ResearchPad - minimally-invasive-surgery https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Effect of minimally invasive autopsy and ethnic background on acceptance of clinical postmortem investigation in adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7646 Autopsy rates worldwide have dropped significantly over the last five decades. Imaging based autopsies are increasingly used as alternatives to conventional autopsy (CA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the introduction of minimally invasive autopsy, consisting of CT, MRI and tissue biopsies on the overall autopsy rate (of CA and minimally invasive autopsy) and the autopsy rate among different ethnicities.MethodsWe performed a prospective single center before-after study. The intervention was the introduction of minimally invasive autopsy as an alternative to CA. Minimally invasive autopsy consisted of MRI, CT, and CT-guided tissue biopsies. Autopsy rates over time and the effect of introducing minimally invasive autopsy were analyzed with a linear regression model. We performed a subgroup analysis comparing the autopsy rates of two groups: a group of western-European ethnicity versus a group of other ethnicities.ResultsAutopsy rates declined from 14.0% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2019. The linear regression model showed a significant effect of both time and availability of minimally invasive autopsy on the overall autopsy rate. The predicted autopsy rate in the model started at 15.1% in 2010 and dropped approximately 0.1% per month (β = -0.001, p < 0.001). Availability of minimally invasive autopsy increased the overall autopsy rate by 2.4% (β = 0.024, p < 0.001). The overall autopsy rate of people with an ethnic background other than western-European was significantly higher in years when minimally invasive autopsy was available compared to when it was not (22/176 = 12.5% vs. 81/1014 (8.0%), p = 0.049).ConclusionsThe introduction of the minimally invasive autopsy had a small, but significant effect on the overall autopsy rate. Furthermore, the minimally invasive autopsy appears to be more acceptable than CA among people with an ethnicity other than western-European. ]]> <![CDATA[The use of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca17d5eed0c48452a778

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of the arthrocentesis in patients with disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). Two hundred and thirty-four (234) patients with DDWOR were evaluated and the following data collected: gender; affected side; age (years); duration of the pain (months); patient's perception of pain (measured by Visual Analogue Scale [VAS 0–10]); maximal interincisal distance (MID) (mm); and joint disc position, determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Data were obtained in two different moments: before the arthrocentesis (M1) and three or four months later (M2). Paired t-Student Test, Scores Test and Wilcoxon Test showed a statistical significant difference (p<0.0001) between the M1 and M2 for the variables VAS and MID. There was an alteration in the joint disc position in 93.88% of the cases after arthrocentesis. There was no association between the general characteristics of the patients on the M1 and the results of the arthrocentesis (p>0.05). It can be concluded that the arthrocentesis is efficient in reducing the pain, in increasing interincisal distance, and altering the joint disc position in patients with DDWOR regardless gender, age side and pain duration.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of oncological and perioperative outcomes of open, laparoscopic, and robotic nephroureterectomy approaches in patients with non-metastatic upper-tract urothelial carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e5076d5eed0c484d81f2c

Background

To compare the oncological and perioperative outcomes of different nephroureterectomy approaches in patients with non-metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the data of 422 patients who underwent open, laparoscopic, or robotic nephroureterectomy for non-metastatic UTUC. Perioperative and postoperative survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox-proportional hazard models.

Results

Of the patients, 161, 137, and 124 were treated with an open, laparoscopic, and robotic approach, respectively. Laparoscopic and robotic approaches involved significantly less blood loss (p = 0.001), shorter hospital stay (p < 0.001), and longer operation time (p < 0.001) compared with the open approach. There were no significant differences in intraoperative complications (open, 8.1%; laparoscopic, 5.1%; robotic, 7.3%; p = 0.363) or early postoperative complications (open, 14.9%; laparoscopic, 14.6%; robotic, 13.7%; p = 0.880). The laparoscopic and robotic groups showed significantly less postoperative analgesic use (p = 0.015). The robotic group showed significantly longer progression-free, cancer-specific, and overall survivals than the open approach group on univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis, but surgery type was not significantly associated with survival outcomes per multivariate Cox proportional tests (all p-values > 0.05).

