ResearchPad - molecular-bases-of-health-disease https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Serine111 within the SF3 motif of Rab GTPases impairs effector interactions and LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation at Threonine72]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13881 Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) kinase are causal for autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) whilst gain of function mutations in the LRRK2 kinase cause autosomal dominant PD. PINK1 indirectly regulates the phosphorylation of a subset of Rab GTPases at a conserved Serine111 (Ser111) residue within the SF3 motif. Using genetic code expansion technologies, we have produced stoichiometric Ser111-phosphorylated Rab8A revealing impaired interactions with its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor and GTPase activating protein. In a screen for Rab8A kinases we identify TAK1 and MST3 kinases that can efficiently phosphorylate the Switch II residue Threonine72 (Thr72) in a similar manner as LRRK2 in vitro. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Ser111 phosphorylation negatively regulates the ability of LRRK2 but not MST3 or TAK1 to phosphorylate Thr72 of recombinant nucleotide-bound Rab8A in vitro and demonstrate an interplay of PINK1- and LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rab8A in transfected HEK293 cells. Finally, we present the crystal structure of Ser111-phosphorylated Rab8A and nuclear magnetic resonance structure of Ser111-phosphorylated Rab1B. The structures reveal that the phosphorylated SF3 motif does not induce any major changes, but may interfere with effector-Switch II interactions through intramolecular H-bond formation and/or charge effects with Arg79. Overall, we demonstrate antagonistic regulation between PINK1-dependent Ser111 phosphorylation and LRRK2-mediated Thr72 phosphorylation of Rab8A indicating a potential cross-talk between PINK1-regulated mitochondrial homeostasis and LRRK2 signalling that requires further investigation in vivo.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs as novel regulators of ribosome biogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10897 Ribosome biogenesis is the fine-tuned, essential process that generates mature ribosomal subunits and ultimately enables all protein synthesis within a cell. Novel regulators of ribosome biogenesis continue to be discovered in higher eukaryotes. While many known regulatory factors are proteins or small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as a novel modulatory layer controlling ribosome production. Here, we summarize work uncovering non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as novel regulators of ribosome biogenesis and highlight their links to diseases of defective ribosome biogenesis. It is still unclear how many miRNAs or lncRNAs are involved in phenotypic or pathological disease outcomes caused by impaired ribosome production, as in the ribosomopathies, or by increased ribosome production, as in cancer. In time, we hypothesize that many more ncRNA regulators of ribosome biogenesis will be discovered, which will be followed by an effort to establish connections between disease pathologies and the molecular mechanisms of this additional layer of ribosome biogenesis control.

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<![CDATA[Commentary on: The potency of lncRNA MALAT1/miR-155 in altering asthmatic Th1/Th2 balance by modulation of CTLA4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9234 Asthma is a common, allergic respiratory disorder affecting over 350 million people worldwide. One of the key features of asthma is skewing of CD4+ cells toward Th2 responses. This promotes the production of cytokines like IL-4 that induce IgE production resulting in the hypersecretion of mucus and airway smooth muscle contraction. Understanding the factors that favor Th2 expansion in asthma would provide important insights into the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder. Asthma research has focused on signaling pathways that control the transcription of key asthma-related genes. However, increasing evidence shows that post-transcriptional factors also determine CD4+ cell fate and the enhancement of allergic airway responses. A recent paper published by Liang et al. (Bioscience Reports (2020) 40, https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190397) highlights a novel role for the long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in Th2 development in asthma. MALAT1 modulates several biological processes including alternative splicing, epigenetic modification and gene expression. It is one of the most highly expressed lncRNAs in normal tissues and MALAT1 levels correlate with poor clinical outcomes in cancer. The mechanisms of action of MALAT1 in tumor progression and metastasis remain unclear and even less is known about its effects in inflammatory disease states like asthma. The work of Liang et al. demonstrates heightened MALAT1 expression in asthma and further shows that this lncRNA targets miR-155 to promote Th2 differentiation in this disease. This insight sets the stage for future studies to examine how MALAT1 manipulation could deter allergic immune responses in asthmatic airways.

