesis pathways within hepatic and mammary tissue that likely contribute to changes in milk composition from heat-stressed cows.

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<![CDATA[A data-driven individual-based model of infectious disease in livestock operation: A validation study for paratuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b5cd5eed0c4846eb762

Chronic livestock diseases cause large financial loss and affect animal health and welfare. Controlling these diseases mostly requires precise information on both individual animal and population dynamics to inform the farmer’s decisions, but even successful control programmes do by no means assure elimination. Mathematical models provide opportunities to test different control and elimination options rather than implementing them in real herds, but these models require robust parameter estimation and validation. Fitting these models to data is a difficult task due to heterogeneities in livestock processes. In this paper, we develop an infectious disease modeling framework for a livestock disease (paratuberculosis) that is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Infection with MAP leads to reduced milk production, pregnancy rates, and slaughter value and increased culling rates in cattle and causes significant economic losses to the dairy industry. These economic effects are particularly important motivations in the control and elimination of MAP. In this framework, an individual-based model (IBM) of a dairy herd was built and MAP infection dynamics was integrated. Once the model produced realistic dynamics of MAP infection, we implemented an evaluation method by fitting it to data from three dairy herds from the Northeast region of the US. The model fitting exercises used least-squares and parameter space searching methods to obtain the best-fitted values of selected parameters. The best set of parameters were used to model the effect of interventions. The results show that the presented model can complement real herd statistics where the intervention strategies suggest a reduction in MAP prevalence without elimination. Overall, this research not only provides a complete model for MAP infection dynamics in a dairy herd but also offers a method for estimating parameters by fitting IBM models.

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<![CDATA[Changes in R0/R∞ ratio and membrane capacitance are associated with milk removal from the breast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141effd5eed0c484d29329

Perceived low milk supply is a common reason for introducing supplementary feeds, which in turn serves to further diminish the milk supply. Current methods of measuring milk production and milk transfer from the breast to the infant are inaccessible to the mothers. There is a need for an inexpensive, portable device to enable mothers to measure milk transfer to either confirm their milk production is adequate or identify breastfeeding issues early. The aim of this study was to examine changes in bioimpedance spectroscopy associated with milk removal from the human lactating breast using an electric breast pump. Thirty lactating women participated in 2 research sessions performed in random order over 2 weeks. Milk flow rate and volume were measured during pumping. All mothers completed 24-hour milk profiles. Breasts were monitored using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Analysis was performed using linear mixed effects models to investigate the relationship between both proportional change in membrane capacitance (Cm) and R0/R∞ with milk removal. There was an inverse relationship between R0/R∞ and milk removed (p<0.001). A positive relationship was also observed between Cm and both volume of milk removed (P<0.001) and percentage of available milk removed (p<0.001). This study has shown that changes in bioimpedance are related to the volume of milk removed from the breast during pumping. This modality may hold promise for the measurement of the effectiveness of the breastfeeding infant in removing milk from the breast.

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<![CDATA[Projected effectiveness of mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour, milk, and edible oil with multiple micronutrients among Mongolian adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6da1c2463d7e4dccc5faf5

Industrial fortification of wheat flour is a potentially effective strategy for addressing micronutrient deficiencies in Mongolia, given its ubiquitous consumption and centralized production. However, Mongolia has not mandated fortification of any foods except for salt with iodine. This study modeled the effectiveness and safety of mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour alone and in combination with edible oil and milk in reducing the prevalence of multiple micronutrient intake deficiencies among healthy non-pregnant adults in Mongolia. Six days of diet records (3 summer, 3 winter) were collected from 320 urban and rural adults across the country and analyzed for food and nutrient consumption using a purpose-built food composition table, and the Intake Monitoring and Planning Program (IMAPP) was used to project the effects of fortification on summer and winter bioavailable micronutrient intake and intake deficiency under different fortification guidelines within population subgroups defined by urban or rural locality and sex. Projections showed that flour fortification would be effective in reducing intake deficiencies of thiamin and folate, while marginal benefits of fortification with iron and riboflavin would be smaller given these nutrients’ higher baseline consumption, and fortification with zinc, niacin, and vitamin B12 may be unnecessary. Fortification of flour, oil, and milk with vitamins A, D, and E at levels suggested by international guidelines would substantially reduce vitamin A intake deficiency and would increase vitamin D intake considerably, with the greatest benefits elicited by flour fortification and smaller benefits by additionally fortifying oil and milk. These results support mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour, edible oil, and milk with iron, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, and vitamins A, D, and E in Mongolia. Considerations will be necessary to ensure the fortification of these nutrients is also effective for children, for whom the potential benefit of zinc, niacin, and vitamin B12 fortification should be assessed.

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