Conclusion

The laparoscopic and robotic approaches yielded better perioperative outcomes, such as less intraoperative bleeding, shorter hospital stays, less analgesic usage, and non-inferior oncological outcomes, compared with the open approach. Further prospective studies are needed to compare these surgical techniques.

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<![CDATA[Use of C-reactive protein for the early prediction of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy: Systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2151bfd5eed0c4843fbb68

Background

Early suspicion, diagnosis, and timely treatment of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy is essential. Retrospective studies have investigated the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as early marker of anastomotic leakage. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the predictive value of CRP after esophageal resection.

Methods

A literature search was conducted to identify all reports including serial postoperative CRP measurements to predict anastomotic leakage after elective open or minimally invasive esophagectomy. Fully Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out using random-effects model for pooling diagnostic accuracy measures along with CRP cut-off values at different postoperative day.

Results

Five studies published between 2012 and 2018 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 850 patients were included. Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy was the most common surgical procedure (72.3%) and half of the patients had squamous-cell carcinoma (50.4%). The estimated pooled prevalence of anastomotic leak was 11% (95% CI = 8–14%). The serum CRP level on POD3 and POD5 had comparable diagnostic accuracy with a pooled area under the curve of 0.80 (95% CIs 0.77–0.92) and 0.83 (95% CIs 0.61–0.96), respectively. The derived pooled CRP cut-off values were 17.6 mg/dl on POD 3 and 13.2 mg/dl on POD 5; the negative likelihood ratio were 0.35 (95% CIs 0.096–0.62) and 0.195 (95% CIs 0.04–0.52).

Conclusion

After esophagectomy, a CRP value lower than 17.6 mg/dl on POD3 and 13.2 mg/dl on POD5 combined with reassuring clinical and radiological signs may be useful to rule-out leakage. In the context of ERAS protocols, this may help to avoid contrast radiological studies, anticipate oral feeding, accelerate hospital discharge, and reduce costs.

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<![CDATA[Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Alone for HPV Related Oropharyngeal Cancers with High Risk Features]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa3ab0ee8fa60ba6a3f

Background

Current standard of care for oropharyngeal cancers with positive surgical margins and/or extracapsular extension is adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. It is unknown whether HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer benefits from this treatment intensification.

Objective

To investigate the outcomes of HPV+ patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy alone when chemoradiotherapy was indicated based on high risk pathological features. They were compared with high risk HPV+ patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

Methods

All high risk HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer patients (9) who received radiotherapy alone were identified. We also identified 17 patients who received chemoradiotherapy as a comparison group. Median follow up time was 37.3 months.

Results

No local failures developed in adjuvant radiotherapy group. There was 1 distant recurrence in this cohort and 3 in CRT cohort. Regarding toxicity, 8 (47.1%) chemoradiotherapy patients had >10 lb. weight loss (p = 0.013), despite 75% of them having a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placed. No individuals in radiotherapy group experienced a >10 lb. weight loss and none required a gastrostomy tube.

Conclusions

This series provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the omission of concurrent chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy may offer comparative local control rates with a lower toxicity profile in the setting of HPV+ patients with traditional high risk features.

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<![CDATA[Accuracy and Cut-Off Values of Pepsinogens I, II and Gastrin 17 for Diagnosis of Gastric Fundic Atrophy: Influence of Gastritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3bab0ee8fa60b88080

Background

To establish optimal cutoff values for serologic diagnosis of fundic atrophy in a high-risk area for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer with high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Northern Iran, we performed an endoscopy-room-based validation study.

Methods

We measured serum pepsinogens I (PGI) and II (PGII), gastrin 17 (G-17), and antibodies against whole H. pylori, or cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antigen among 309 consecutive patients in two major endoscopy clinics in northeastern Iran. Updated Sydney System was used as histology gold standard. Areas under curves (AUCs), optimal cutoff and predictive values were calculated for serum biomarkers against the histology.