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<![CDATA[From sepsis to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): emerging preventive strategies based on molecular and genetic researches]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9221 A healthy body activates the immune response to target invading pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites) and avoid further systemic infection. The activation of immunological mechanisms includes several components of the immune system, such as innate and acquired immunity. Once any component of the immune response to infections is aberrantly altered or dysregulated, resulting in a failure to clear infection, sepsis will develop through a pro-inflammatory immunological mechanism. Furthermore, the severe inflammatory responses induced by sepsis also increase vascular permeability, leading to acute pulmonary edema and resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Apparently, potential for improvement exists in the management of the transition from sepsis to ARDS; thus, this article presents an exhaustive review that highlights the previously unrecognized relationship between sepsis and ARDS and suggests a direction for future therapeutic developments, including plasma and genetic pre-diagnostic strategies and interference with proinflammatory signaling.

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<![CDATA[Redox signalling and ageing: insights from <i>Drosophila</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9185 Ageing and age-related diseases are major challenges for the social, economic and healthcare systems of our society. Amongst many theories, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as a driver of the ageing process. As by-products of aerobic metabolism, ROS are able to randomly oxidise macromolecules, causing intracellular damage that accumulates over time and ultimately leads to dysfunction and cell death. However, the genetic overexpression of enzymes involved in the detoxification of ROS or treatment with antioxidants did not generally extend lifespan, prompting a re-evaluation of the causal role for ROS in ageing. More recently, ROS have emerged as key players in normal cellular signalling by oxidising redox-sensitive cysteine residues within proteins. Therefore, while high levels of ROS may be harmful and induce oxidative stress, low levels of ROS may actually be beneficial as mediators of redox signalling. In this context, enhancing ROS production in model organisms can extend lifespan, with biological effects dependent on the site, levels, and specific species of ROS. In this review, we examine the role of ROS in ageing, with a particular focus on the importance of the fruit fly Drosophila as a powerful model system to study redox processes in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Expanding our understanding of the role polyprotein conformation plays in the coronavirus life cycle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9177 Coronavirus are the causative agents in many globally concerning respiratory disease outbreaks such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). It is therefore important that we improve our understanding of how the molecular components of the virus facilitate the viral life cycle. These details will allow for the design of effective interventions. Krichel and coauthors in their article in the Biochemical Journal provide molecular details of how the viral polyprotein (nsp7–10) produced from the positive single stranded RNA genome, is cleaved to form proteins that are part of the replication/transcription complex. The authors highlight the impact the polyprotein conformation has on the cleavage efficiency of the main protease (Mpro) and hence the order of release of non-structural proteins 7–10 (nsp7–10) of the SARS-CoV. Cleavage order is important in controlling viral processes and seems to have relevance in terms of the protein–protein complexes formed. The authors made use of mass spectrometry to advance our understanding of the mechanism by which coronaviruses control nsp 7, 8, 9 and 10 production in the virus life cycle.