Results

309 persons were recruited (mean age: 63.5 years old, 59.5% female). 84.5% were H. pylori positive and 77.5% were CagA positive. 21 fundic atrophy and 101 nonatrophic pangastritis were diagnosed. The best cutoff values in fundic atrophy assessment were calculated at PGI<56 µg/l (sensitivity: 61.9%, specificity: 94.8%) and PGI/PGII ratio<5 (sensitivity: 75.0%, specificity: 91.0%). A serum G-17<2.6 pmol/l or G-17>40 pmol/l was 81% sensitive and 73.3% specific for diagnosing fundic atrophy. At cutoff concentration of 11.8 µg/l, PGII showed 84.2% sensitivity and 45.4% specificity to distinguish nonatrophic pangastritis. Exclusion of nonatrophic pangastritis enhanced diagnostic ability of PGI/PGII ratio (from AUC = 0.66 to 0.90) but did not affect AUC of PGI. After restricting study samples to those with PGII<11.8, the sensitivity of using PGI<56 to define fundic atrophy increased to 83.3% (95%CI 51.6–97.9) and its specificity decreased to 88.8% (95%CI 80.8–94.3).

Conclusions

Among endoscopy clinic patients, PGII is a sensitive marker for extension of nonatrophic gastritis toward the corpus. PGI is a stable biomarker in assessment of fundic atrophy and has similar accuracy to PGI/PGII ratio among populations with prevalent nonatrophic pangastritis.

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<![CDATA[Complications Following Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: Minimal Invasive Surgical Recommendations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac2ab0ee8fa60bb1105

Background

ERCP has a complication rate ranging between 4% and 16% such as post-ERCP pancreatitis, hemorrhage, cholangitis and perforation. Perforation rate was reported as 0.08% to 1% and mortality rate up to 1.5%. Besides, injury related death rate is 16% to 18%. In this study we aimed to present a retrospective review of our experience with post ERCP-related perforations, reveal the type of injuries and management recommendations with the minimally invasive approaches.

Methods

Medical records of 28 patients treated for ERCP-related perforations in Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital between March 2007 and March 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient age, gender, comorbidities, ERCP indication, ERCP findings and details were analyzed. All previous and current clinical history, laboratory and radiological findings were used to assess the evaluation of perforations.

Results

Between March 2007 and March 2013, 2972 ERCPs were performed, 28 (0.94%) of which resulted in ERCP-related perforations. 10 of them were men (35.8%) and 18 women (64.2%). Mean age was 53.36±14.12 years with a range of 28 to 78 years. 14 (50%) patients were managed conservatively, while 14 (50%) were managed surgically. In 6 patients, laparoscopic exploration was performed due to the failure of non-surgical management. In 6 of the patients that ERCP-related perforation was suspected during or within 2 hours after ERCP, underwent to surgery primarily. There were two mortalities. The mean length of hospitalization stay was 10.46±2.83 days. The overall mortality rate was 7.1%.

Conclusion

Successful management of ERCP-related perforation requires immediate diagnosis and early decision to decide whether to manage conservatively or surgically. Although traditionally conventional surgical approaches have been suggested for the treatment of perforations, laparoscopic techniques may be used in well-chosen cases especially in type II, III and IV perforations.

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<![CDATA[Safety and Efficacy Studies of Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty, and Mesh-Container-Plasty for the Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: Preliminary Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab3ab0ee8fa60bac13b

To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacies of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), and percutaneous mesh-container-plasty (PMCP) for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), a retrospective study of 90 patients with VCFs who had been treated by PVP (n = 30), PKP (n = 30), and PMCP (n = 30) was conducted. The clinical efficacies of these three treatments were evaluated by comparing their PMMA cement leakages, cement patterns, height restoration percentages, wedge angles, visual analogue scales (VAS), and oswestry disability index (ODI) at the pre- and post-operative time points. 6.67%, 3.33%, and 0% of patients had PMMA leakage in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. Three (solid, trabecular, and mixed patterns), two (solid and mixed patterns), and one (mixed patterns) types of cement patterns were observed in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. PKP and PMCP treatments had better height restoration ability than PVP treatment. PVP, PKP, and PMCP treatments had significant and similar ability in pain relief and functional recovery ability for the treatment of VCFs. These results indicate minimally invasive techniques were effective methods for the treatment of VCFs. Moreover, these initial outcomes suggest PMCP treatment may be better than both PVP treatment and PKP treatment.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of Manual and Automated Preprocedural Segmentation Tools to Predict the Annulus Plane Angulation and C-Arm Positioning for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f8ab0ee8fa60b70d08

Background

Preprocedural manual multi-slice-CT-segmentation tools (MSCT-ST) define the gold standard for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). They are able to predict the perpendicular line of the aortic annulus (PPL) and to indicate the corresponding C-arm angulation (CAA). Fully automated planning-tools and their clinical relevance have not been systematically evaluated in a real world setting so far.

Methods and Results

The study population consists of an all-comers cohort of 160 consecutive TAVR patients with a drop out of 35 patients for technical and anatomical reasons. 125 TAVR patients underwent preprocedural analysis by manual (M-MSCT) and fully automated MSCT-ST (A-MSCT). Method-comparison was performed for 105 patients (Cohort A). In Cohort A, CAA was defined for each patient, and accordance within 10° between M-MSCT and A-MSCT was considered adequate for concept-proof (95% in LAO/RAO; 94% in CRAN/CAUD). Intraprocedural CAA was defined by repetitive angiograms without utilizing the preprocedural measurements. In Cohort B, intraprocedural CAA was established with the use of A-MSCT (20 patients). Using preprocedural A-MSCT to indicate the corresponding CAA, the levels of contrast medium (ml) and radiation exposure (cine runs) were reduced in Cohort B compared to Cohort A significantly (23.3±10.3 vs. 35.3 ±21.1 ml, p = 0.02; 1.6±0.7 vs. 2.4±1.4 cine runs; p = 0.02) and trends towards more safety in valve-positioning could be demonstrated.

Conclusions

A-MSCT-analysis provides precise preprocedural information on CAA for optimal visualization of the aortic annulus compared to the M-MSCT gold standard. Intraprocedural application of this information during TAVR significantly reduces the levels of contrast and radiation exposure.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01805739

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<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Postoperative Pain Intensity in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Disc Surgery: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdce32

Objectives

Pain relief has been shown to be the most frequently reported goal by patients undergoing lumbar disc surgery. There is a lack of systematic research investigating the course of postsurgical pain intensity and factors associated with postsurgical pain. This systematic review focuses on pain, the most prevalent symptom of a herniated disc as the primary outcome parameter. The aims of this review were (1) to examine how pain intensity changes over time in patients undergoing surgery for a lumbar herniated disc and (2) to identify socio-demographic, medical, occupational and psychological factors associated with pain intensity.

Methods

Selection criteria were developed and search terms defined. The initial literature search was conducted in April 2015 and involved the following databases: Web of Science, Pubmed, PsycInfo and Pubpsych. The course of pain intensity and associated factors were analysed over the short-term (≤ 3 months after surgery), medium-term (> 3 months and < 12 months after surgery) and long-term (≥ 12 months after surgery).

Results

From 371 abstracts, 85 full-text articles were reviewed, of which 21 studies were included. Visual analogue scales indicated that surgery helped the majority of patients experience significantly less pain. Recovery from disc surgery mainly occurred within the short-term period and later changes of pain intensity were minor. Postsurgical back and leg pain was predominantly associated with depression and disability. Preliminary positive evidence was found for somatization and mental well-being.

Conclusions

Patients scheduled for lumbar disc surgery should be selected carefully and need to be treated in a multimodal setting including psychological support.

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<![CDATA[Digitalized Design of Extraforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Computer-Based Simulation and Cadaveric Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2eab0ee8fa60b8395a

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the feasibility of a novel lumbar approach named extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF), a newly emerging minimally invasive technique for treating degenerative lumbar disorders, using a digitalized simulation and a cadaveric study.

Methods

The ELIF surgical procedure was simulated using the Mimics surgical simulator and included dissection of the superior articular process, dilation of the vertebral foramen, and placement of pedicle screws and a cage. ELIF anatomical measures were documented using a digitalized technique and subsequently validated on fresh cadavers.

Results

The use of the Mimics allowed for the vivid simulation of ELIF surgical procedures, while the cadaveric study proved the feasibility of this novel approach. ELIF had a relatively lateral access approach that was located 8–9 cm lateral to the median line with an access depth of approximately 9 cm through the intermuscular space. Dissection of the superior articular processes could fully expose the target intervertebral discs and facilitate a more inclined placement of the pedicle screws and cage with robust enhancement.