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<![CDATA[Hereditary hemochromatosis disrupts uric acid homeostasis and causes hyperuricemia via altered expression/activity of xanthine oxidase and ABCG2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9170 Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is mostly caused by mutations in the iron-regulatory gene HFE. The disease is associated with iron overload, resulting in liver cirrhosis/cancer, cardiomegaly, kidney dysfunction, diabetes, and arthritis. Fe2+-induced oxidative damage is suspected in the etiology of these symptoms. Here we examined, using Hfe−/− mice, whether disruption of uric acid (UA) homeostasis plays any role in HH-associated arthritis. We detected elevated levels of UA in serum and intestine in Hfe−/− mice compared with controls. Though the expression of xanthine oxidase, which generates UA, was not different in liver and intestine between wild type and Hfe−/− mice, the enzymatic activity was higher in Hfe−/− mice. We then examined various transporters involved in UA absorption/excretion. Glut9 expression did not change; however, there was an increase in Mrp4 and a decrease in Abcg2 in Hfe−/− mice. As ABCG2 mediates intestinal excretion of UA and mutations in ABCG2 cause hyperuricemia, we examined the potential connection between iron and ABCG2. We found p53-responsive elements in hABCG2 promoter and confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation that p53 binds to this promoter. p53 protein was reduced in Hfe−/− mouse intestine. p53 is a heme-binding protein and p53-heme complex is subjected to proteasomal degradation. We conclude that iron/heme overload in HH increases xanthine oxidase activity and also promotes p53 degradation resulting in decreased ABCG2 expression. As a result, systemic UA production is increased and intestinal excretion of UA via ABCG2 is decreased, causing serum and tissue accumulation of UA, a potential factor in the etiology of HH-associated arthritis.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial association and comparison between lung and intestine in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79a28e01-0c89-4ad0-9dcc-f43071225fa5 The association between lung and intestine has already been reported, but the differences in community structures or functions between lung and intestine bacteria yet need to explore. To explore the differences in community structures or functions, the lung tissues and fecal contents in rats were collected and analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. It was found that intestine bacteria was more abundant and diverse than lung bacteria. In intestine bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were identified as major phyla while Lactobacillus was among the most abundant genus. However, in lung the major identified phylum was Proteobacteria and genus Pseudomonas was most prominent genus. On the other hand, in contrast the lung bacteria was more concentrated in cytoskeleton and function in energy production and conversion. While, intestine bacteria were enriched in RNA processing, modification chromatin structure, dynamics and amino acid metabolism. The study provides the basis for understanding the relationships between lung and intestine bacteria.

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<![CDATA[The cellular expression and proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein is independent of TDP-43]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc3793f4c-a093-46a5-9f38-630dab3a207d Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition, of which one of the cardinal pathological hallmarks is the extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. These peptides are generated via proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), in a manner dependent on the β-secretase, BACE1 and the multicomponent γ-secretase complex. Recent data also suggest a contributory role in AD of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43). There is little insight into a possible mechanism linking TDP-43 and APP processing. To this end, we used cultured human neuronal cells to investigate the ability of TDP-43 to interact with APP and modulate its proteolytic processing. Immunocytochemistry showed TDP-43 to be spatially segregated from both the extranuclear APP holoprotein and its nuclear C-terminal fragment. The latter (APP intracellular domain) was shown to predominantly localise to nucleoli, from which TDP-43 was excluded. Furthermore, neither overexpression of each of the APP isoforms nor siRNA-mediated knockdown of APP had any effect on TDP-43 expression. Doxycycline-stimulated overexpression of TDP-43 was explored in an inducible cell line. Overexpression of TDP-43 had no effect on expression of the APP holoprotein, nor any of the key proteins involved in its proteolysis. Furthermore, increased TDP-43 expression had no effect on BACE1 enzymatic activity or immunoreactivity of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 or the Aβ1-40:Aβ1-42 ratio. Also, siRNA-mediated knockdown of TDP-43 had no effect on BACE1 immunoreactivity. Taken together, these data indicate that TDP-43 function and/or dysfunction in AD is likely independent from dysregulation of APP expression and proteolytic processing and Aβ generation.

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<![CDATA[Long non-coding RNA ARAP1-AS1 accelerates cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer through miR-2110/HDAC2/PLIN1 axis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne04c6abe-d06d-40ba-bfd6-7916e31f0e46 Breast cancer (BC) poses a great threaten to women health. Numerous evidences suggest the important role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in BC development. In the present study, we intended to investigate the role of ARAP1-AS1 in BC progression. First of all, the GEPIA data suggested that ARAP1-AS1 was highly expressed in breast invasive carcinoma (BRAC) tissues compared with the normal breast tissues. Meanwhile, the expression of ARAP1-AS1 was greatly up-regulated in BC cell lines. ARAP1-AS1 knockdown led to repressed proliferation, strengthened apoptosis and blocked migration of BC cells. Moreover, ARAP1-AS1 could boost HDAC2 expression in BC through sponging miR-2110 via a ceRNA mechanism. Of note, the UCSC predicted that HDAC2 was a potential transcriptional regulator of PLIN1, an identified tumor suppressor in BC progression. Moreover, we explained that the repression of HDAC2 on PLIN1 was owing to its deacetylation on PLIN1 promoter. More importantly, depletion of PLIN1 attenuated the mitigation function of ARAP1-AS1 silence on the malignant phenotypes of BC cells. To sum up, ARAP1-AS1 serves a tumor-promoter in BC development through modulating miR-2110/HDAC2/PLIN1 axis, which may help to develop novel effective targets for BC treatment.