Conclusions

According to the computer-based simulation and cadaveric study, it is feasible to perform ELIF. Further research including biomechanical study is needed to prove ELIF has a superior ability to preserve the posterior tension bands of the spinal column, with similar effects on spinal decompression, fixation, and fusion, and if it can enhance post-fusion spinal stability and expedites postoperative recovery.

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<![CDATA[Stereotactic Aspiration versus Craniotomy for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3aab0ee8fa60b87a24

Background

A wealth of evidence based on the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has indicated that surgery may be a better choice in the management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared to conservative treatment. However, there is considerable controversy over selecting appropriate surgical procedures for ICH. Thus, this meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of stereotactic aspiration compared to craniotomy in patients with ICH.

Methods

According to the study strategy, we searched PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Other sources such as the internet-based clinical trial registries, relevant journals and the lists of references were also searched. After literature searching, two investigators independently performed literature screening, assessment of quality of the included trials and data extraction. The outcome measures included death or dependence, total risk of complication, and the risk of rebleeding, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and systematic infection.

Results

Four RCTs with 2996 participants were included. The quality of the included trials was acceptable. Stereotactic aspiration significantly decreased the odds of death or dependence at the final follow-up (odds ratio (OR): 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69–0.93; P = 0.004) and the risk of intracerebral rebleeding (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.74; P = 0.002) compared to craniotomy with no significant heterogeneity among the study results.

Conclusions

The present meta-analysis provides evidence that the stereotactic aspiration may be associated with a reduction in the odds of being dead or dependent in primary ICH, which should be interpreted with caution. Further trials are needed to identify those patients most likely to benefit from the stereotactic aspiration.

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<![CDATA[Profiling Circulating and Urinary Bile Acids in Patients with Biliary Obstruction before and after Biliary Stenting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6eab0ee8fa60b94040

Bile acids are considered as extremely toxic at the high concentrations reached during bile duct obstruction, but each acid displays variable cytotoxic properties. This study investigates how biliary obstruction and restoration of bile flow interferes with urinary and circulating levels of 17 common bile acids. Bile acids (conjugated and unconjugated) were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in serum and urine samples from 17 patients (8 men and 9 women) with biliary obstruction, before and after biliary stenting. Results were compared with serum concentrations measured in 40 age- and sex-paired control donors (20 men and 20 women). The total circulating bile acid concentration increases from 2.7 µM in control donors to 156.9 µM in untreated patients with biliary stenosis. Serum taurocholic and glycocholic acids exhibit 304- and 241-fold accumulations in patients with biliary obstruction compared to controls. The enrichment in chenodeoxycholic acid species reached a maximum of only 39-fold, while all secondary and 6α-hydroxylated species –except taurolithocholic acids – were either unchanged or significantly reduced. Stenting was efficient in restoring an almost normal circulating profile and in reducing urinary bile acids.

Conclusion

These results demonstrate that biliary obstruction affects differentially the circulating and/or urinary levels of the various bile acids. The observation that the most drastically affected acids correspond to the less toxic species supports the activation of self-protecting mechanisms aimed at limiting the inherent toxicity of bile acids in face of biliary obstruction.

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<![CDATA[Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: A randomized, controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc7f5

Background

Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH) on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy for primary lung cancer.

Methods

Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri-, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation.

Results

Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority of the assessed coagulation parameters after LMWH, except that the no intervention group had a higher peak thrombin and a shorter INTEM clotting time on the first postoperative day and a lower fibrinogen level on the second postoperative day. A lower level of fibrin d-dimer in the LMWH group was found on the 1. and 2.postoperative day, although not statistical significant. No differences were found between the two groups in the amount of bleeding or number of thromboembolic events.

Conclusions

Use of LMWH administered once daily as thromboprophylaxis did not alter the coagulation profile per se. As the present study primarily evaluated biochemical endpoints, further studies using clinical endpoints are needed in regards of an optimized thromboprophylaxis approach.