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<![CDATA[Modulation of CRMP2 via (S)-Lacosamide shows therapeutic promise but is ultimately ineffective in a mouse model of CLN6-Batten disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N12a57012-8ebd-4058-b121-c0cacf3f28c8

Abstract

CLN6-Batten disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with no cure, characterized by accumulation of lipofuscin in the lysosome, glial activation, and neuronal death. Here we test the therapeutic efficacy of modulating collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) activity via S-N-benzy-2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide ((S)-Lacosamide) in a mouse model of CLN6-Batten disease. Promisingly, mouse neuronal cultures as well as Cln6 patient fibroblasts treated with varying concentrations of (S)-Lacosamide showed positive restoration of lysosomal associated deficits. However, while acute in vivo treatment enhanced glial activation in 3-month-old Cln6 mutant mice, chronic treatment over several months did not improve behavioral or long-term survival outcomes. Therefore, modulation of CRMP2 activity via (S)-Lacosamide alone is unlikely to be a viable therapeutic target for CLN6-Batten disease.

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<![CDATA[The role of APOE4 in Alzheimer’s disease: strategies for future therapeutic interventions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4a6938b3-6a20-48a7-ae0a-ef8f376ce219

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia affecting almost 50 million people worldwide. The ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for late-onset AD cases, with homozygous APOE4 carriers being approximately 15-times more likely to develop the disease. With 25% of the population being APOE4 carriers, understanding the role of this allele in AD pathogenesis and pathophysiology is crucial. Though the exact mechanism by which ε4 allele increases the risk for AD is unknown, the processes mediated by APOE, including cholesterol transport, synapse formation, modulation of neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, destabilization of microtubules, and β-amyloid clearance, suggest potential therapeutic targets. This review will summarize the impact of APOE on neurons and neuronal signaling, the interactions between APOE and AD pathology, and the association with memory decline. We will then describe current treatments targeting APOE4, complications associated with the current therapies, and suggestions for future areas of research and treatment.

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<![CDATA[Immobilized DNA aptamers used as potent attractors for vascular endothelial cell: in vitro study of female rat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22bf139b-96b7-4760-8738-29be5d4e06b2

Abstract

Vascular endothelial cells are essential to vascular function and maintenance. Dysfunction of these cells can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease or contribute to tumorigenesis. As such, the therapeutic modulation and monitoring of vascular endothelial cells are of significant clinical interest, and several endothelial-specific ligands have been developed for drug delivery and the monitoring of endothelial function. However, the application of these ligands has been limited by their high cost and tendency to induce immune responses, highlighting a need for alternate methods of targeting vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we explore the therapeutic potential of DNA aptamers. Using cell-SELEX technology, we identified two aptamers with specific binding affinity for vascular endothelial cells and propose that these molecules show potential for use as new ligands for drug and biomarker research concerning vascular endothelial cells.

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<![CDATA[HbA1c may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease even at normal-range levels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79720057-3c41-4601-a216-3cccc89bc09d

Abstract

Previous clinical studies highlighted nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a hepatic facet of metabolic syndrome, which progresses toward Type 2 diabetes along with an elevation of HbA1c in the blood. Longitudinal observations were performed in a cohort of 2811 participants with no liver disease at inception. The rate of the conversion into NAFLD was 15.7% (440/2811), with a steady increase in prevalence observed in sub-cohorts with increasing HbA1c levels. Moreover, regression analysis indicated that HbA1c levels serve as the risk factors for NAFLD after multiple adjustments (odds ratio: 1.58, P-value < 0.004). When HbA1c-related molecular networks were investigated using natural language programming algorithms, multiple genetic/small molecular (SM) pathways were highlighted as connectors between the HbA1c levels and the development of NAFLD, including ones for nitric oxide, hypoxia and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Our results suggest that increased levels of HbA1c may contribute to the progression of NAFLD either directly, by stimulating RAGE or indirectly, through the promotion of hypoxia and suppression of the release of NO. Further studies are needed to test the impact of HbA1c on the development of the chronic liver disease.