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<![CDATA[A Meta-Analysis of Unilateral versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf4ab0ee8fa60bc260e

Study Design

Meta-analysis.

Background

Bilateral pedicle screw fixation (PS) after lumbar interbody fusion is a widely accepted method of managing various spinal diseases. Recently, unilateral PS fixation has been reported as effective as bilateral PS fixation. This meta-analysis aimed to comparatively assess the efficacy and safety of unilateral PS fixation and bilateral PS fixation in the minimally invasive (MIS) lumbar interbody fusion for one-level degenerative lumbar spine disease.

Methods

MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Library were searched through March 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on unilateral versus bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion that met the inclusion criteria and the methodological quality standard were retrieved and reviewed. Data on participant characteristics, interventions, follow-up period, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2.

Results

Six studies (5 RCTs and 1 CCT) involving 298 patients were selected. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral PS fixation procedures in fusion rate, complications, visual analogue score (VAS) for leg pain, VAS for back pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI). Both fixation procedures had similar length of hospital stay (MD = 0.38, 95% CI = −0.83 to 1.58; P = 0.54). In contrast, bilateral PS fixation was associated with significantly more intra-operative blood loss (P = 0.002) and significantly longer operation time (P = 0.02) as compared with unilateral PS fixation.

Conclusions

Unilateral PS fixation appears as effective and safe as bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion but requires less operative time and causes less blood loss, thus offering a simple alternative approach for one-level lumbar degenerative disease.

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<![CDATA[Evolution of impedance field telemetry after one day of activation in cochlear implant recipients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd99

Objectives

Changes in impedance between 24 hours and one month after cochlear implantation have never been explored due to the inability to switch on within one day. This study examined the effect of early activation (within 24 hours) on the evolution of electrode impedance with the aim of providing information on the tissue-to-electrode interface when electrical stimulation was commenced one day post implantation.

Methods

We performed a retrospective review at a single institution. Patients who received a Nucleus 24RECA implant system (Cochlear, Sydney, Australia) and underwent initial switch-on within 24 hours postoperatively were included. Impedance measurements were obtained intraoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks.

Results

A significant drop in impedance was noted 1 day after an initial activation within 24 hours followed by a significant rise in impedance in all channels until 1 week, after which the impedance behaved differently in different segments. Basal and mid-portion electrodes revealed a slight increase while apical electrodes showed a slight decrease in impedance from 1 week to 8 weeks postoperatively. Impedance was relatively stable 4 weeks after surgery.

Conclusions

This is the first study to report the evolution of impedance in all channels between initial mapping 1 day and 1 month after cochlear implantation. The underlying mechanism for the differences in behavior between different segments of the electrode may be associated with the combined effect of dynamics among the interplay of cell cover formation, electrical stimulation, and fibrotic reaction.

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<![CDATA[Technical Modifications of Double-J Stenting for Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Dismembered Pyeloplasty in Children under 5 Years Old]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf7ab0ee8fa60bc32cf

Both antegrade stenting and retrograde stenting for retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty in children have many disadvantages. In this work, we tried using an alternative technique of modified antegrade (MAG) double-J stenting for retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty in children under 5 years old, analyzed our results using the conventional antegrade (CAG) and the MAG techniques of stent insertion for this procedure, and reported our experience with these techniques. Between December 2002 and July 2010, 77 children under 5 years old with ureteropelvic junction obstruction underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. CAG and MAG double-J stenting were attempted, in the first 36 cases (mean age 27.1 months) and the following 41 cases (mean age 25.4 months), respectively. The stents were removed 4–6 weeks later via cystoscopy. Follow-up studies were performed with ultrasonography and intravenous urography at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. The results showed that successful stent placement without malpositioning was achieved in 31 of 36 (86%) and all 41 (100%) cases, in the CAG and MAG groups, respectively. The common factor of unsuccessful stent was the inability to across the ureterovesical junction. The mean stent insertion time was 10 min 54 s and 12 min 46 s in the CAG and MAG groups, respectively. The mean operating time was 176 min and 185 min in the CAG and MAG groups, respectively. No stent malpositioning occurred in the MAG group; in the CAG group, two children had a malpositioned stent in the distal ureter and one child presented with a severe hematuria. Twelve months follow-up showed no new onset of hydroureteronephrosis and hydronephrosis. Thus we concluded that the MAG double-J stenting seems more reliable than CAG stenting for retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty in children under 5 years old, with greater success and lower complication rates.