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<![CDATA[Proteostasis regulators modulate proteasomal activity and gene expression to attenuate multiple phenotypes in Fabry disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncb67bb93-58cf-4196-99ee-9f62076d3ef2

The lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease is characterized by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-Galactosidase A. The observation that missense variants in the encoding GLA gene often lead to structural destabilization, endoplasmic reticulum retention and proteasomal degradation of the misfolded, but otherwise catalytically functional enzyme has resulted in the exploration of alternative therapeutic approaches. In this context, we have investigated proteostasis regulators (PRs) for their potential to increase cellular enzyme activity, and to reduce the disease-specific accumulation of the biomarker globotriaosylsphingosine in patient-derived cell culture. The PRs also acted synergistically with the clinically approved 1-deoxygalactonojirimycine, demonstrating the potential of combination treatment in a therapeutic application. Extensive characterization of the effective PRs revealed inhibition of the proteasome and elevation of GLA gene expression as paramount effects. Further analysis of transcriptional patterns of the PRs exposed a variety of genes involved in proteostasis as potential modulators. We propose that addressing proteostasis is an effective approach to discover new therapeutic targets for diseases involving folding and trafficking-deficient protein mutants.

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<![CDATA[A malaria parasite subtilisin propeptide-like protein is a potent inhibitor of the egress protease SUB1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N85baa582-bc5e-4424-a85b-1ad8fc16ad45

Subtilisin-like serine peptidases (subtilases) play important roles in the life cycle of many organisms, including the protozoan parasites that are the causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium spp. As with other peptidases, subtilase proteolytic activity has to be tightly regulated in order to prevent potentially deleterious uncontrolled protein degradation. Maturation of most subtilases requires the presence of an N-terminal propeptide that facilitates folding of the catalytic domain. Following its proteolytic cleavage, the propeptide acts as a transient, tightly bound inhibitor until its eventual complete removal to generate active protease. Here we report the identification of a stand-alone malaria parasite propeptide-like protein, called SUB1-ProM, encoded by a conserved gene that lies in a highly syntenic locus adjacent to three of the four subtilisin-like genes in the Plasmodium genome. Template-based modelling and ab initio structure prediction showed that the SUB1-ProM core structure is most similar to the X-ray crystal structure of the propeptide of SUB1, an essential parasite subtilase that is discharged into the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) to trigger parasite release (egress) from infected host cells. Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum SUB1-ProM was found to be a fast-binding, potent inhibitor of P. falciparum SUB1, but not of the only other essential blood-stage parasite subtilase, SUB2, or of other proteases examined. Mass-spectrometry and immunofluorescence showed that SUB1-ProM is expressed in the PV of blood stage P. falciparum, where it may act as an endogenous inhibitor to regulate SUB1 activity in the parasite.

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<![CDATA[Overexpression of TGR5 alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via AKT/GSK-3β mediated inflammation and mitochondrial pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01073ce1-7e39-474b-be02-57a1e4763f59

Abstract

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury reduces cell proliferation, triggers inflammation, promotes cell apoptosis and necrosis, which are the leading reasons of morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. TGR5 is shown to express in hearts, but its functional role in I/R-induced myocardial injury is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of TGR5 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte injury in vitro. The results showed that TGR5 was significantly up-regulated in H9C2 (rat cardiomyocyte cells) and human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) after H/R. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly improved cell proliferation, alleviated apoptosis rate, the activities of caspase-3, cleaved caspases-3 and Bax protein expression levels, and increased Bcl-2 level. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly up-regulated ROS generation, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reduced the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ as well as cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyto-c). Meanwhile, overexpressed TGR5 also enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The shTGR5+H/R group followed opposite trends. In addition, overexpressed TGR5 induced an increase in the levels of p-AKT and p-GSK-3β. The protective effects of TGR5 were partially reversed by AKT inhibitor MK-2206. Taken together, these results suggest that TGR5 attenuates I/R-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis as well as inflammation, and these protections may through AKT/GSK-3β pathway.