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<![CDATA[High Intrathoracic Anastomosis with Thoracoscopy Is Safe and Feasible for Treatment of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad5ab0ee8fa60bb7acd

Background

Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of esophageal cancer surgery. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a high incidence of earlier lymphatic spread and is usually located more proximal to the incisor than esophageal adenocarcinoma; consequently, the anastomosis should be made more proximal in the thorax or in the neck. We adopted the proximal intrathoracic anastomotic technique using thoracoscopy for mid-to-lower ESCC.

Methods

From October 2010 to August 2014, fifty-eight consecutive patients underwent MIE for ESCC. After laparoscopic gastric tubing, thoracoscopic esophageal resection and reconstruction were performed using a 28-mm circular stapler following radical mediastinal lymph node dissection. We tried to make an anastomosis at the apex of the chest. Postoperative outcomes, including overall survival and recurrence, were assessed.

Results

The mean patient age was 64.3±9 years. The mean operative time was 371.8±51.6 minutes, and the duration of the thorax procedure was 254.8±38.3 minutes. The mean number of lymph nodes dissected was 31±11.7. The mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital stay were 3.5±8.2 hours and 13.6±7.4 days, respectively. The level of anastomosis was 22.3±1.8cm from the incisor. One patient died of uncontrolled sepsis due to necrosis of the gastric graft. Two patients developed small contained leakage. Nine patients exhibited distant metastasis during the follow-up period.

Conclusion

Thoracoscopic intrathoracic anastomosis at the proximal esophagus is feasible and safe.

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<![CDATA[Expert Opinion on Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer Parallels Evidence from a Cumulative Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d7ab0ee8fa60b66388

Background

This study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence.

Study Design

A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews, guidelines, and textbook chapters) on the acceptability of laparoscopic colorectal cancer was graded using a 7-point scale. Pooled survival data were correlated in time with accumulating expert opinion scores.

Results

A total of 5,800 citations were screened. Of these, 39 publications pertaining to 23 individual trials were retained. As well, 414 reviews were included (28 guidelines, 30 textbook chapters, 20 systematic reviews, 336 narrative reviews). In total, 5,782 patients were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 3,031) and open (n = 2,751) colorectal surgery. Survival data were presented in 16 publications. Laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.09). Expert opinion in the literature pertaining to the oncologic acceptability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer correlated most closely with the publication of large RCTs in 2002–2004. Although increasingly accepted since 2006, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial.

Conclusions

Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is non-inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival, and has been so since 2004. The majority expert opinion in the literature has considered these two techniques to be equivalent since 2002–2004. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been increasingly accepted since 2006, but remains controversial. Knowledge translation efforts in this field appear to have paralleled the accumulation of clinical trial evidence.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Robotic Assistance on Precision of Vitreoretinal Surgical Procedures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3cab0ee8fa60b88463

Purpose

To elucidate the merits of robotic application for vitreoretinal maneuver in comparison to conventional manual performance using an in-vitro eye model constructed for the present study.

Methods

Capability to accurately approach the target on the fundus, to stabilize the manipulator tip just above the fundus, and to perceive the contact of the manipulator tip with the fundus were tested. The accuracies were compared between the robotic and manual control, as well as between ophthalmologists and engineering students.

Results

In case of manual control, ophthalmologists were superior to engineering students in all the 3 test procedures. Robotic assistance significantly improved accuracy of all the test procedures performed by engineering students. For the ophthalmologists including a specialist of vitreoretinal surgery, robotic assistance enhanced the accuracy in the stabilization of manipulator tip (from 90.9 µm to 14.9 µm, P = 0.0006) and the perception of contact with the fundus (from 20.0 mN to 7.84 mN, P = 0.046), while robotic assistance did not improve pointing accuracy.

Conclusions

It was confirmed that telerobotic assistance has a potential to significantly improve precision in vitreoretinal procedures in both experienced and inexperienced hands.

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