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<![CDATA[Clozapine protects adult neural stem cells from ketamine-induced cell death in correlation with decreased apoptosis and autophagy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd3338d73-9e0d-4a6b-860f-bb34607d1e3d

Abstract

Adult neurogenesis, the production of newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) has been suggested to be decreased in patients with schizophrenia. A similar finding was observed in an animal model of schizophrenia, as indicated by decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling cells in response to a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The antipsychotic drug clozapine was shown to counteract the observed decrease in BrdU-labelled cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, phenotypic determination by immunohistochemistry analysis could not reveal whether BrdU-positive cells were indeed NSCs. Using a previously established cell model for analysing NSC protection in vitro, we investigated a protective effect of clozapine on NSCs.

Primary NSCs were isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ), we show that clozapine had a NSC protective activity alone, as evident by employing an ATP cell viability assay. In contrast, haloperidol did not show any NSC protective properties. Subsequently, cells were exposed to the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, had a NSC protective/anti-apoptotic activity against ketamine-induced cytotoxicity. The observed NSC protective activity of clozapine was associated with increased expression of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2, decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic cleaved form of caspase-3 and associated with decreased expression of the autophagosome marker 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II).

Collectively, our findings suggest that clozapine may have a protective/anti-apoptotic effect on NSCs, supporting previous in vivo observations, indicating a neurogenesis-promoting activity for clozapine. If the data are further confirmed in vivo, the results may encourage an expanded use of clozapine to restore impaired neurogenesis in schizophrenia.

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<![CDATA[Identification of 13 novel USH2A mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome patients by targeted next-generation sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nce1d38d3-bcf8-4e5f-815d-3b8e91ff0b7d

Abstract

Background: The USH2A gene encodes usherin, a basement membrane protein that is involved in the development and homeostasis of the inner ear and retina. Mutations in USH2A are linked to Usher syndrome type II (USH II) and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Molecular diagnosis can provide insight into the pathogenesis of these diseases, facilitate clinical diagnosis, and identify individuals who can most benefit from gene or cell replacement therapy. Here, we report 21 pathogenic mutations in the USH2A gene identified in 11 Chinese families by using the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.

Methods: In all, 11 unrelated Chinese families were enrolled, and NGS was performed to identify mutations in the USH2A gene. Variant analysis, Sanger validation, and segregation tests were utilized to validate the disease-causing mutations in these families.

Results: We identified 21 pathogenic mutations, of which 13, including 5 associated with non-syndromic RP and 8 with USH II, have not been previously reported. The novel variants segregated with disease phenotype in the affected families and were absent from the control subjects. In general, visual impairment and retinopathy were consistent between the USH II and non-syndromic RP patients with USH2A mutations.

Conclusions: These findings provide a basis for investigating genotype–phenotype relationships in Chinese USH II and RP patients and for clarifying the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of the diseases associated with USH2A mutations.

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<![CDATA[The protective role of MiR-206 in regulating cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by ischemic injury by targeting PTP1B]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2a5c1300-bdae-4ae7-9168-9f3c7ead11a6

Abstract

MicroRNAs play essential roles in the regulation and pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of the present study was to assess the expression signature of miR-206 in rat heart with AMI and the corresponding molecular mechanism. The expression of miR-206 significantly decreased in the infarcted myocardial areas and in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes, compared with that in the noninfarcted areas. Overexpression of miR-206 decreased cardiomyocytes apoptosis and the down-regulation of miR-206 increased cardiomyocytes apoptosis in vitro. In addition, overexpression of miR-206 in rat heart in vivo remarkably reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis. We identified that miR-206 had a protective effect on cardiomyocytes apoptosis with the association of its target protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Gain-of-function of miR-206 inhibited PTP1B expression and loss-of-function of miR-206 up-regulated PTP1B expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PTP1B significantly increased cardiomyocytes apoptosis. These results together suggest the protective effect of miR-206 against cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by AMI by targeting PTP1B.

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